• Title, Summary, Keyword: RT-PCR

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Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) by Revers Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) (PT-PCR 법에 의한 Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus의 조기진단)

  • 강호성;공희정;구현나;박정우;손상규;박명애;김한도
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 1997
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNY) is an economically important fish pathogen since it causes the high-mortality disease in early stage of hatchery-reared fishes. In order to develop a rapid, sensitive and highly specific detection method for IPNV, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out using the oligonucleotide primers selected from the sequence of VP2, a major capsid polypertide of IPNV. As little as 40ng of purified IPNV dsRNA was detected by RT-PCR amplification, but no amplification products were obtained when nucleic acid genomes from other fish pathogens such as IHNV were used as RT-PCR templates. in situ RT-PCR methods are useful for the rapid and sensitive identification of IPNV.

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Detection of Giardia lamblia in River Water Samples Using PCR and RT-PCR (PCR 및 RT-PCR을 이용한 하천수 중 Giardia lamblia 검출)

  • Cho, Eun-Ju;Lee, Mok-Young;Byun, Seung-Heun;Han, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Seoung-Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.904-908
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    • 2007
  • The protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia has been major cause of waterborne enteric disease. In this study, we tried to identify G. lamlbia of human infectious species and to detect viable C. lamblia in river water samples including three sites of Han River mainstream and an its creek using PCR and RT-PCR technique. The PCR/RT-PCR methods were performed by using giardin primer based on the giardin gene targeting ventral disk of Giardia. Sensitivity testing in the DNA/RNA extraction and PCR/RT-PCR amplification steps showed that it was possible to detect a single cyst of G. lamblia and viable G. lamblia. The PCR/RT-PCR methods were compared with immunofluorescence(IF) assay by analyzing 48 samples collected from the mainstream water and the creek water. The mean concentration of the total cysts were 6.3 cysts/10 L(arithmetic mean, n = 48) and the positive detection rate were 62.5%(30/48). And the mean concentration of the cysts excluding empty cysts were 4.5 cysts/10 L and the positive detection rate were 52.1%(25/48). It resulted that 24 of 48 samples included Giardia lamblia by PCR assay and 10 of 48 samples included viable G. lamblia by RT-PCR assay. It resulted that the PCR/RT-PCR technique would be available to river water samples with low concentration of Giardia cysts. And it could support the Korean protozoan standard method, which provides useful information for species and viability.

Comparison of Direct RT-PCR, Cell Culture RT-PCR and Cell IFA for Viability and Infectivity Assay of Cryptosporidium (크립토스포리디움 활성 및 감염성 판정을 위한 direct RT-PCR, cell culture RT-PCR 및 cell culture IFA의 비교)

  • Park, Sang-Jung;Yu, Jae-Ran;Kim, Jong-Min;Rim, Yeon-Taek;Jin, Ing-Nyol;Chung, Hyen-Mi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.729-733
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    • 2006
  • Cryptosporidium is a waterborne pathogenic parasite which causes diarrhea. Immunomagnetic separation-immunofluorescent assay (IMS-IFA) has been a widely adopted for Cryptosporidium detection as standard method. However, this method does not provide information about viability or infectivity of Cryptosporidium. Therefore, many researchers have studied viability or infectivity analyses of Cryptosporidium with various methods such as vital staining, in vitro excystation, RT-PCR, cell culture, and mouse infection assay. In this study, two direct RT-PCR methods, cell culture RT-PCR and cell culture IFA were compared for sensitivity and other characteristics. The results showed that direct RT-PCR method with HSP70 genes had the highest sensitivity with detection up to 1 viable cell of Cryptosporidium. The infectious Cryptosporidium were detected up to 10 to 25 cells by cell culture methods in combination with RT-PCR and IFA. The infectious Cryptosporidium were apt to be quantified by cell culture IFA.

Detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Bottle Gourd Seeds by RT-PCR (RT-PCR에 의한 박 종자의 오이녹반모자이크바이러스 검정)

  • Lee, Sook-Kyung;Song, Wan-Yeob;Kim, Hyung-Moo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2004
  • Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was a major pathogen of watermelon and had affected seriously to watermelon production in Korea. Rapid and sensitive detection method of CGMMV associated with bottle gourd (Lagenafia siceraria) seeds was developed by using RT-PCR in this study. A pair of primeri Wmfl and Wmrl, specific for CGMMV was designed from coat protein gene sequences of CGMMV-W and used for amplifying 420 bp product in RT-PCR. To simplify the virus extraction procedure and reduce an inhibitor from the extract for the RT-PCR, some methods using ethanol precipitation, double filtration, polyethylene glycol precipitation and phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol extraction procedure were compared and the phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol extraction procedure was selected by its enhanced sensitivity. This detection method using the selected extraction step and the primers for RT-PCR could reliably detect an infected level of one CGMMV-infested seed in 1,000 seeds. This rapid and sensitive RT-PCR assay provides auseful tool for the specific detection of CGMMV in bottle gourd seed samples containing high levels of back-ground inhibitors.

Quantitative Analysis of Feline Calicivirus Inactivation using Real-time RT-PCR (Real-time RT-PCR을 이용한 Feline Calicivirus 불활성화의 정량적 분석)

  • Jeong, Hye Mi;Kim, Kwang Yup
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2014
  • Norovirus causes acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and its food poisoning outbreaks are rapidly increasing in Korea. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is most widely used for the rapid detection of foodborne viruses due to high sensitivity. However, the false positive results of RT-PCR obtained against already inactivated viruses could be a serious drawbacks in food safety area. In this study, we investigated a method to yield true positive RT-PCR results only with alive viruses. To decompose the RNA genes from dead viruses, the enzymatic treatments composed of proteinse K and Ribonuclease A were applied to the sanitized and inactivated virus particles. Another aim of this study was to quantify the efficiencies of several major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. Feline calicivirus (FCV) that belongs to the same Caliciviridae family with norovirus was used as a surrogate model for norovirus. The initial level of virus in control suspension was approximately $10^4$ PFU/mL. Most of inactivated viruses treated with the enzymatic treatment for 30 min at $37^{\circ}C$ were not detected in RT-PCR, Quantification results to verify the inactivation efficiencies of sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR showed no false positive in most cases. We could successfully develope a numerical quantification process for the inactivated viruses after major sanitizing treatments using real-time RT-PCR. The results obtained in this study could provide a novel basis of rapid virus quantification in food safety area.

RT- PCR Analysis of Vitellogenin Gene Expression in Bombina orientalis (무당개구리 비텔로제닌 유전자의 발현의 RT- PCR 검출법)

  • 계명찬;이명식;강희정;정경아;안혜선
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2004
  • To develop a biomarker for the monitoring of the contamination of estrogenic endocrine disrupters in the aquatic environment, reverse transcription -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of vitellogenin (Vg) mRNA expression was optimized in Bombina orientalis, a Korean red bellied toad species. Based on partial cDNA sequences of both Vg and beta actin genes of B. orientalis, specific primers for RT-PCR of Vg and beta actin mRNAs were developed. Semiquantitative RT-PCR of the Vg mRNA in liver was optimized using a beta actin mRNA as an internal control in both sexes. In female RT-PCR using $1\;\mu{g}$ of the liver cDNA resulted in a linear increment in the PCR product of Vg from 18 to 34 cycles of amplification. In male, on the contrary, the RT- PCR product was first detected at 30 cycles of amplification and a linear increment was observed from 30 to 40 cycles of amplification, suggesting that male B. orientalis expresses minute amount of Vg mRNA which is a $2^{-12}$ equivalent of female. In conclusion, the optimized protocol for semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of Vg mRNA level in B. orientalis male liver will be useful for the environmental monitoring the xenoestrogen contamination in the freshwater environment in Korea.

Development of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction of fimA Gene to Detect Viable Salmonella in Milk (우유 내 활력있는 Salmonella를 검출하기 위한 fimA 유전자의 역전사중합효소 연쇄반응의 개발)

  • Choi, S.H.;Lee, S.B.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.841-848
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    • 2004
  • Rapid detection of viable Salmonella in pasteurized milk is important to protect public health from food poisoning. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) is recognized as a molecular genetical method to differentiate between live and dead bacteria The RT-PCR in this study was designed to detect specifically viable Salmonella in milk by using the primers whose nucleotide sequences were determined based on fimA gene which encodes the submit of type 1 fimbriae. Treatment of RNA preparation with RNase-free DNase was adequate enough to destroy DNA, which may otherwise be amplified in the RT PCR Seven strains of Salmonella were detected in the RT-PCR but Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were not. $10^7/ml$ and $10^6/ml$ of dead Salmonella which were heat-treated in milk were detectable by using the RT-PCR but $10^5{\sim}10/ml$ of the dead bacteria were not. The sensitivity of the RT-PCR in detecting viable Salmonella was 100 cells/ml.

