• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rabbit Zygotes

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Post-thaw Development of Rabbit Zygotes Following Vitrification or Slow Freezing (유리화 및 완만동결법에 의한 토끼 전핵배의 동결보존 후 배발달율)

  • 박충생;강다원;하란조;공일근;최상용;이효종
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.141-149
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of vitrification and slow freezing methods on the post-thaw developmental rate of rabbit zygotes. After exposing rabbit zygotes in EFS solution for 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and S min at room temperature, they were washed with 0.5 M sucrose solution, D-PBS and TCM-199 and then cultured in TCM-199 plus 10% FBS with bovine oviduct epithelial cells(BOEC) to examine whether the cryoprotectant induced injury during the various exposure periods. The embryo development rates to hatched blastocyst after exposing in EFS solution for 3 and 5 min(40.0 and 16.7%) were significantly lower than in 0.5, 1 and 2 min(63.0, 72.0 and 54.5%), respectively. The post-thaw development rates to hatched blastocyst were significantly(P<0.05) higher in in vivo morula with intact mucin coat(85.2%) and mucin seperated morula(77.8%) than those of in vitro morula(58.5%) and zygote(5.9%), hut no difference was shown between in vitro morulae and mucin separated morula. The cryoprotectant dilution procedures showed no effects on the post-thaw development rates to hatched blastocyst under the present culture conditions. The post-thaw development to hatched blastocyst in the rabbit zygotes was not significantly different between the slow freezing(12.8%) and vitrification(5.9%). These results indicated that the rabbit frozen zygotes could he successfully developed in vitro to hatched blastocysts, though their developmental rate was very low, compared with morula stage embryos, in either vitrification or slow freezing procedure under the present conditions.

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Effect of Pronuclear Injection with Human Growth Hormone Gene on Development and PCR-Screening in Rabbit Embryos (사람성장호르몬 유전자의 전핵내 미세주입이 토끼 수정란의 체외발달에 미치는 영향과 PCR검색)

  • Kang, T. Y.;Chae, Y. J.;Lee, H.;Lee, K. K.;Park, C. S.;Lee, H. J.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 1998
  • The pronuclear injection of metallothionein-human growth hormone (MT-hGH) gene into rabbit zygotes was performed to establish in vitro developmental system and to detect the presence of the injected gene by nested PCR. Mature female New Zealand White rabbits were superovulated by eGG and hCG treatments. The rabbits were mated and the zygotes were collected from the oviducts 18-22 h after hCG injection by flushing with D-PBS. Two to three picoliters of MT-hGH gene was microinjected into male pronuclei. The foreign gene-injected zygotes were cultured in TCM-199 or RD mediurn containing 10% FCS with a monolayer of rabbit oviductal epithelial cefls in a 5% $CO_2$ incubator. The presence of injected DNA in rabbit embryos or blastomeres at different developmental stages .vas detected by a nested PCR analysis. The results are summarized as follows ; 1.The developmental rate of the MT-hGH gene-injected zygotes to blastocyst was significantly higher in TCM-199 medium (68.1%) than in RD medium (42.9%). 2.The gene injection into pronuclei at 18 or 22 hours post hCG treatment during pronuclear stage did not much affect on the in vitro development of the rabbit embryos. 3.The rate of gene-positive embryos detected by the nested PCR analysis was significantly decreased when they developed to blastocysts. The results indicate that the screening of transgene in rabbit embryos by nested PCR analysis could be a prornisible method for the preselection of transgenic embryos. Furthermore, the preselection of transgenic embryos would greatly reduce hoth the cost and effort of production of transgenic animals.

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IN VIVO DEVELOPMENT AND MICROINJECTION OF RABBIT ZYGOTES

  • Ju, J.C.;Cheng, S.P.;Tarng, P.C.;Choo, K.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 1991
  • Sixty-one 5-11 month-old California, Chinchilla and New Zealand White rabbit were employed in this investigation. Thirty-three does were superovulated by injecting FSH/HCG subcutaneously or intravenously and then sacrificed at different hours after mating. The ova were collected from the fallopian tubes with Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 1% pregnant rabbit serum (PRS). Embryos were examined under an inverted DIC microscopy for observing the stage of development. We have found that the fertilized ova formed pronuclei at 19 - 20 hr postcoitus. Approximately at 26, 64 - 78 and 84 - 88 hr after mating, the fertilized ova cleaved further to 2-cell, morulae and blastocyst stage respectively. Another 28 does were allocated to the gene transfer study. Fourteen of the 28 does were sacrificed at 19 - 20 hr to donate the pronuclear stage ova for gene injection. The other 14 does were induced to pseudopreganacy by injection of 100 IU HCG intravenous as recipients. Four hundreds and seventeen ova were injected totally and 212 gene injected zygotes were transferred into the recipient oviducts. Five recipients became pregnant and 10 fetuses were obtained. Eight of the 10 fetuses were analysed for gene incorporation, but none of them were transgenic.

Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein(GFP) Gene in Rabbit Embryos (토끼 수정란에서 Green Fluorescent Protein 유전자의 발현)

  • Kang, T. Y.;Yin, X. J.;Chae, Y. J.;Lee, H.;Lee, H. J
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • The efficiency of transgenic livestock animal production may be improved by early selection of transgenci preimplantation embryos. To examine the possibility of GFP gene as a non-invasive marker for the early screening of transgenic embryo, the GFP gene was microinjected into rabbit zygotes and the later stages of preimplantation embryos were examined for the expression of GFP. The presence of injected DNA was detected by PCR analysis and the expression of GFP was detected by observing green fluorescence in embryos under a fluorescent microscope. Out of 108 GFP gene-injected rabbit zygotes, seventy three(67.6%) were fluorescence-positive. When 11 fluroresecence-positive blastocysts were analyzed for the presence of GFP gene by PCR, 6(54.5%) were positive, and all of the 8 flrouescence-negative blastocysts were also negative by PCR. The results indicate that the screening of transgene in rabbit embryos by PCR analysis and GFP detection could be a promising method for the preselection of transgenic embryos.

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Cloning of Transgenic Rabbit Embryos Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Gene by nuclear Transplantation (Green Fluorescent Protein 발현 토끼 수정란의 핵이식에 의한 복제)

  • Kang, T. Y.;Yin, X. J.;Rho, G. J.;Lee, H.;Chae, Y. J.;Lee, H. J
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.167-173
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    • 2000
  • The principal objective of this study was to clone transgenic embryos in order to improve the efficiency of transgenic animal production by the combination of microinjection and nuclear transplantation techniques. Mature female New Zealand White rabbits were superovulated by eCG and hCG treatments, fllowed by natural mating. Zygotes were collected from the oviducts at 18∼22 h after hCG injection by flushing with D-PBS containing 5% fetal calf serum(FCS). Two to three picoliters of green fluorescent protein(GFP) gene wa microinjected into male pronucleus. The foreign gene-injected zygotes were cultured in TCM-199 or RD medium containing 10% FCS with a monolayer of rabbit oviductal epithelial cells in a 5% CO2 incubator. The morulae expressing GFP gene were selected and their blastomeres were separated for the use of nuclear donor. Following nuclear transplantation of fluorescence-positive morula stage blastomeres, 13 (21.3%) out of 61 fused oocytes developed to blastocyst stage and all of the cloned blastocysts expressed GFP. The results indicate that the screening of transgene in rabbit embryos by GFP detection could be a promisible method for the preselection of transgenic embryos. Also the cloning of preselected transgenic embryos by nuclear transplantatin could be efficiently applied to the multiple production of transgenic animals.

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Effect of Culture Media and Co-culture with Bovine and Rabbit Oviductal Epithelial Cells on In Vitro Development of Rabbit Embryos (토끼 수정란의 체외발달에 미치는 배양액 및 소와 토끼의 난관상피세포들과의 공배양 효과)

  • 노규진;이효종;송상현;윤희준;박충생
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to develop an in vitro culture system for rabbit embryos. The zygotes or 2-cell embryos were collected from the oviducts of the superovulated and mated does with D-PBS/10% FCS at 24 hours after hCG injection. The in vitro developmental rate of blastocyst formation and the number of nuclei in the embryos were examined under the following treatments; 1) TCM-199 with 10% FCS, 2) EBSS with 10% FCS, 3) rabbit vitreous humor(VH), 4) TCM-199 with 10% FCS+BOEC, 5) TCM-199 with 10% FCS+ROEC, 6) EBSS with 10% FCS+BOEC and 7) EBSS with 10% FCS+ROEC. For a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro development, the fresh blastocysts, which were developed in vivo for 96 hours after hCG injection, were collected from the uterus and their numbers of nuclei were counted. 1. The zygotes or 2-cell embryos developed to the blastocyst stage in TCM-199, EBSS and VH at the rates of 93, 92 and 89%, respectively. 2. The higher developmental rates 95~98% of blastocyst formation was achieved when the embryos were co-cultured with a monolayer of bovine or rabbit oviductal epithelial cells in TCM-199 or EBSS. No significant difference in developmental rates was shown between bovine and rabbit oviductal epithelial cells. 3. In a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro development, the total numbers of nuclei were significantly less in the in vitro cultured embryos(104~224) than the in vivo developed embryos(1, 0090 at 96 hours after hCG injectin. 4. The mean cell cycle numbers in the embryos cultured for 72 hours in TCM-199 with 10% FCS, EBSS with 10% FCS, TCM-199 with 10% FCS+BOEC, TCM-199 with 10% FCS+ROEC, EBSS with 10% FCS+BOEC and in vivo was 7.38, 6.63, 7.76, 7.69, 7.01 and 9.92, respectively. From these results, it can be suggested the optimal culture system for in vitro culture of rabbit embryos is a co-culture system with bovine or rabbit oviductal epithelial cells in TCM-199 with 10% FCS. Considering the significant reduction in total numbers of nuclei in the in vitro cultured embryos, the advanced research on development of in vitro culture system for rabbit embryos is expected.

