• Title, Summary, Keyword: Radiation Dose

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DOSE AND DOSE RATE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON BLOOD COUNT AND CYTOKINE LEVEL IN BALB/c MICE

  • Son, Yeonghoon;Jung, Dong Hyuk;Kim, Sung Dae;Lee, Chang Geun;Yang, Kwangmo;Kim, Joong Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.179-184
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    • 2013
  • The biological effects of radiation are dependent on the dose rate and dose of radiation. In this study, effects of dose and dose rate using whole body radiation on plasma cytokines and blood count from male BALB/c mice were evaluated. We examined the blood and cytokine changes in mice exposed to a low (3.49m Gy $h^{-1}$) and high (2.6 Gy $min^{-1}$) dose rate of radiation at a total dose of 0.5 and 2 Gy, respectively. Blood from mice exposed to radiation were evaluated using cytokine assays and complete blood count. Peripheral lymphocytes and neutrophils decreased in a dose dependent manner following high dose rate radiation. The peripheral lymphocytes population remained unchanged following low dose rate radiation; however, the neutrophils population increased after radiation. The sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of flt3 ligand and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), after high/low dose rate radiation. These results suggest that low-dose-rate radiation does not induce blood damage, which was unlike high-dose-rate radiation treatment; low-dose-rate radiation exposure activated the hematopoiesis through the increase of flt3 ligand and G-CSF.

Radiation Exposure from Nuclear Power Plants in Korea: 2011-2015

  • Lim, Young Khi
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.222-228
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    • 2017
  • Background: On June 18, 2017, Korea's first commercial nuclear reactor, the Kori Nuclear Power Plant No. 1, was permanently suspended, and the capacity of nuclear power generation facilities will be adjusted according to the governments denuclearization policy. In these circumstances, it is necessary to assess the quality of radiation safety management in nuclear power plants in Korea by evaluating the radiation dose associated with them. Materials and Methods: The average annual radiation dose per unit, the annual radiation dose per person, and the annual dose distribution were analyzed using the radiation dose database of nuclear reactors for the last 5 years. The results of our analysis were compared to the specifications of the Nuclear Safety Act and Medical Law in Korea. Results and Discussion: The annual average per unit radiation dose of global major nuclear power generation was 720 man-mSv, while that of Korea's nuclear power plants was 374 manmSv. No workers exceeded 50 mSv per year or 100 mSv in 5 years. The individual radiation dose according to occupational exposure was 0.59 mSv for nuclear workers, 1.77 mSv for non-destructive workers, and 0.8 mSv for diagnostic radiologists. Conclusion: The radiation safety management of nuclear power plants in Korea has achieved the best outcomes worldwide, which is considered to be the result of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) approach and strict radiation safety management. Moreover, the occupational exposures were also very low.

Radiation Dose Measurement of D-Shuttle Dosimeter for Radiation Exposure Management System (방사선피폭관리시스템를 위한 D-Shuttle 선량계의 방사선 선량측정)

  • Kweon, Dae Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of the study is to provide basic data for the management of individual exposure and the monitoring of natural radiation dose using D-Shuttle dosimeter (Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The dose was calculated using D-Shuttle dosimeter. The dose was 1.346 mSv when exposed for 400 days, the annual dose per year was 1.228 mSv/year and the average dose per hour was $0.014{\mu}Sv/hr$. Domestic individual external dose (1.295 mSv/year = Korea average natural individual external dose) and domestic additional dose per year is -0.0663 mSv/year. D-Shuttle is a personal dosimeter for radiation monitoring. It can be used as a very useful dosimeter for ALARA because of its excellent detection capability of radiation, real-time radiation exposure management, alarm function of radiation work, and efficient and easy to use personal radiation dose management.. Radiation monitoring equipment for radiation workers and local residents can be used for radiation monitoring in hospitals, industry, medical sites, nuclear accident areas and hazardous areas in non-destructive areas.

CHANGES IN BODY AND ORGAN WEIGHTS, HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, AND FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD ERYTHROCYTES OF ICR MICE EXPOSED TO LOW-DOSE-RATE $\gamma$-RADIATION

  • Kang, Yu-Mi;Shin, Suk-Chul;Jin, Young-Woo;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2009
  • We exposed ICR mice to low-dose (0.2 Gy) and low-dose-rate (0.7 mGy/h) $\gamma$-radiation ($^{137}Cs$) in the Low-dose-rate Irradiation Facility at the Radiation Health Research Institute to evaluate systemic effects of low-dose radiation. We compared the body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells and platelets), levels of biochemical markers in serum, and frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes between low-dose irradiated and non-irradiated control mice. The ICR mice irradiated with total doses of 0.2 and 2 Gy showed no changes in body and organ weights, number of blood cells (white and red blood cells), or frequency of micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of peripheral blood. However, the number of platelets (P = 0.002) and the liver weight (P < 0.01) were significantly increased in mice exposed to 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that a low-dose-rate of 0.7 mGy/h does not induce systemic damage. This dose promotes hematopoiesis in the bone marrow microenvironment and the proliferation of liver cells. In the future, the molecular biological effects of lower doses and dose rates need to be evaluated.

