• Title, Summary, Keyword: RTA

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The effect of annealing conditions on ultra shallow $ p^+-n$ junctions formed by low energy ion implantation (저에너지 이온 주입 방법으로 형성된 박막$ p^+-n$ 접합의 열처리 조건에 따른 특성)

  • 김재영;이충근;홍신남
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2004
  • Shallow $p^{+}$-n junctions were formed by preamorphization, low-energy ion implantation and dual-step annealing processes. Germanium ions were implanted into silicon substrates for preamorphization. The dopant implantation was performed into the preamorphized and non-preamorphized substrates using B $F_2$2 ions. Rapid thermal anneal (RTA) and furnace anneal (FA) were employed for dopant activation and damage removal. Samples were annealed by one of the following four methods; RTA(75$0^{\circ}C$/10s)+Ft FA+RTA(75$0^{\circ}C$/10s), RTA(100$0^{\circ}C$/10s)+FA, FA+The Ge Preamorphized sample exhibited a shallower junction depth than the non-preamorphized sample. When the employed RTA temperature was 100$0^{\circ}C$, FA+RTA annealing sequence exhibited better junction characteristics than RTA+FA thermal cycle from the viewpoint of junction depth, sheet resistance, $R_{s}$$.$ $x_{j}$, and leakage current.t.

RTA Post-treatment of Thermal T${a_2}{O_5}$ Thin Films (열산화 T${a_2}{O_5}$박막에 미치는 RTA후처리의 영향)

  • Mun, Hwan-Seong;Lee, Jae-Seok;Han, Seong-Uk;Park, Sang-Gyun;Yang, Seung-Ji;Lee, Jae-Cheon;Park, Jong-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 1993
  • The effects of RT A treatment on the breakdown strengths were studied for tantalum pentoxide(${Ta_2}{O_5}$) films prepared by thermal oxidation of dc-sputtered Ta(400$\AA$) on p-type (100) Si wafer. While the relative dielectric constants of the RT A -treated specimens were not remarkably affected, the breakdown strengths of the RTA-treated specimens were greatly changed by RTA temperature and time. After the RTA treatment, the breakdown strengths of the specimens RTA-treated at the temperature below the crystallization temperature were increased to 5.4MV /cm, while those of the specimens RTA -treated at the temperature above it were decreased to 0.5MV /cm. RTA time-independence of the flat-bant voltage shift refleted that the RT A post-annealing effects on the breakdown strengths were not due to the interface reaction between the ${Ta_2}{O_5}$ layer and the Si substrate but, through the RBS analysis, to densification of the ${Ta_2}{O_5}$ films.

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Analysis of the Simon effect using Amplitude of RTA-ERP and Response time (응답속도정합-유발전위의 진폭과 응답 속도를 이용한 사이먼효과 분석)

  • Kim, HyeJin;Yoo, SunKook
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, the RTA-ERP(Response Time Aligned-Evoked Relative Potential) was modelled to analyze the effect of motor activation pattern in response to visual sensory stimuli. Simon effect was analysed using the amplitude response of RTA-ERP and measured response time. The 'odd number' experiments, which identify an odd number mixed with same numbers, was performed with 15 healthy adult participants(9 males and 6 females, whose mean age of 31) for 7 minutes for each participant. Throughout experimentation, we observed that the proposed RTA-ERP can compensate the timing variation due to different neural processing procedures in the brain, and shows enhanced LRP(Lateralized Readiness Potential) and Pe(Error Related Positivity). Regarding to 'congruence' and 'incongruence' testing patterns, the amplitude of RTA-ERP and the response time for the 'congruence' are $0.03{\mu}V$ larger, and 43 ms faster than those for the 'incongruence', respectively. The amplitude characteristics of RTA-ERP, obtained by synchronizing the onset times with respect to response time, corresponds more likely to that of P300 in the ERP pattern (the characteristics of the Simon effect).