Immunocapture RT-PCR for Detection of Seed-borne Viruses on Cucurbitaceae Crops (Immunocapture RT-PCR을 이용한 박과작물 종자전염 바이러스의 검출)

  • Lee, Hyok-In;Kim, Jung-Hee;Yea, Mi-Chi
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.121-124
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    • 2010
  • Immunocapture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was applied to the detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV), and Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV) on Cucurbitaceae crops. These seed-borne tobamoviruses were accurately detected from the infected leaves and seeds by IC-RT-PCR. This method was estimated to be about 100 times more sensitive than ELISA, and also it allowed the direct confirmation of ELISA results by using the captured antigens from a completed ELISA microwell. This convenient and reliable method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or seed tests of Cucurbitaceae crops.

Convenient Genetic Diagnosis of Virion Captured (VC)/RT-PCR for Rice Viruses (RSV, RBSDV) and Small Brown Plant Hopper (벼 바이러스(RSV, RBSDV)와 애멸구의 간편한 VC/RT-PCR 유전자 진단기술)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Lee, Su-Heon;Choi, Hong-Soo;Cho, Jeom-Deog;Noh, Tai-Whan;Kim, Jin-Young
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2009
  • Genetic diagnosis method of Virion Captured (VC)/RT-PCR for Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), Korean major rice viruses transmitted by small brown plant hopper, Laodelphax striatellus, was developed. Virion extraction buffer for rice plant was 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.5% sodium sulfite. However, the extraction buffer for L. striatellus was 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.5% sodium sulfite and 2% polyvinylpyrrolidone wt 40,000 (PVP-40). Specific primers for detection of RSV and RBSDV were selected for VC/RT-PCR method. The specific primers were used as a duplex primer to detect viruliferous small brown plant hopper collected from Gimpo, Pyeongtaek and Siheung areas in Gyeonggi province. The genetic diagnosis methods of single and duplex VC/RT-PCR for RSV and RBSDV could be used easily and economically, especially on the diagnosis of L. striatellus. The rate of viruliferous insect (RVI) for RSV was compared with ELISA and VC/RT-PCR for L. striatellus collected from fields. RVI by ELISA was same as 9.2% with RVI by VC/RT-PCR. However, there were some different detection results between the methods. It could be suggested that there is a possibility of serological and/or genomic differences among RSV isolates. The portion of RVI detected simultaneously by ELISA and VC/RT-PCR was 71.0%, and the detection rate from VC/RT-PCR was higher as 3.2% than that from ELISA, which had a reason of simultaneous detection ability both RSV and RBSDV of VC/RT-PCR.

Improved Detection of Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Milk by Using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR

  • Choi, Suk-Ho;Lee, Seung-Bae
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2011
  • A sensitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) method to detect viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk was established. The primer sets were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of the rfbE (per) and wbdN genes in the O157 antigen gene cluster of E. coli O157:H7. RT-PCR using five different primer sets yielded DNA with sizes of 655, 518, 450, and 149-bp, respectively. All five of the E. coli O157:H7 strains were detected by RT-PCR, but 11 other bacterial species were not. The sensitivity of RT-PCR was improved by adding yeast tRNA as a carrier to the crude RNA extract. The RT-PCR amplifying the 149-bp DNA fragment was the most sensitive for detecting E. coli O157:H7 and the most refractory to the bactericidal treatments. Heat treatment at $65^{\circ}C$ for 30 min was the least inhibitory of all bactericidal treatments. Treatment with RNase A strongly inhibited the RT-PCR of heated milk but not unheated milk. This study described RT-PCR methods that are specific and sensitive with a detection limit of 10 E. coli O157:H7 cells, and showed that pre-treating milk samples with RNase A improved the specificity to detect viable bacteria by RT-PCR.