RADIATION DAMAGE IN THE HUMAN BODY ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME AND MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE

  • AKASHI, MAKOTO;TAMURA, TAIJI;TOMINAGA, TAKAKO;ABE, KENICHI;HACHIYA, MISAO;NAKAYAMA, FUMIAKI
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2006
  • Whole-body exposure to high-dose radiation causes injury involving multiple organs that depends on their sensitivity to radiation. This acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is caused by a brief exposure of a major part of the body to radiation at a relatively high dose rate. ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage, a latent symptom-free period, a critical or manifestation phase that usually takes one of four forms (three forms): hematologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular and neurological (neurovascular), depending upon the exposure dose, and a recovery phase or death. One of the most important factors in treating victims exposed to radiation is the estimation of the exposure dose. When high-dose exposure is considered, initial dose estimation must be performed in order to make strategy decisions for treatment as soon as possible. Dose estimation can be based on onset and severity of prodromal symptoms, decline in absolute lymphocyte count post exposure, and chromosomal analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, dose assessment on the basis of calculation from reconstruction of the radiation event may be required. Experience of a criticality accident occurring in 1999 at Tokai-mura, Japan, showed that ARS led to multiple organ failure (MOF). This article will review ARS and discuss the possible mechanisms of MOF developing from ARS.

Prediction of Midline Dose from Entrance and Exit Dose Using OSLD Measurements for Total Body Irradiation

  • Choi, Chang Heon;Park, Jong Min;Park, So-Yeon;Chun, Minsoo;Han, Ji Hye;Cho, Jin Dong;Kim, Jung-in
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2017
  • Background: This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). Materials and Methods: For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. Results and Discussion: The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. Conclusion: The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

Assessment of Temporal Trend of Radiation Dose to the Public Living in the Large Area Contaminated with Radioactive Materials after a Nuclear Power Plant Accident (원전사고 후 광역의 방사성 오염부지 내 거주민에 대한 시간에 따른 피폭방사선량 평가)

  • Go, A Ra;Kim, Min Jun;Cho, Nam Chan;Seol, Jeung Gun;Kim, Kwang Pyo
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2015
  • It has been about 5 years since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, which contaminated large area with radioactive materials. It is necessary to assess radiation dose to establish evacuation areas and to set decontamination goal for the large contaminated area. In this study, we assessed temporal trend of radiation dose to the public living in the large area contaminated with radioactive materials after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The dose assessment was performed based on Chernobyl model and RESRAD model for two evacuation lift areas, Kawauchi and Naraha. It was reported that deposition densities in the areas were $4.3{\sim}96kBq\;m^{-2}$ for $^{134}Cs$, $1.4{\sim}300kBq\;m^{-2}$ for $^{137}Cs$, respectively. Radiation dose to the residents depended on radioactive cesium concentrations in the soil, ranging $0.11{\sim}2.4mSv\;y^{-1}$ at Kawauchi area and $0.69{\sim}1.1mSv\;y^{-1}$ at Naraha area in July 2014. The difference was less than 5% in radiation doses estimated by two different models. Radiation dose decreased with calendar time and the decreasing slope varied depending on dose assessment models. Based on the Chernobyl dosimetry model, radiation doses decreased with calendar time to about 65% level of the radiation dose in 2014 after 1 year, 11% level after 10 years, and 5.6% level after 30 years. RESRAD dosimetry model more slowly decreased radiation dose with time to about 85% level after 1 year, 40% level after 10 years, and 15% level after 30 years. The decrease of radiation dose can be mainly attributed into radioactive decays and environmental transport of the radioactive cesium. Only environmental transports of radioactive cesium without consideration of radioactive decays decreased radiation dose additionally 43% after 1 year, 72% after 3 years, 80% after 10 years, and 83% after 30 years. Radiation doses estimated with cesium concentration in the soil based on Chernobyl dosimetry model were compared with directly measured radiation doses. The estimated doses well agreed with the measurement data. This study results can be applied to radiation dose assessments at the contaminated area for radiation safety assurance or emergency preparedness.

