• Title, Summary, Keyword: RNAi

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Treatment of Dyrk1A-dependent Mental Retardation of Down Syndrome: Isolation of Human Dyrk1A-specific shRNA (다운증후군의 Dyrk1A 의존적 뇌기능저하의 치료: 인간 Dyrk1A 특이적 shRNA 발굴)

  • Jung, Min-Su;Kim, Yeun-Soo;Kim, Ju-Hyun;Kim, Joung-Hun;Chung, Sul-Hee;Song, Woo-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2009
  • Down syndrome (DS) results from overexpressed genes on an extra copy of human chromosome 21. Among various phenotypes seen in DS patients, mental retardation, such as learning and memory deficits, is a major factor that prevents DS individuals from leading fully independent lives. The Dyrk1A gene that plays a critical role in neurodevelopment has been isolated from chromosome 21, and transgenic mice with over-expression of Dyrk1A show severe hippocampal dependent learning and memory defects. In the present study, as an initial step to test the treatment of Dyrk1A dependent mental retardation phenotypes in model animals, we isolated human Dyrk1A specific lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) that inhibits the exogenous human Dyrk1A expression, but not the endogenous mouse expression in transgenic mice with human Dyrk1A overexpression. This limited and specific repression of exogenous human Dyrk1A will prove to be valuable information, if Dyrk1A dependent learning and memory defects in DS patients could be treated or at least ameliorated in vivo.

UHRF2 mRNA Expression is Low in Malignant Glioma but Silencing Inhibits the Growth of U251 Glioma Cells in vitro

  • Wu, Ting-Feng;Zhang, Wei;Su, Zuo-Peng;Chen, San-Song;Chen, Gui-Lin;Wei, Yong-Xin;Sun, Ting;Xie, Xue-Shun;Li, Bin;Zhou, You-Xin;Du, Zi-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5137-5142
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    • 2012
  • UHRF2 is a member of the ubiquitin plant homeo domain RING finger family, which has been proven to be frequently up-regulated in colorectal cancer cells and play a role as an oncogene in breast cancer cells. However, the role of UHRF2 in glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we performed real-time quantitative PCR on 32 pathologically confirmed glioma samples (grade I, 4 cases; grade II, 11 cases; grade III, 10 cases; and grade IV, 7 cases; according to the 2007 WHO classification system) and four glioma cell lines (A172, U251, U373, and U87). The expression of UHRF2 mRNA was significantly lower in the grade III and grade IV groups compared with the noncancerous brain tissue group, whereas its expression was high in A172, U251, and U373 glioma cell lines. An in vitro assay was performed to investigate the functions of UHRF2. Using a lentivirus-based RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we down-regulated UHRF2 expression in the U251 glioma cell line. This down-regulation led to the inhibition of cell proliferation, an increase in cell apoptosis, and a change of cell cycle distribution, in which S stage cells decreased and G2/M stage cells increased. Our results suggest that UHRF2 may be closely related to tumorigenesis and the development of gliomas.

Identification and analysis of microRNAs in Candida albicans (Candida albicans의 마이크로RNA 동정과 분석)

  • Cho, Jin-Hyun;Lee, Heon-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1494-1499
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    • 2017
  • Oral infection due to Candida albicans is a widely recognized and frequent cause of superficial infections of the oral mucosa (oral candidiasis). Although oral candidiasis is not a life-threatening fungemia, it can cause severe problems in individuals under certain conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, small RNA molecules, which regulate the expression of other genes by inhibiting the translation of target mRNAs. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs in C. albicans and determine their possible roles in this organism. miRNA-sized small RNAs (msRNAs) were cloned in C. albicans by deep sequencing, and their secondary structures were analyzed. All the cloned msRNAs satisfied conditions required to qualify them as miRNAs. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that two of the most highly expressed C. albicans msRNAs, Ca-363 and Ca-2019, were located in the 3' untranslated region of the corticosteroid-binding protein 1 (CBP1) gene in a reverse orientation. miRNA mimics were transformed into C. albicans to investigate their RNA-inhibitory functions. RNA oligonucleotide-transformed C. albicans was then observed by fluorescent microscopy. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that these msRNAs did not inhibit CBP1 gene expression 4 hr and 8 hr after ectopic miRNA transformation. These results suggest that msRNAs in C. albicans possess an miRNA-triggered RNA interference gene-silencing function, which is distinct from that exhibited by other eukaryotic systems.