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Estimation of the Efficiency of Transgenic Rabbit Production Following GFP Gene Microinjection into Rabbit Zygotes

  • Jin, D.I.;Im, K.S.;Kim, D.K.;Choi, W.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1367-1372
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    • 2000
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of transgenic rabbit production by DNA microinjection using EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) gene. In this experiment EGFP coding sequences fused to CMV promoter were microinjected into rabbit one-cell embryos, and then GFP expression and gene integration were evaluated in preimplantation embryos and fetuses recovered on day 15 of pregnancy to determine efficiency of transgenic rabbit production. Effect of DNA concentration was also tested on development in vitro following microinjection and transgene integration in fetuses. Development of embryos in vitro was decreased by DNA microinjection, but the rates of pregnancy and implantation were not significantly affected by microinjection. As development progressed in vitro percentage of GFP expression in rabbit embryos was decreased, resulting GFP expression detected in 37.5% of blastocysts. The efficiencies for production of transgenic fetuses were 4.0% and 7.6%, respectively, when $10ng/{\mu}l$ and $20ng/{\mu}l$ of DNA concentration were microinjected. Transgenic fetuses were confirmed by GFP expression and PCR analysis of fetus genomic DNA. These results indicated that DNA microinjection itself damaged embryo development and DNA concentration affected the efficiency of transgenic rabbit production.

The Early Mammalian Embryos and the Role of Oviduct (포유동물 초기배아왕 수란관의 작용)

  • 김해권;윤용달;이영기
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.285-297
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    • 1995
  • The mammalian oviduct is a place where ontogeny of an animal begins. Nowadays, however, it is possilbe to manipulate a part of physiological events occurring in the oviduct so that fertilization of gametes and early embryonic development of zygotes could proceed outside oviductal environment. Rabbit zygotes readily develop to blastocysts in a conventional culture condition. Most of the mouse fertilized eggs do so when cultured under a specific environment, e.g., in a medium containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Similarly, a significant number of zygotes from rat, sheep, pig or cattle can develop to blastocysts if they are cultured in the presence of particular component which appear to be somewhat species-specific. Instead of changing the components of medium, somatic cells including oviductal epithelial cells, have widely been used to improve mammalian embryonic development in vitro. Many investigators have reported that mammalian zygotes, whether fertilized in vivo or in vitro, could develop to blastocysts when they were cultured on a monolayer of various kinds of somatic cells or even in a somatic cell-conditioned medium. While little is known about the nature of embryotrophic factor(s) produced in vitro by somatic cells, the existence fo oviduct-specific protein(s) has consistently been demonstrated in many laboratories. Some of these proteins are reported to be associated with oviductal eggs. However, the physiological role of these proteins has still to be determined. Recently we observed that the perivitelline space of mouse oocytes was fluorescently stained with various fluorochrome-protein conjugates following ovulation into the oviducts or upon their expossure to oviductal extracts. Furthermore, it was also found that cattle or pig oviductal fluid gave similar results when examined using mouse ghost ZP. These observations lead to suggest that mammalian oviduct induces changes of biochemical properties of oocytes. Further studies are needed to clarify the nature of oviductal factor(s) and the physiological meaning of the reaction.

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Expression of a Bovine ${\beta}$-Casein/Human Lysozyme Fusion Gene in the Mammary Gland of Transgenic Mice

  • Lee, Woon-Kyu;Kim, Sun-Jung;Hong, Seung-Beom;Lee, Tae-Hoon;Han, Yong-Mahn;Yoo, Ook-Joon;Im, Kyung-Soon;Lee, Kyung-Kwang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.413-417
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    • 1998
  • Transgenic mice containing a bovine ${\beta}-Casein/Human$ lysozyme fusion gene (pBZ) were generated in order to produce human lysozyme in their milk. The expression vector was a quadripartite fusion consisting of a 2 kb upstream DNA of the bovine ${\beta}-casein$ gene, human lysozyme gene, intron II of the rabbit ${\beta}-globin$ gene, and the polyadenylation/termination signals of SV40 DNA. Fertilized mouse zygotes were microinjected with pBZ, then transferred into the oviduct of foster mothers. Out of 20 mice born, 11 survived until postweaning and three were identified as positivetransgenic by Southern blot analysis (one male and two females). The founder mice were mated to BCFl mice to produce transgenic progeny. It was confirmed by RT-PCR and Northern blot analyses that the transgene was specifically expressed in the mammary gland of the founder mice. Furthermore, the artificial introns within the transgenic RNA was proven to be correctly spliced out as judged by RT-PCR analysis. These results indicated that transgenic mice generated in this study properly expressed the human lysozyme RNA in their mammary gland.

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