A Review of Dose Rate Meters as First Responders to Ionising Radiation

  • Akber, Aqeel Ahmad;Wiggins, Matthew Benfield
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2019
  • Background: Dose rate meters are the most widely used, and perhaps one of the most important tools for the measurement of ionising radiation. They are often the first, or only, device available to a user for an instant check of radiation dose at a certain location. Throughout the world, radiation safety practices rely strongly on the output of these dose rate meters. But how well do we know the quality of their output? Materials and Methods: This review is based on the measurements 1,158 commercially available dose rate meters of 116 different makes and models. Expected versus the displayed dose patterns and consistency was checked at various dose rates between $5{\mu}Gy{\cdot}h^{-1}$ and $2mGy{\cdot}h^{-1}$. Samples of these meters were then selected for further investigation and were exposed to radiation sources covering photon energies from 50 keV to 1.5 MeV. The effect of detector orientation on its reading was also investigated. Rather than focusing on the angular response distribution that is often reported by the manufacturer of the device, this study focussed on the design ergonomics i.e. the angles that the operator will realistically use to measure a dose rate. Results and Discussion: This review shows the scope and boundaries of the ionising radiation dose rate estimations that are made using commonly available meters. Observations showed both inter and intra make and model variations, occasional cases of instrument failure, instrument walk away, and erroneous response. Conclusion: The results indicate the significance of selecting and maintaining suitable monitors for specific applications in radiation safety.

Radiation Dose Reduction without Compromise to Image Quality by Alterations of Filtration and Focal Spot Size in Cerebral Angiography

  • Kim, Dong Joon;Park, Min Keun;Jung, Da Eun;Kang, Jung Han;Kim, Byung Moon
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.722-728
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Different angiographic protocols may influence the radiation dose and image quality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of filtration and focal spot size on radiation dose and image quality for diagnostic cerebral angiography using an in-vitro model and in-vivo patient groups. Materials and Methods: Radiation dose and image quality were analyzed by varying the filtration and focal spot size on digital subtraction angiography exposure protocols (1, inherent filtration + large focus; 2, inherent + small; 3, copper + large; 4, copper + small). For the in-vitro analysis, a phantom was used for comparison of radiation dose. For the in-vivo analysis, bilateral paired injections, and patient cohort groups were compared for radiation dose and image quality. Image quality analysis was performed in terms of contrast, sharpness, noise, and overall quality. Results: In the in-vitro analysis, the mean air kerma (AK) and dose area product (DAP)/frame were significantly lower with added copper filtration (protocols 3 and 4). In the in-vivo bilateral paired injections, AK and DAP/frame were significantly lower with filtration, without significant difference in image quality. The patient cohort groups with added filtration (protocols 3 and 4) showed significant reduction of total AK and DAP/patient without compromise to the image quality. Variations in focal spot size showed no significant differences in radiation dose and image quality. Conclusion: Addition of filtration for angiographic exposure studies can result in significant total radiation dose reduction without loss of image quality. Focal spot size does not influence radiation dose and image quality. The routine angiographic protocol should be judiciously investigated and implemented.

National trends in radiation dose escalation for glioblastoma

  • Wegner, Rodney E.;Abel, Stephen;Horne, Zachary D.;Hasan, Shaakir;Verma, Vivek;Ranjan, Tulika;Williamson, Richard W.;Karlovits, Stephen M.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Glioblastoma (GBM) carries a high propensity for in-field failure despite trimodality management. Past studies have failed to show outcome improvements with dose-escalation. Herein, we examined trends and outcomes associated with dose-escalation for GBM. Materials and Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried for GBM patients who underwent surgical resection and external-beam radiation with chemotherapy. Patients were excluded if doses were less than 59.4 Gy; dose-escalation referred to doses ≥66 Gy. Odds ratios identified predictors of dose-escalation. Univariable and multivariable Cox regressions determined potential predictors of overall survival (OS). Propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis better accounted for indication biases. Results: Of 33,991 patients, 1,223 patients received dose-escalation. Median dose in the escalation group was 70 Gy (range, 66 to 89.4 Gy). The use of dose-escalation decreased from 8% in 2004 to 2% in 2014. Predictors of escalated dose were African American race, lower comorbidity score, treatment at community centers, decreased income, and more remote treatment year. Median OS was 16.2 months and 15.8 months for the standard and dose-escalated cohorts, respectively (p = 0.35). On multivariable analysis, age >60 years, higher comorbidity score, treatment at community centers, decreased education, lower income, government insurance, Caucasian race, male gender, and more remote year of treatment predicted for worse OS. On propensity-adjusted multivariable analysis, age >60 years, distance from center >12 miles, decreased education, government insurance, and male gender predicted for worse outcome. Conclusion: Dose-escalated radiotherapy for GBM has decreased over time across the United States, in concordance with guidelines and the available evidence. Similarly, this large study did not discern survival improvements with dose-escalation.