• Title, Summary, Keyword: RNAi

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RNA Interference in Infectious Tropical Diseases

  • Kang, Seok-Young;Hong, Young-S.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2008
  • Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into some cells or organisms results in degradation of its homologous mRNA, a process called RNA interference (RNAi). The dsRNAs are processed into short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that subsequently bind to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), causing degradation of target mRNAs. Because of this sequence-specific ability to silence target genes, RNAi has been extensively used to study gene functions and has the potential to control disease pathogens or vectors. With this promise of RNAi to control pathogens and vectors, this paper reviews the current status of RNAi in protozoans, animal parasitic helminths and disease-transmitting vectors, such as insects. Many pathogens and vectors cause severe parasitic diseases in tropical regions and it is difficult to control once the host has been invaded. Intracellularly, RNAi can be highly effective in impeding parasitic development and proliferation within the host. To fully realize its potential as a means to control tropical diseases, appropriate delivery methods for RNAi should be developed, and possible off-target effects should be minimized for specific gene suppression. RNAi can also be utilized to reduce vector competence to interfere with disease transmission, as genes critical for pathogenesis of tropical diseases are knockdowned via RNAi.

Bioinformatics Approach to Direct Target Prediction for RNAi Function and Non-specific Cosuppression in Caenorhabditis elegans (생물정보학적 접근을 통한 Caenorhabditis elegans 모델시스템의 생체내 RNAi 기능예측 및 비특이적 공동발현억제 현상 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho;Kim, Eui-Yong;Joo, Hyun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2011
  • Some computational approaches are needed for clarifying RNAi sequences, because it takes much time and endeavor that almost of RNAi sequences are verified by experimental data. Incorrectness of RNAi mechanism and other unaware factors in organism system are frequently faced with questions regarding potential use of RNAi as therapeutic applications. Our massive parallelized pair alignment scoring between dsRNA in Genebank and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in Caenorhabditis elegans Genome Sequencing Projects revealed that this provides a useful tool for the prediction of RNAi induced cosuppression details for practical use. This pair alignment scoring method using high performance computing exhibited some possibility that numerous unwanted gene silencing and cosuppression exist even at high matching scores each other. The classifying the relative higher matching score of them based on GO (Gene Ontology) system could present mapping dsRNA of C. elegans and functional roles in an applied system. Our prediction also exhibited that more than 78% of the predicted co-suppressible genes are located in the ribosomal spot of C. elegans.

Methods for environmental risk assessment of rice transgenic plants expressing small non-coding RNA (Small non-coding RNA를 발현하는 형질전환 벼의 환경위해성 평가 방법)

  • Jin, Byung Jun;Chun, Hyun Jin;Cho, Hyun Min;Lee, Su Hyeon;Choi, Cheol Woo;Jung, Wook-Hun;Baek, Dongwon;Han, Chang-deok;Kim, Min Chul
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.205-216
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    • 2019
  • Since the RNA interference (RNAi) had been discovered in many organisms, small non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing technology, including RNAi have been widely applied to analysis of gene function, as well as crop improvement. Despite the usefulness of RNAi technology, RNAi transgenic crops have various potential environmental risks, including off-target and non-target effects. In this study, we developed methods that can be effectively applied to environmental risk assessment of RNAi transgenic crops and verified these methods in 35S::dsRNAi_eGFP rice transgenic plant we generated. Off-target genes, which can be non-specifically suppressed by the expression of dsRNAi_eGFP, were predicted by using the published web tool, pssRNAit, and verified by comparing their expressions between wild-type (WT) and 35S::dsRNAi_eGFP transgenic rice. Also, we verified the non-target effects of the 35S:: dsRNAi_eGFP plant by evaluating horizontal and vertical transfer of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) produced in the 35S::dsRNAi_eGFP plant into neighboring WT rice and rhizosphere microorganisms, respectively. Our results suggested that the methods we developed, could be widely applied to various RNAi transgenic crops for their environmental risk assessment.

DNA microarray analysis of RNAi plant regulated expression of NtROS2a gene encoding cytosine DNA demethylation (시토신 탈메틸화 관련 NtROS2a 유전자 발현을 제어한 RNAi 식물의 DNA microarray 분석)