Expression of Transcription Factor FOXC2 in Cervical Cancer and Effects of Silencing on Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation

  • Zheng, Chun-Hua;Quan, Yuan;Li, Yi-Yang;Deng, Wei-Guo;Shao, Wen-Jing;Fu, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1589-1595
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) is a member of the winged helix/forkhead box (Fox) family of transcription factors. It has been suggested to regulate tumor vasculature, growth, invasion and metastasis, although it has not been studied in cervical cancer. Here, we analyzed FOXC2 expression in cervical tissues corresponding to different stages of cervical cancer development and examined its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. In addition, we examined the effects of targeting FOXC2 on the biological behavior of human cervical cancer cells. Methods: The expression of FOXC2 in normal human cervix, CIN I-III and cervical cancer was examined by immunohistochemistry and compared among the three groups and between cervical cancers with different pathological subtypes. Endogenous expression of FOXC2 was transiently knocked down in human Hela and SiHa cervical cells by siRNA, and cell viability and migration were examined by scratch and CCK8 assays, respectively. Results: In normal cervical tissue the frequency of positive staining was 25% (10/40 cases), with a staining intensity (PI) of $0.297{\pm}0.520$, in CIN was 65% (26/40cases), with a PI of $3.00{\pm}3.29$, and in cancer was 91.8% (68/74 cases), with a PI of $5.568 {\pm}3.449$. The frequency was 100% in adenocarcinoma (5/5 cases) and 91.3% in SCCs (63/69 cases). The FOXC2 positive expression rate was 88.5% in patients with cervical SCC stage I and 100% in stage II, showing significant differences compared with normal cervix and CIN. With age, pathologic differentiation degree and tumor size, FOXC2 expression showed no significant variation. On transient transfection of Hela and SiHa cells, FOXC2-siRNA inhibition rates were 76.2% and 75.7%; CCK8 results showed reduced proliferation and relative migration (in Hela cells from $64.5{\pm}3.16$ to $49.5{\pm}9.24$ and in SiHa cells from $60.1{\pm}3.05$ to $44.3{\pm}3.98$) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: FOXC2 gene expression increases with malignancy, especially with blood vessel hyperplasia and invasion degree. Targeted silencing was associated with reduced cell proliferation as well as invasion potential.

A LysM Domain-Containing Protein LtLysM1 Is Important for Vegetative Growth and Pathogenesis in Woody Plant Pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae

  • Harishchandra, Dulanjalee Lakmali;Zhang, Wei;Li, Xinghong;Chethana, Kandawatte Wedaralalage Thilini;Hyde, Kevin David;Brooks, Siraprapa;Yan, Jiye;Peng, Junbo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 2020
  • Lysin motif (LysM) proteins are reported to be necessary for the virulence and immune response suppression in many herbaceous plant pathogens, while far less is documented in woody plant pathogens. In this study, we preliminarily characterized the molecular function of a LysM protein LtLysM1 in woody plant pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Transcriptional profiles revealed that LtLysM1 is highly expressed at infectious stages, especially at 36 and 48 hours post inoculation. Amino acid sequence analyses revealed that LtLysM1 was a putative glycoprotein with 10 predicted N-glycosylation sites and one LysM domain. Pathogenicity tests showed that overexpressed transformants of LtLysM1 displayed increased virulence on grapevine shoots in comparison with that of wild type CSS-01s, and RNAi transformants of LtLysM1 exhibited significantly decreased lesion length when compared with that of wild type CSS-01s. Moreover, LtLysM1 was confirmed to be a secreted protein by a yeast signal peptide trap assay. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana together with protein immunoblotting confirmed that LtLysM1 was an N-glycosylated protein. In contrast to previously reported LysM protein Slp1 and OsCEBiP, LtLysM1 molecule did not interact with itself based on yeast two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. These results indicate that LtLysM1 is a secreted protein and functions as a critical virulence factor during the disease symptom development in woody plants.

