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Effects of Onion Flesh and Peel on Chemical Components, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities (양파 육질 및 껍질의 화학성분과 항산화 및 항암 활성 비교)

  • Jang, Joo-Ri;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1598-1604
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    • 2009
  • In order to determine chemical components of onion flesh and peel, general nutrients, vitamin C, and total flavonoids were measured. Onion peel showed less moisture (14.3%) and no vitamin C compared to onion flesh. Onion peel contained more amounts of total flavonoids compared to onion flesh. In addition, the inhibitory effects of solvent extracts from onion flesh and peel on $H_2O_$-induced oxidative stress and growth of cancer cell lines (AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma and HT-29 human colon cancer cells) were investigated. Acetone with methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from onion flesh and peel appeared to significantly reduce the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p<0.05) and a greater antioxidant effect was observed in onion peel. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed a higher protective activity against oxidative stress in both flesh and peel and there was no effect in the water and hexane fractions. The growth of cancer cells exposed to medium containing extracts and fractions from onion flesh and peel was inhibited dose-dependently. The growth of AGS was inhibited more in both flesh and peel compared to HT-29, and onion peel was more effective than onion flesh. Among fractions, 85% aq. methanol showed the greatest effect on growth inhibition in both flesh and peel. $IC_{50}$ values of 85% aq. methanol fraction from onion flesh and peel on AGS were 0.04 and 0.03 mg/ml, respectively, while those on HT-29 were 0.23 and 0.04 mg/ml. From our results, 85% aq. methanol fraction had an inhibitory effect against oxidative stress and growth of cancer cells, suggesting that it may contain biological active compounds.

Expressional Analysis of Superoxide Dismutase in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) against Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Infection (Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) 감염에 대한 넙치 superoxide dismutase(Of-SOD)의 발현분석)

  • Lee, Young Mee;Kim, Jung-Eun;Noh, Jae Koo;Kim, Hyun Chul;Park, Choul-Ji;Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Kyung-Kil;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1371-1377
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    • 2014
  • Superoxide dismutase is a family of important antioxidant metalloenzymes and catalyzes the dismutation of toxic superoxide anions into dioxygen and hydrogen peroxide. A recent study identified the partial superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The same study reported that it strongly induced benzo[a]pyrene and that it was an indicator of aquatic oxidative stress responses. However, its transcriptional response against viral infection has not been investigated. In the present study, the spatial and temporal expression profiles were analyzed to investigate the function of Of-SOD in the antiviral response. The Of-SOD transcripts were ubiquitously detected at various levels in diverse tissues in a real-time PCR. The expression of Of-SOD was significantly higher in the muscles, liver, and brain but extremely low in the stomach and spleen. Following a VHSV challenge, the expression of Of-SOD increased within 3 h in the kidneys and decreased to the original level 2 days postchallenge. In muscle, liver, and brain, Of-SOD mRNA was similarly up-regulated at 3-6 h postchallenge and then decreased to the basal level. Although the expression pattern and induction time differed slightly depending on the tissue, the transcript of Of-SOD consistently increased in the acute infection response, but the expression was low in the chronic response. The expression of Of-SOD was induced after the VHSV infection, and Of-SOD was probably involved in the immune response against the viral challenge. These results suggest that SOD may play important roles in the immune defense system of P. olivaceus and perhaps contribute to the protective effects against oxidative stress in olive flounder.

Antioxidant Activities of Ipomoea batatas L. Lam. (Purple Sweet Potato) Extracts Cultured in Korea (국내산 자색고구마(Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) 추출물의 항산화활성 평가)