  • Choi, Jang Sun;Lee, In Hye;Jung, Yu Jin;Kang, Kwon Kyoo
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.231-239
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    • 2016
  • To study the transcript levels of epigenetically regulated genes in tobacco, we have developed a transgenic line OX1 overexpressing NtROS2a gene encoding cytosine DNA demethylation and a RNAi plant line RNAi13. It has been reported that salt- and $H_2O_2$-stress tolerance of these transgenic lines are enhanced with various phenotypic characters (Lee et al. 2015). In this paper, we conducted microarray analysis with Agilent Tobacco 4 x 44K oligo chip by using overexpression line OX1, RNAi plant line RNAi 13, and wild type plant WT. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to metabolism, nutrient supply, and various stressed were up-regulated by approximately 1.5- to 80- fold. DEGs related to co-enzymes, metabolism, and methylation functional genes were down-regulated by approximately 0.03- to 0.7- fold. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in OX1 and RNAi lines were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in WT, such as genes encoding KH domain-containing protein, MADS-box protein, and Zinc phosphodiesterase ELAC protein. On the other hand, several genes such as those encoding pentatricopeptide (PPR) repeat-containing protein, histone deacetylase HDAC3 protein, and protein kinase were decreased by approximately 0.4- to 1.0- fold. This study showed that NtROS2a gene encoding DNA glycosylase related to demethylation could regulate adaptive response of tobacco at transcriptional level.

RNA Interference in C. elegans: History, Application, and Perspectives

  • Min, Kyoeng-Woo;Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2007
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is the phenomenon of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in a sequence-specific manner. Reverse genetic approaches using RNA interference (RNAi) have become a major tool for biological researches since its discovery in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we overview how the RNAi phenomenon was discovered and how the underlying mechanism has been elucidated. We also describe and discuss how RNAi experiments can be performed and how RNAi can be used for genetic studies.

Characterization of the cloned RNA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Cloning된 효모의 RNAI 유전자의 특성에 관하여)

  • Song, Young-Hwan;Kim, Dae-Young;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 1993
  • The RNAI mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisia is a recessive and temperature sensitive lethal mutation which interferes with the production of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. However, the precise role of RNAI gene have not been revealed until yet. We have cloned rna1-1 mutant gene from rna1-1 mutant yeast strain(R49 ; trpl, ura3-52, rna1-1). The 3.4kb BglII fragment of wild type RNAI clone(81-2-6) contains whole RNAI gene. The genomic southern blotting with BglII digested R49 genomic DNA as a probe shows the unique and identical band with wild type 3.4kb BglII fragment. Therefore, We prepared partial BglII genomic library(3~4kb BglII fragments) into BamH I site of pUC19. The rna 1-1 mutant clone was screened with Digoxigenin(DIG)-lableled probe by high density colony hybridization. The 5'-flanking region of rna1-1 gene was sequenced by dideoxy chain termination method. The 5'-flanking sequence of RNAI gene contains three TATA-like sequence ; TAATA, TATA and TTTTAA at position of -67, -45, and -36 from first ATG codon respectively. The 5'-flanking region of wild type RNA I gene from ATG codon to -103nt was deleted with Bal31 exonuclease digestion, generating $pUC{\Delta}$/RNA I. After constructing $pYEP{\Delta}RNA$ I (consists of -103nt deleting RNA I gene, URA3 gene, $2{\mu}m$ rep. origin), pYEPrna1-1(consists of Xba I fragment of pUCrna1-1. URA3 gene, $2{\mu}m$ rep. origin), and pYEPRNAI. each plasmid was transformed into host strain(trpl, ura3-52, rna1-1) by electroporation, respectively. Yeast transformant carrying $pYEP{\Delta}RNA$ I did not complement the thermal sensitivity of rna1-1 gene. It means that TATA-like sequences in 5'-flanking region is not TATA sequence for transcribing RNAI gene and there may be other essential sequence in upstream region for the transcription of RNAI gene.

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Comparative Functional Analysis of the Malate Dehydrogenase(Mor2) during in vitro Maturation of the Mouse and Porcine Oocytes (체외성숙 과정 중 생쥐와 돼지 난자의 Malate Dehydrogenase(Mor2)의 기능에 대한 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa;Kim, Yun-Sun;Lee, Hyun-Seo;Kim, Yu-Nna;Lee, Kyung-Ah
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.263-272
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    • 2007
  • Contrast to mouse where its in vitro maturation rates are high without specific supplements or presence of the cumulus cells, there are some species, such as porcine, where its in vitro oocyte maturation rates are still very low. This comparative study was conducted to investigate the role of malate dehydrogenase(Mor2) during oocyte maturation by RNAi in the mouse and porcine. The Mor2 double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) was prepared speciesspecifically and microinjected into the cytoplasm of denuded germinal vesicle(GV) oocytes. Oocytes were cultured for 48 h(porcine) and 16 h(mouse) in M199 with 10% porcine follicular fluid, pyruvate, p-FSH, EGF, cystein, and estradiol-$17{\beta}$. We measured changes in oocyte morphology, maturation rates and mRNA levels after Mor2 RNAi. We confirmed gene sequence-specific knock down of Mor2 mRNA in both species after Mor2 RNAi. In contrast to our previous finding that mMor2 RNAi resulted in GV arrest in the mouse, we found that pMor2 RNAi resulted in MI arrest in denuded porcine oocytes(58%), but developed to MII(84.4%) in COCs. To determine whether this difference between mouse and porcine RNAi is due to differences in culture media, we cultured mouse oocytes in the M199 media for 16 h after mMor2 RNAi. Mouse oocytes were developed to MII stage(62%) and there was no statistical difference compared to that of non-injected(76.8%) and buffer-injected(73.3%) control groups. Therefore, we concluded that the mouse and porcine oocytes are having different metabolic systems in relation to malate dehydrogenase for oocyte maturation. This could be a basis for differences in maturation rates in vitro in two species. Further scrutinized studies on the metabolic pathways would led us in finding better culture system to improve oocyte maturation rates in vitro, especially in more challenging species like the porcine.