Stability and Cytotoxicity of Fab-Ricin A Immunotoxins Prepared with Water Soluble Long Chain Heterobifunctional Crosslinking Agents

  • Woo, Byung-Ho;Lee, Jung-Tae;Park, Myung-Ok;Lee, Kang-Ro;Han, Jeung-Whan;Park, Eun-Seok;Yoo, Sun-Dong;Lee, Kang-Choon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.459-463
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    • 1999
  • The effects of the hindered and non-hindered water soluble long-chain disulfide bonds on the stability and cytotoxicity of the ricin A chain (RTA) immunotoxin were examined. The RTA immunotoxins were prepared with the Fab fragments of anti-common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) monoclonal antibody (Fab-RTA) using sulfosuccinimidyl-6-[(-methyl-(-2-pyridyldithio)toluamido]toluamido]hexanoate (S-LC-SMPT) and sulfosuccinimidyl-6-[3-(2-pyridyldithio-propionamido]hexanoate (S-LC-SPDP). The prepared Fab-RTA immunotoxins were evaluated for their conjugation yield, immunoreactivity, thermal and disulfide bond stability and cytotoxicity. The conjugation yield of the Fab-RTA immunotoxin from the water soluble long chain crosslinking agents, S-LC-SMPT and S-LC-SPDP, were comparable. Both Fab-RTA immunotoxins exhibited a similar immunoreactivity and thermal stability in aqueous solution. However, S-LC-SMPT -mediated Fab-RTA, sterically hindered, showed an enhanced disulfide bond stability in vitro over S-LC-SPDP mediated one. In the cytotoxicity against antigenic cell Daudi, the S-LC-SMPT -mediated RTA immunotoxin maintained a comparable cytotoxicity, compared with S-LC-SPDP mediated Fab-RTA immunotoxin.

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A Study on Electrical Properties of Sol-gel Derived Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 Thin Films by Rapid Thermal Annealing (Sol-gel법으로 제조한 강유전성 Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12박막의 급속열처리에 따른 전기적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이인재;김병호
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.1189-1196
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    • 2003
  • Ferroelectric B $i_{3.25}$L $a_{0.75}$ $Ti_3$ $O_{12}$ (BLT) solution was synthesized by sol-gel process. BLT thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti $O_2$/ $SiO_2$/Si substrates by spin-coating. In this experiments, Bi(TMHD)$_3$, La(III)2-Methoxyethoxide, and Ti(IV) i-propoxide were used as starting materials, which were dissolved in 2-Methoxyethanol. Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) was used to promote crystallization of BLT thin films. The thin films with RTA process were compared with those with non-RTA process on electrical properties. After RTA process, the remanent polarization value (2Pr) of BLT thin films annealed at 72$0^{\circ}C$ was 20.46 $\mu$C/$\textrm{cm}^2$ which was approximately 27% higher than that of non-RTA process at 5 V.

Properties of the carbon electrode perovskite solar cells with various annealing processes (열처리 방법에 따른 카본전극 페로브스카이트 태양전지의 특성 변화)

  • Song, Ohsung;Kim, Kwangbea
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2021
  • The photovoltaic properties and microstructure changes were observed while perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a fabricated carbon electrode were formed using the following annealing processes: hot-plate, oven, and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Perovskite solar cells with a glass/FTO/compact TiO2/meso TiO2/meso ZrO2/carbon structure were prepared. The photovoltaic properties and microstructure changes in the PSCs were analyzed using a solar simulator, optical microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. An analysis of the photovoltaic properties revealed outstanding properties when RTA was applied to the cells. Microstructure analysis showed that perovskite was formed locally on the carbon electrode surface when hot-plate and oven annealing were applied. On the other hand, PSC with RTA showed a flat surface without extra perovskite agglomeration. Denser perovskite formed on the porous carbon electrode layer with RTA showed superior photovoltaic properties. These results suggest that the RTA process might be appropriate for the massive production of carbon electrode PSCs considering the processing time.

Effects of Disulfide and Thioether Linkages on Stability and Cytotoxicity of Anti-CALLA Fab-Ricin A Immunotoxins

  • Lee, Jung-Tae;Woo, Byung-Ho;Lee, Kang-Choon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.277-277
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    • 1996
  • Anti-CALLA Fab-RTA immunotoxins were constructed using two crosslinking agent, SMPT and SMCC, to generate a disulfide and a thioether bridge between Fab fragment of K269-65 MoAb and RTA toxin moieties, respectively. These immunotoxins were selectively immunoreative with CALLA$\^$+/ B-lineage Daudi cells. SMPT and SMCC mediated RTA immunotoxins were prepared with 49% and 53% of the RTA conjugation yields, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis show that immunotoxins were constructed with major Fab-1 RTA (76kda), minor Fab-2RTA (106kda) and Fab-3RTA (136kda) compositions. The breakdown rates of immunotoxins were determined in the presence of glutathione by measuring the amount of reduced immunotoxins using size-exclusion HPLC. The SMCC immunotoxins were more resistant to the glutathione than SMPT immunotoxins. But, our data showed that the SMPT mediated disulfide bonded immunotoxins were much more active than the SMCC mediated thioether bonded immunotoxins to kill the target cells in vitro.