  • Kong, Bong Ju;Han, Sung Soo;Ha, Ji Hoon;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.423-430
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the antioxidative effects for the extracts of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) were investigated. The purple sweet potato was extracted with 70% ethanol and the ethyl acetate fraction was obtained from the extracts. The yields of extract and ethyl acetate fraction were 39.2% and 3.49% per dried powder, respectively. To confirm the antioxidative effects of the extracts, free radical scavenging activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), total antioxidant capacity by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and the protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in erythrocytes were measured. Free radical scavenging activities ($FSC_{50}$) of the 70% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction were $90.16{\mu}g/mL$ and $7.69{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was higher than that of (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol ($8.98{\mu}g/mL$). Total antioxidant capacities ($OSC_{50}$) of the 70% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction were $5.75{\mu}g/mL$ and $1.92{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The capacity of ethyl acetate fraction was similar to L-ascorbic acid, known as a prominent water soluble antioxidant ($1.50{\mu}g/mL$). The cellular protective effects of the ethyl acetate fractions on the $^1O_2$-induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes were increased in a concentration dependent manner ($5{\sim}50{\mu}g/mL$). The ${\tau}_{50}$ value in $5{\mu}g/mL$ was 45.6 min which was higher than that of (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol in all concentrations. These results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of purple sweet potato (I. batatas) has the excellent antioxidative capacity and could be applicable to anti-aging cosmeceutical ingredients for skin aging inhibition.

Antioxidative Effects of Inula britannica var. chinensis Flower Extracts According to the flowering period and species of Inula britannica var. chinensis (금불초 종(種) 및 개화시기에 따른 금불초 꽃 추출물의 항산화 효능)

  • Kwon, Soon Sik;Jeon, So Ha;Jeon, Ji Min;Cheon, Jong Woo;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.195-203
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    • 2013
  • In this study, antioxidative effects of the extracts of different species and flowering periods of Inula britannica were investigated. According to the free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity of the extracts, The I. britannica var. chinensis flower extract (500 ${\mu}g/mL$) was measured in a 79.89% free radical scavenging activity, but the flower extracts of similar species (I. britannica var. linariaefolia Regel, I. britannica var. ramosa, I. salicina var. asiatica) did not show any effect on the free radical scavenging activity. The effects of the free radical scavenging activity of I. britannica var. chinensis flower extracts were exhibited in the order of full bloom (93.68%), bud (43.28%), and fallen blossom (14.11%). Next, we established optimum condition of extract solvent, temperature, extraction time. The extract from ethanol at $60^{\circ}C$ showed the most free radical scavenging activity among other conditions and extraction time not relevant in free radical scavenging activity. The protective effects of the extract of I. britannica var. chinensis flower on the photohemolysis of human erythrocytes by using rose bengal were increased in a concentration-dependent manner (5 ~ 50 ${\mu}g/mL$). In particular, the extract in 50 ${\mu}g/mL$ concentration exhibited better protective activity (${\tau}_{50}$ = 116.1 min) than (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (${\tau}_{50}$ = 73.44 min), which is a known lipophilic antioxidant. Principle component of I. britannica var. chinensis flower was identified as quercetin of flavonoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These results indicate that the extract of I. britannica var. chinensis flower can function as antioxidants in biological systems, particularly skin exposed to UV radiation by scavenging free radical and $^1O_2$, and protect cellular membranes against ROS. It is concluded that the antioxidative effects of the extract of I. britannica var. chinensis flower could be applicable to functional cosmetics.

Antibacterial and Antioxidative Activities of Epimedium koreanum Nakai Extracts (삼지구엽초 추출물의 항균 및 항산화 활성에 대한 연구)

  • Won, Doo Hyun;Gu, Hyun A;Kim, Hye Jin;Han, Saet Byeol;Park, Jino;Park, Soo Nam
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.284-291
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    • 2013
  • In this study, the antibacterial and antioxidative activities of Epimedium koreanum Nakai were investigated for applications as cosmetic ingredients. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fraction-bacterium, that showed high antibacterial activity from disc diffusion assay on human skin pathogens, were tested. The ethyl acetate fraction on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Propionibacterium acnes and 50% ethanol extract on S. aureus exhibited higher antibacterial activities than methyl paraben, well known as a preservative. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activities of 3 fractions of E. koreanum Nakai were lower than (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol, known as a typical antioxidant. From the results of the scavenging activities of various ROS generated in $Fe^{3+}-EDTA/H_2O_2$ systems ($OSC_{50}$), 50% ethanol extract ($OSC_{50}=2.46{\pm}0.06{\mu}g/ml$) and aglycone fraction ($OSC_{50}=1.45{\pm}0.02{\mu}g/ml$) showed high activities similar to L-ascorbic acid ($OSC_{50}=1.50{\pm}0.85{\mu}g/ml$), used as reference. The cellular protective effects (${\tau}_{50}$) on photohemolysis by $^1O_2$ generated by photosensitization reaction were tested. The cellular protective effect of 50% ethanol extract (${\tau}_{50}=37.0{\pm}0.3$ min) was similar to (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (${\tau}_{50}=38.0{\pm}1.8$ min), used as reference. In particular, the ${\tau}_{50}$ of aglycone fraction results were $165.9{\pm}7.2$ min. This is a high cellular protective effect, more than 4 times that of (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol. These results indicate that E. koreanum Nakai extract, and its fractions, could be utilized as a cosmetic ingredient possessing antibacterial and antioxidative activities.

