• Title, Summary, Keyword: RNAi

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Gene expression in plant according to RNAi treatment of the tobacco whitefly (RNAi 기법으로 담배가루이 방제를 위해 선발된 유전자의 식물체내 발현)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hee;Seo, Eun-Young;Kim, Jung-Kyu;Lim, Hyoun-Sub;Yu, Yong-Man;Youn, Young-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2015
  • Three genes selected from cDNA library of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, were checked whether these genes expressed in plant or not, and confirmed the change of gene expression using qRT-PCR in the tobacco whitefly. First of all, three genes were inserted in Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) RNA2 vector using Sac I and Xho I restriction enzymes, and conducted agro-infiltration in tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamianana). And then, it was confirmed that TRV RNA2 vector and genes inserted in TRV RNA2 vector were expressed in plant. So, after feeding the tobacco whitefly the plants inoculated the genes and induced RNAi of the genes, we plan to confirm the RNAi in the whitefly and investigate the changes of gene expression through the qRT-PCR.

RNAi and miRNA in Viral Infections and Cancers

  • Mollaie, Hamid Reza;Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza;Arabzadeh, Seyed Ali Mohammad;Shamsi-Shahrabadi, Mahmoud;Fazlalipour, Mehdi;Afshar, Reza Malekpour
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7045-7056
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    • 2013
  • Since the first report of RNA interference (RNAi) less than a decade ago, this type of molecular intervention has been introduced to repress gene expression in vitro and also for in vivo studies in mammals. Understanding the mechanisms of action of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) underlies use as therapeutic agents in the areas of cancer and viral infection. Recent studies have also promoted different theories about cell-specific targeting of siRNAs. Design and delivery strategies for successful treatment of human diseases are becomingmore established and relationships between miRNA and RNAi pathways have been revealed as virus-host cell interactions. Although both are well conserved in plants, invertebrates and mammals, there is also variabilityand a more complete understanding of differences will be needed for optimal application. RNA interference (RNAi) is rapid, cheap and selective in complex biological systems and has created new insight sin fields of cancer research, genetic disorders, virology and drug design. Our knowledge about the role of miRNAs and siRNAs pathways in virus-host cell interactions in virus infected cells is incomplete. There are different viral diseases but few antiviral drugs are available. For example, acyclovir for herpes viruses, alpha-interferon for hepatitis C and B viruses and anti-retroviral for HIV are accessible. Also cancer is obviously an important target for siRNA-based therapies, but the main problem in cancer therapy is targeting metastatic cells which spread from the original tumor. There are also other possible reservations and problems that might delay or even hinder siRNA-based therapies for the treatment of certain conditions; however, this remains the most promising approach for a wide range of diseases. Clearly, more studies must be done to allow efficient delivery and better understanding of unwanted side effects of siRNA-based therapies. In this review miRNA and RNAi biology, experimental design, anti-viral and anti-cancer effects are discussed.

Downstream Networking of $Zap70$ in Meiotic Cell Cycle of the Mouse Oocytes

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Hyun-Seo;Kim, Eun-Young;Lee, Kyung-Ah
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2012
  • Previously, we found that $Zap70$ (Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase) expressed in the mouse oocytes and played significant role in completion of meiosis specifically at MI-MII (metaphase I-II) transition. Microinjection of $Zap70$ dsRNA into the cytoplasm of germinal vesicle oocyte resulted in MI arrest, and exhibited abnormalities in their spindles and chromosome configurations. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms of action of $Zap70$ in oocyte maturation by evaluating downstream signal networking after $Zap70$ RNAi (RNA interference). The probe hybridization and data analysis were used by Affymetrix Gene Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 array and GenPlex 3.0 (ISTECH, Korea) software, respectively. Total 1,152 genes were up (n=366) and down (n=786) regulated after $Zap70$ RNAi. Among those genes changed, we confirmed the expressional changes of the genes involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway, since the phenotypes of $Zap70$ RNAi in oocytes were found in the changes in the chromosome separation and spindle structures. We confirmed the changes in gene expression in the actin skeletal system as well as in the MAPK signaling pathway, and concluded that these changes are main cause of the aberrant chromosome arrangement and abnormal spindles after $Zap70$ RNAi.