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Cloning of RNA1 Gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae에서 RNA1 유전자의 클로닝)

  • 송영환;고상석;이영석;강현삼
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1989
  • The temperature sensitive (ts) mutation on RNA1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents growth at restrictive temperature ($36^{\circ}C$) by accumulation of precursor tRNA, rRNA and mRNA (Hutchison et al., 1969; Shiokawa and Pogo, 1974; Hopper et al., 1978). RNA1 gene was cloned by complementation of the temperature sensitive growth defect of an rna1-1 mutant strain and identified by retransformation and concomitant loss of recombinant plasmid on non-selective condition. By deletion mapping, it was found that RNA1 gene resides within 3.5kb of BgII fragment.

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New Hairpin RNAi Vector with Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Intron for Gene Silencing in Plants

  • Lee, Gi-Ho;Lee, Gang-Seob;Park, Young-Doo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.323-332
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    • 2017
  • Homology-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing, an intrinsic mechanism of gene regulation in most eukaryotes, can be induced by anti-sense, co-suppression, or hairpin-based double-stranded RNA. Hairpin-based RNA interference (RNAi) has been applied to analyze gene function and genetically modify crops. However, RNAi vector construction usually requires high-cost cloning steps and large amounts of time, or involves methods that are protected by intellectual property rights. We describe a more effective method for generating intron-spliced RNAi constructs. To produce intron-spliced hairpin RNA, an RNAi cassette was ligated with the first intron and splicing sequences of the Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis histone deacetylase 1 gene. This method requires a single ligation of the PCR-amplified target gene to SpeI-NcoI and SacI-BglII enzyme sites to create a gene-specific silencing construct. We named the resulting binary vector system pKHi and verified its functionality by constructing a vector to silence DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE (DFR), transforming it into tobacco plants, and confirming DFR gene-silencing via PCR, RT-qPCR, and analysis of the accumulation of small interfering RNAs. Reduction of anthocyanin biosynthesis was also confirmed by analyzing flower color of the transgenic tobacco plants. This study demonstrates that small interfering RNAs generated through the pKHi vector system can efficiently silence target genes and could be used in developing genetically modified crops.

Downstream Genes Regulated by Bcl2l10 RNAi in the Mouse Oocytes

  • Kim, Eun-Ah;Kim, Kyeoung-Hwa;Lee, Hyun-Seo;Lee, Su-Yeon;Kim, Eun-Young;Seo, You-Mi;Bae, Jee-Hyeon;Lee, Kyung-Ah
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2011
  • Previously, we have shown that Bcl2l10 as a member of Bcl-2 family, key regulators of the apoptotic process, is dominantly expressed in oocytes of ovary but several member of the Bcl-2 family are not expressed in oocytes. Recent our studies had been processed about roles and regulatory mechanisms of Bcl2l10 in oocytes. Microinjection of Bcl2l10 RNAi into the cytoplasm of germinal vesicle oocytes resulted in metaphase I (MI) arrest and exhibited abnormalities in their spindles and chromosome configurations (Yoon et al., 2009). The present study was conducted to elucidate the downstream genes regulated by Bcl2l10 and signaling networks in Bcl2l10 RNAi microinjected oocytes by using microarray analysis. Surprisingly, we found that a large proportion of genes regulated by Bcl2l10 RNAi were involved in the cell cycle and actin skeletal system regulation as important upstream genes of Bcl2l10. Among the transcripts with highly significant fold changes more than 2-fold, Tpx2 and Cep192 are 16.1- and 8.2-fold down regulated respectively by Bcl2l10 RNAi. Tpx2 and Cep192 are known as cofactors that control Aurora A kinase activity and localization. Therefore, we concluded that Bcl2l10 may have important roles during oocyte meiosis as functional upstream regulator of Tpx2 and Cep192.