Heavy Metal Contents and Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effect of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major): Comparative Studies in Domestic and Imported Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major) (국내산 및 수입산 참돔의 중금속 함량 및 항산화 활성과 세포독성 효과 비교)

  • Hwang, Seong Yeon;Bae, Jin Han;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.450-455
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    • 2015
  • This study compared the heavy metal contents and the effects of extracts from domestic and imported red sea bream on the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of human cancer cell lines. The antioxidant activity was measured using the fluorescently sensitive dye, 2’-7’ dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA), and antiproliferative activity against AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines, which was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Domestic red sea bream had a higher mercury content when compared to imported red sea bream, but there was no significant difference in the lead content. Treatments with acetone/methylene chloride (A+M) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from domestic and imported red sea bream dose-dependently decreased the H2O2 induced ROS production, compared to the control. The cell viability showed that treatments with the A+M and MeOH extracts had cytotoxicity in the growth of AGS and HT-29 cancer cells. In the case of AGS, the extracts from the domestic red sea bream were higher in inhibiting cancer cell growth, compared to imported red sea bream. Our results demonstrate that the heavy metal contents of domestic and imported red sea bream were below the limit of the Food Code of Korea. The results of the biological activities indicate that the antioxidant activity of extracts from imported red sea bream was more effective, while the extracts from the domestic red sea bream were stronger in cytotoxic activity.

Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) stems on inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and COX-2 expressions in Raw 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (Lipopolysaccharide로 유도된 Raw 264.7 세포에서 마늘대 추출물(Allium sativum L. Stems)의 염증성 사이토카인 및 iNOS, COX-2 발현에 대한 효과 검증)

  • Cho, Yong Hun;Kim, Hyeon Jeong;Kim, Dong In;Jang, Jae Yoon;Kwak, Jae Hoon;Shin, Yu Hyeon;Cho, Yeon Gje;An, Bong Jeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.613-621
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of water extract (ASSW) and 70% ethanol extract (ASSE) of Allium sativum L. stems were investigated using Raw 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ABTS radical scavenging activities of ASSW and ASSE at $1000{\mu}g/mL$ concentration were 96.9% and 97.8%, respectively. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of ASSW and ASSE, nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor including ${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin-$1{\beta}$ (IL-$1{\beta}$), and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) were measured. ASSW and ASSE at $100{\mu}g/mL$ concentration showed inhibitory effects against NO production by 18% and 23%, respectively. Production of IL-$1{\beta}$ and IL-6 after treatment with ASSW and ASSE at $100{\mu}g/mL$ decreased by approximately 28% and 15% for ASSW and 17% and 12% for ASSE, respectively. In addition, production of TNF-${\alpha}$ after treatment of $100{\mu}g/mL$ of ASSW and ASSE decreased by 24% and 23%, respectively. In addition, the treatment of $100{\mu}g/mL$ of ASSW and ASSE showed inhibitory expressions against PGE2 by 45.47% and 33.87%, respectively. These results suggested that ASSE showed greater inhibitory activity than that of the ASSW by the suppression of inflammatory mediators, including NO, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ and PGE2 production, and the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophages. In conclusion, ASSW and ASSE may have some ancillary effects on inflammatory factors as potential anti-inflammatory agents.