Multiple shRNA expressing vector enhances efficiency of gene silencing

  • Song, Jun;Giang, An;Lu, Yingchun;Pang, Shen;Chiu, Robert
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.358-362
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    • 2008
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of sequence-specific gene silencing. However, RNAi efficiency still needs to be improved for effective inhibition of target genes. We have developed an effective strategy to express multiple shRNAs (small hairpin RNA) simultaneously using multiple RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) promoters in a single vector. Our data demonstrate that multiple shRNAs expressed from Pol III promoters have a synergistic effect in repressing the target gene. Silencing of endogenous cyclophilin A (CypA) or key HIV viral genes by multiple shRNAs results in significant inhibition of the target gene.

RNA Interference as a Plausible Anticancer Therapeutic Tool

  • Ramachandran, Puthucode Venkatakrishnan;Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2445-2452
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    • 2012
  • RNA interference has created a breakthrough in gene silencing technology and there is now much debate on the successful usage of RNAi based methods in treating a number of debilitating diseases. Cancer is often regarded as a result of mutations in genomic DNA resulting in faulty gene expression. The occurrence of cancer can also be influenced by epigenetic irregularities in the chromatin structure which leads to alterations and mutations in DNA resulting in cancer cell formation. A number of therapeutic approaches have been put forth to treat cancer. Anti cancer therapy often involves chemotherapy targeting all the cells in common, whereby both cancer cells as well as normal cells get affected. Hence RNAi technology has potential to be a better therapeutic agent as it is possible to deactivate molecular targets like specific mutant genes. This review highlights the successful use of RNAi inducers against different types of cancer, thereby paving the way for specific therapeutic medicines.

Comparison of RNA Interference-mediated Gene Silencing and T-DNA Integration Techniques for Gene Function Analysis in Chinese Cabbage (RNA Interference 및 T-DNA Integration 방법에 의한 배추 기능유전자 Silencing 효과 비교)

  • Yu, Jae-Gyeong;Lee, Gi-Ho;Park, Young-Doo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.734-742
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    • 2012
  • To compare RNA interference-mediated gene silencing technique and T-DNA integration for gene function analysis in Chinese cabbage, BrSAMS-knockout (KO) line and BrSAMS-knockdown (KD) line were used. The KO line had lost the function of a Brassica rapa S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (BrSAMS) gene by T-DNA insertion and the KD line had shown down-regulated BrSAMS genes' expression by dsRNA cleavage. From microarray results of the KO and KD lines, genes linked to SAMS such as sterol, sucrose, homogalacturonan biosynthesis and glutaredoxin-related protein, serine/threonine protein kinase, and gibberellin-responsive protein showed distinct differences in their expression levels. Even though one BrSAMS gene in the KO line was broken by T-DNA insertion, gene expression pattern of that line did not show remarkable differences compared to wild type control. However, the KD line obtained by RNAi technique showed prominent difference in its gene expression. Besides, change of polyamine and ethylene synthesis genes directly associated with BrSAMS was displayed much more in the KD line. In the microarray analysis of the KO line, BrSAMS function could not be clearly defined because of BrSAMS redundancy due to the genome triplication events in Brassicaceae. In conclusion, we supposed that gene knock-down method by RNAi silencing is more effective than knock-out method by T-DNA insertion for gene function analysis of polyploidy crops such as Chinese cabbage.

Construction of a cDNA library of Aphis gossypii Glover for use in RNAi

  • KWON, HyeRi;KIM, JungGyu;LIM, HyounSub;YU, YongMan;YOUN, YoungNam
    • Entomological research
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.384-389
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    • 2018
  • Aphis gossypii Glover is an important insect pest that functions as a viral vector and mediates approximately 45 different viral diseases. As part of a strategy for control of A. gossypii, we investigated the functions of genes using RNAi. To this end, a cDNA library was constructed for various genes and for selecting appropriate targets for RNAi mediated silencing. The cDNA library was constructed using the Gateway cloning system with site-specific recombination of bacteriophage ${\lambda}$. It was used to carry out single step cloning of A. gossypii cDNAs. As a result, a cDNA library with a titer of $8.4{\times}10^6$ was constructed. Since the sequences in this library carry att sites, they can be cloned into various binary vectors. This library will be of value for various studies. For later screening of selected genes, it is planned to clone the library into virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors, which makes it possible to analyze gene function and allow subsequent transfection of plants. Such transfection experiments will allow testing of RNAi-induced insecticidal activity or repellent activity to A. gossypii, and result in the identification of target genes. It is also expected that the constructed cDNA library will be useful for analysis of gene functions in A. gossypii.