Isolation of Myrosinase and Glutathione S-transferase Genes and Transformation of These Genes to Develop Phenylethylisothiocyanate Enriching Chinese Cabbage (배추에서 항암물질 phenylethylisothiocyanate의 다량 합성을 위한 myrosinase와 glutathione S-transferase 유전자 분리 및 이를 이용한 형질전환체 육성)

  • Park, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Su-Jin;Kim, Bo-Ryung;Woo, Eun-Teak;Lee, Ji-Sun;Han, Eun-Hyang;Lee, Youn-Hyung;Park, Young-Doo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.623-632
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    • 2011
  • To increase the anti-carcinogens phenylethylisothiocyanate (PEITC), myrosinase (MYR), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), genes related to PEITC pathway were isolated and the gene expressions were regulated by Agrobacterium transformation. Isolated cDNAs, MYR, and GST genes were 1,647 bp and 624 bp, respectively, and the protein expression was confirmed through pET system. Thereafter, we constructed a sense-oriented over-expressing myrosinase (pBMY) and RNAi down-regulated GST (pJJGST) binary vectors for the Chinese cabbage transformation. After the transformation, thirteen over-expressing transgenic Chinese cabbage plants (IMS) with pBMY and five down-regulated ones (IGA) with pJJGST were selected by PCR analysis. Selected $T_0$ transgenic plants were generated to $T_1$ plants by self-pollination. Based on the Southern blot analysis on these $T_1$ transgenic plants, 1-4 copies of T-DNA were transferred to Chinese cabbage genome. Thereafter, RNA expression level of myrosinase gene or GST gene was analyzed through real-time RT PCR of IMS, IGA, and non-transgenic inbred lines. In case of IMS lines, myrosinase gene was increased 1.03-4.25 fold and, in IGA lines, GST gene was decreased by 26.42-42.22 fold compared to non-transgenic ones, respectively. Analysis of PEITC concentrations using GC-MS it showed that some IMS lines and some IGA lines increased concentrations of PEITC up to 4.86 fold and up to 3.89 fold respectively compared to wild type. Finally in this study IMS 1, 3, 5, 12, and 15 and IGA 1, 2, and 4 were selected as developed transgenic lines with increasing quantities of anti-carcinogen PEITC.

Growth Effect of Oncorhychus masou by Recombinant Myostatin Prodomain Proteins Derived from Fish (어류 유래 마이오스타틴 프로도메인 단백질에 의한 시마연어(Oncorhychus masou) 성장효과)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Beum;Cho, Mi-Jin;Ahn, Ji-Young;Lee, Suk-Keun;Hong, Sung-Youl;Seong, Ki-Baik;Jin, Hyung-Joo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2011
  • Myostatin (MSTN) belongs to the transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ superfamily or growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8), and functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth. Previous studies in mammals have suggested that myostatin knock-out increased muscle mass and decreased fat content compared to those of the wide type. Recently, several studies on myostatin have beenconducted on the block myostatin signal pathway with myostatin antagonists and the MSTN regulation with RNAi to control myostatin function. This study was performed to analyze growth and muscle alteration of Oncorhychus masou by treatment with recombinant myostatin prodomains derived from fish. We designed myostatin prodomains derived from P. olivaceus (pMALc2x-poMSTNpro) and S. schlegeli (pMALc2x-sMSTNpro) in a pMALc2x expression vector, and then purified the recombinant proteins using affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant proteins were treated in O. masou through an immersion method. Recombinant protein treated groups did not show a significant difference in weight, protein, or lipid composition compared to the control. However, there was a difference in the average number and area for histological analyses in the muscle fiber. At twelve and twenty-two weeks from the initial treatment, there were differences in averagefiber number and area between the 0.05 mg/l treated-group and the control, but the numbers were similar to those of the control during the same time period. At twelve weeks, however, 0.2 mg/l treated-group had an increase in average fiber number and decrease in average fiber area compared to the control. At twenty-two weeks, the pMALc2x-sMSTNpro 0.2 mg/l treated-group was induced and showed a decrease in average fiber number and increase in average fiber area. The results between twelve and twenty-two weeks showed that the fiber numbers had decreased, whereas average fiberarea had increased due to sMSTNpro. It is understood that the sMSTNpro induced only hyperplasia at twelve weeks, after which it induced hypertrophy. Recombinant myostatin prodomains derived from fish may induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy in O. masou depending upon the time that has elapsed.