Antioxidant Activities of Gynura procumbens Extracts (명월초 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Kyeong Jin;Gim, Ah Hyun;Kim, Ji Hyun;Kim, Do Hee;Lee, Seo Rin;Park, Jee Hyun;Lim, Ji Won;Ha, Ji Hoon;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the methanol fraction and aglycone fraction were made from Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens) extracts and their antioxidative effects were investigated. The free radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH), total antioxidant capacity by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay, and the protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in erythrocytes were measured to evaluate the antioxidative activities of the extracts. Free radical scavenging activities ($FSC_{50}$) of the methanol fraction and aglycone fraction were 90.25 and $81.38{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. Total antioxidant capacities ($OSC_{50}$) of the methanol fraction and aglycone fraction were 16.96 and $12.30{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of the aglycone fraction were greater than those of methanol fraction. The cellular protective effect on the $^1O_2$-induced cellular damage of human erythrocytes was confirmed by ${\tau}_{50}$ value. The ${\tau}_{50}$ value of the methanol fraction and aglycone fraction were 36.7 min and 76.1 min, respectively in $5{\mu}g/mL$, and the aglycone fraction showed about 2 times higher cellular protecive effect than (+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (35.4 min). These results indicate that the aglycone fraction of G. procumbens extracts has application possibility as antioxidant ingredient of cosmetic.

Enhanced Anti-oxidant Activity Effects of Smilax china L. Rhizome Water Extracts Added with Its Fermented Leaf Water Extracts (발효 청미래덩굴잎 추출물의 혼합에 의한 토복령의 항산화활성 증진효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Ye-Kyung;Kim, Soon-Dong;Shim, Soon-Mi;Yang, Seung Hwan;Cheng, Jinhua;Suh, Joo-Won
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2014
  • To evaluate the improving effects of antioxidant activity, we observed antioxidant capacities such as electron donating ability (EDA), Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) and aldehyde oxidase (AO), and sensory characteristics on mixture of Smilax china L. root water extract added with water extract of fermented S. china L. leaf by Aspergillus oryzae (FSCL). Those contents of mixture with higher ratio of FSCL were proportionally high. And OD475 of mixture with higher ratio of FSCL was almost proportionally high ($R^2=0.9850$). Antioxidant capacities of EDA and FRAP of the mixture was higher than that of non-mixture. In addition, XO inhibitory activity ($IC_{50}$) of A (1.19) was 59.80% higher than that of F (2.96), and the activity of mixture by the higher ratio of FSCL was proportionally low ($R^2=0.9490$). Taste acceptability of A was slightly higher than that of F, whereas that of C was highest. And color acceptability of 40-80% mixture was higher than those of A, F, and B. Overall acceptability of C and D was highest than those of others. Moreover, hot water extract of S. china L. leaf fermented with A. oryzae was maroon color, which looks like Puerh tea style, and mixture of S. china L. root extract added with hot water extract of S. china L. leaf was high acceptability of beverage. These results suggest that mixture of extract of S. china L. root and hot water extract of S. china L. leaf fermented with A. oryzae could improve antioxidant activities.

Screening of Effective Extraction Conditions for Increasing Antioxidant Activities of Licorice Extracts from Various Countries of Origin (원산지별 감초추출물의 항산화활성 증가를 위한 효율적인 추출조건 탐색)

  • Ha, Ji Hoon;Lee, Hye Mi;Kwon, Soon Sik;Kim, Hae Soo;Kim, Moon Jin;Jeon, So Ha;Jeong, Yoo Min;Hwang, Jun Pil;Park, Jong-Ho;Choi, Yung-Key;Park, Jino;Park, Soo Nam;Park, Dong-Sik
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.259-269
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    • 2013
  • In this work, licorice extracts were prepared using various extraction conditions such as extraction solvent, temperature, and time from Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) produced in Korea and China and Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra) in Uzbekistan. The optimum extraction condition was selected from the extraction yields and antioxidative activities of extracts. Korea licorice extracts showed the highest free radical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) scavenging activity (46.05%) under the extraction condition of 85% ethanol at $60^{\circ}C$ for 6 hours. The prominent ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging activity using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and the cellular protective effect against $^1O_2$ induced cellular membrane damage were also shown from the extracts obtained from the same condition. Especially, Korea G. uralensis extracts exhibited the higher prominent protective effect (${\tau}_{50}$ = 116.4 min) than (+)-(+)-${\alpha}$-tocopherol (${\tau}_{50}$ = 28.5 min) and the extraction yield of Korea licorice extract was 18.75%, which is 1.2 times and 2.5 times higher than that of Uzbekistan and China, respectively. These results indicate that the extraction condition of 85% ethanol at $60^{\circ}C$ for 6 hours is optimal to prepare licorice extracts, which can be applicable as anti-oxidative cosmetic materials.