Evaluation of Toxicity and Gene Expression Changes Triggered by Oxide Nanoparticles

  • Dua, Pooja;Chaudhari, Kiran N.;Lee, Chang-Han;Chaudhari, Nitin K.;Hong, Sun-Woo;Yu, Jong-Sung;Kim, So-Youn;Lee, Dong-Ki
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.2051-2057
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    • 2011
  • Several studies have demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) have toxic effects on cultured cell lines, yet there are no clear data describing the overall molecular changes induced by NPs currently in use for human applications. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of three oxide NPs of around 100 nm size, namely, mesoporous silica (MCM-41), iron oxide ($Fe_2O_3$-NPs), and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs), was evaluated in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293. Cell viability assays demonstrated that 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ MCM-41, 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ $Fe_2O_3$, and 12.5 ${\mu}g/mL$ ZnO exhibited 20% reductions in HEK293 cell viability in 24 hrs. DNA microarray analysis was performed on cells treated with these oxide NPs and further validated by real time PCR to understand cytotoxic changes occurring at the molecular level. Microarray analysis of NP-treated cells identified a number of up- and down-regulated genes that were found to be associated with inflammation, stress, and the cell death and defense response. At both the cellular and molecular levels, the toxicity was observed in the following order: ZnO-NPs > $Fe_2O_3$-NPs > MCM-41. In conclusion, our study provides important information regarding the toxicity of these three commonly used oxide NPs, which should be useful in future biomedical applications of these nanoparticles.

Evaluation of Toxicity and Gene Expression Changes Triggered by Quantum Dots

  • Dua, Pooja;Jeong, So-Hee;Lee, Shi-Eun;Hong, Sun-Woo;Kim, So-Youn;Lee, Dong-Ki
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1555-1560
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    • 2010
  • Quantum dots (QDs) are extensively employed for biomedical research as a fluorescence reporter and their use for various labeling applications will continue to increase as they are preferred over conventional labeling methods for various reasons. However, concerns have been raised over the toxicity of these particles in the biological system. Till date no thorough investigation has been carried out to identify the molecular signatures of QD mediated toxicity. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of CdSe, $Cd_{1-x}Zn_xS$/ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots having different spectral properties (red, blue, green) using human embryonic kidney fibroblast cells (HEK293). Cell viability assay for both short and long duration exposure show concentration material dependent toxicity, in the order of CdSe > $Cd_{1-x}Zn_xS$/ZnS > CdSe/ZnS. Genome wide changes in the expression of genes upon QD exposure was also analyzed by wholegenome microarray. All the three QDs show increase in the expression of genes related to apoptosis, inflammation and response towards stress and wounding. Further comparison of coated versus uncoated CdSe QD-mediated cell death and molecular changes suggests that ZnS coating could reduce QD mediated cytotoxicity to some extent only.

Targeted Suppression of Connexin 43 in Ovine Preimplantation Embryos by RNA Interference Using Long Double-stranded RNA

  • Yan, Zhen;Ma, Yu Zhen;Liu, Dong jun;Cang, Ming;Wang, Rui;Bao, Shorgan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.456-464
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    • 2010
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an acknowledged useful and effective tool to study gene function in various cells. Here, we suppressed the Connexin 43 (Cx 43) gene expression during in vitro development of ovine pre-implantation embryos using the RNAi method. The 353 bp Cx 43 double-stranded RNA was microinjected into in vitro fertilized ovine zygotes, and the levels of target mRNA and protein were investigated. Control groups included uninjected zygotes or those injected with RNase-free water. The dsRNA injection resulted in the specific reduction of Cx 43 transcripts as analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and decreased protein levels as shown by Western blot analysis at the blastocyst stage. Microinjection of Cx 43 dsRNA led to 20.3%, 21.7% and 34.5% blastocyst rates and 19.2%, 37.5% and 41.3% hatched blastocyst rates in Cx 43 dsRNA-injected, water-injected and uninjected groups, respectively. Then the RNAi could not significantly affect cell number and cell death rates of blastocysts. Therefore, suppression of Cx 43 dsRNA and proteins did not apparently affect the development potential of ovine pre-implantation embryos but may play a role in embryo quality. RNAi technology is a promising approach to study gene function in early ovine embryogenesis.