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In-doping effects on the Structural and Electrical Properties of ZnO Films prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (초음파 분무 열분해법으로 제초한 ZnO막의 전기적, 구조적 특성에 미치는 In첨가 효과)

  • 심대근;양영신;마대영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.1010-1013
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    • 2001
  • Zinc oxide(ZnO) films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on indium (In) films deposited by evaporation and subsequently submitted to rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The RTA was processed in air or a vacuum ambient. The crystallographic properties and surface morphologies of the films were characterized before and after the RTA by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. The resistivity variation of the films with RTA temperature and time was measured by the 4-point probe method. Auger electron spectroscopy(AES) was carried out to figure out the distribution of indium atoms in the ZnO films. The resistivity of the ZnO on In(ZnO/In) films decreased to 2${\times}$10$\^$-3/ $\Omega$cm by diffusion of the In. The In diffusion into the ZnO films roughened the surface of the ZnO films. The results of depth profile by AES showed a hump of In atoms around ZnO/In interface after the RTA at 800$^{\circ}C$, which disappeared by the RTA at 1000$^{\circ}C$. The effects of temperature, time and ambient during the RTA on the structural and electrical properties of the ZnO/In films were discussed.

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Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on Thermal Stability of FeMn Spin Valve Sensors

  • Park, Seung-Young;Choi, Yeon-Bong;Jo, Soon-Chul
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2005
  • In this research, magnetoresistance (MR) ratio (MR), resistivity, and exchange coupling field $(H_{ex})$ behaviors for sputter deposited spin valves with FeMn antiferromagnetic layer have been extensively investigated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) as well as conventional annealing (CA) method. 10 s of RTA revealed that interdiffusion was not significant up to $325^{\circ}C$ at the interfaces between the layers when the RTA time was short. The MR of FeMn spin valves were reduced when the spin valves were exposed to temperature of $250^{\circ}C$, even for a short time period of 10 s prior to CA. $H_{ex}$ was maintained up to $325^{\circ}C$ of CA when the specimen was subjected to 10 s of RTA at $200^{\circ}C$ prior to CA, which is $25^{\circ}C$ higher than the result obtained from the CA without prior RTA. Therefore, the stability of $H_{ex}$ could be enhanced by a prior RTA before performing CA up to annealing temperature of $325^{\circ}C$. MR and sensitivity of the specimens annealed without magnetic field up to $275^{\circ}C$ were recovered to the values prior to CA, but $H_{ex}$ was not recovered. This means that reduced MR sensitivity and MR during the device fabrication can be recovered by a field RTA.

Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Luminescence Properties of Digital-Alloy InGaAlAs Multiple Quantum Wells (디지털 합금 InGaAlAs 다중 양자 우물의 열처리 온도에 따른 발광 특성)

  • Cho, Il Wook;Byun, Hye Ryoung;Ryu, Mee-Yi;Song, Jin Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.321-326
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    • 2013
  • The effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties of digital-alloy InGaAlAs multiple quantum well (MQW) structures have been investigated by using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements as a function of RTA temperature. The MQW samples were annealed from $700^{\circ}C$ to $850^{\circ}C$ for 30 s in a nitrogen atmosphere. The MQW sample annealed at $750^{\circ}C$ exhibited the strongest PL intensity and the narrowest FWHM (Full width at half maximum), indicating the reduced nonradiative recombination centers and the improved interfaces between the wells and barriers. The MQW samples annealed at $800^{\circ}C$ and $850^{\circ}C$ showed the decreased PL intensities and blueshifted PL peaks compared to $750^{\circ}C$-annealed sample. The blueshift of PL peak with increasing RTA temperatures are ascribed to the increase of aluminum due to intermixing of gallium (Ga) and aluminum (Al) in the interfaces of InGaAs/InAlAs short-period superlattices. The decrease of PL intensity after annealing at $800^{\circ}C$ and $850^{\circ}C$ are attributed to the interface roughening and lateral composition modulation caused by the interdiffusion of Ga and Al and indium segregation, respectively. With increasing RTA temperature the PL decay becomes slower, indicating the decrease of nonradiative defect centers. The optical properties of digital-alloy InGaAlAs MQW structures can be improved significantly with optimum RTA conditions.