• Title, Summary, Keyword: RNA2

Search Result 6,616, Processing Time 0.054 seconds

Tristetraprolin Regulates Prostate Cancer Cell Growth Through Suppression of E2F1

  • Lee, Hyun Hee;Lee, Se-Ra;Leem, Sun-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.287-294
    • /
    • 2014
  • The transcription factor E2F1 is active during G1 to S transition and is involved in the cell cycle and progression. A recent study reported that increased E2F1 is associated with DNA damage and tumor development in several tissues using transgenic models. Here, we show that E2F1 expression is regulated by tristetraprolin (TTP) in prostate cancer. Overexpression of TTP decreased the stability of E2F1 mRNA and the expression level of E2F1. In contrast, inhibition of TTP using siRNA increased the E2F1 expression. E2F1 mRNA contains three AREs within the 3'UTR, and TTP destabilized a luciferase mRNA that contained the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR. Analyses of point mutants of the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR demonstrated that ARE2 was mostly responsible for the TTP-mediated destabilization of E2F1 mRNA. RNA EMSA revealed that TTP binds directly to the E2F1 mRNA 3'UTR of ARE2. Moreover, treatment with siRNA against TTP increased the proliferation of PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that E2F1 mRNA is a physiological target of TTP and suggests that TTP controls proliferation as well as migration and invasion through the regulation of E2F1 mRNA stability.

Identifying the cellular location of brain cytoplasmic 200 RNA using an RNA-recognizing antibody

  • Shin, Heegwon;Lee, Jungmin;Kim, Youngmi;Jang, Seonghui;Ohn, Takbum;Lee, Younghoon
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.50 no.6
    • /
    • pp.318-322
    • /
    • 2017
  • Brain cytoplasmic 200 RNA (BC200 RNA) is a neuron-specific non-coding RNA, implicated in the inhibition of local synaptodendritic protein synthesis, and is highly expressed in some cancer cells. Although BC200 RNA has been shown to inhibit translation in vitro, the cellular location of this inhibition is unknown. In this study, we used a BC200 RNA-recognizing antibody to identify the cellular locations of BC200 RNA in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. We observed punctate signals in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, and further discovered that BC200 RNA co-localized with the p-body decapping enzyme, DCP1A, and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E2 (hnRNP E2). The latter is a known BC200 RNA-binding partner protein and a constituent of p-bodies. This suggests that BC200 RNA is localized to p-bodies via hnRNP E2.

Role of $Mg^{2+}$ in RNA splicing of T4 td intron

  • Sung, Jung-Suk;Shin, Sook;Park, In-Kook
    • Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.160-164
    • /
    • 1995
  • The splicing activity of T4 phage td intron RNA has been examined with various Mg$^{2+}$ ions such as MGCl$_{2}$, MgS $O_{4}$ and magnesium acetate using various splicing conditions such as different incubation time and temperature. The maximum splicing of td intron RNA occurred at the concentration of 5 mM MgCl$_{2}$. Raising the Mg$^{2+}$ concentration up to 15 mM appeared to promote P2 delection mutant to overcome the loss of some splicing activity. In both wild type and mutant, a complete hydrolysis of RNA occurred at 30 mM MgCI$_{2}$ MgS $O_{4}$ and magnesium acetate exhibited the rate and pattern of RNA splicing identical to MGCI$_{2}$. The optimal splicing conditions involve the incubation of RNA with 5 mM MgCI$_{2}$ at 58 .deg.C for 15 min. The results suggest that Mg$^{2+}$ may play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of td intron RNA.n RNA.

  • PDF

Effects of spNab2 Deletion and Over-Expression on mRNA Export (분열효모에서 spNab2 유전자의 결실돌연변이 및 과발현에 대한 분석)

  • Yoon, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.45 no.4
    • /
    • pp.300-305
    • /
    • 2009
  • We constructed the deletion mutants of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe spNab2 gene that is homologous to poly(A)-binding protein NAB2 in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which plays crucial roles in mRNA 3' end formation and mRNA export from nucleus into the cytoplasm. A null mutant in an $h^+$/ $h^+$ diploid strain was constructed by replacing the spNab2-coding region with an $ura4^+$ gene using one-step gene disruption method. Tetrad analysis showed that the spNab2 is not essential for vegetative growth and mRNA export. However, over-expression of spNab2 cause the severe growth defects and intensive accumulation of poly(A) RNA in the nucleus. Also, the spNab2-GFP fusions were localized mainly in the nucleus. These results suggest that spNab2 is also involved in mRNA export out of the nucleus.

Mutational Analysis of an Essential RNA Stem-loop Structure in a Minimal RNA Substrate Specifically Cleaved by Leishmania RNA Virus 1-4 (LRV1-4) Capsid Endoribonuclease

  • Ro, Youngtae;Patterson, Jean L.
    • Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.41 no.3
    • /
    • pp.239-247
    • /
    • 2003
  • The LRV1-4 capsid protein possesses an endoribonuclease activity that is responsible for the single site-specific cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of its own viral RNA genome and the formation of a conserved stem-loop structure (stem-loop IV) in the UTR is essential for the accurate RNA cleavage by the capsid protein. To delineate the nucleotide sequences, which are essential for the correct formation of the stem-loop structure for the accurate RNA cleavage by the viral capsid protein, a wildtype minimal RNA transcript (RNA 5' 249-342) and several synthetic RNA transcripts encoding point-mutations in the stem-loop region were generated in an in vitro transcription system, and used as substrates for the RNA cleavage assay and RNase mapping studies. When the RNA 5' 249-342 transcript was subjected to RNase T1 and A mapping studies, the results showed that the predicted RNA secondary structure in the stem-loop region using FOLD analysis only existed in the presence of Mg$\^$2+/ ions, suggesting that the metal ion stabilizes the stem-loop structure of the substrate RNA in solution. When point-mutated RNA substrates were used in the RNA cleavage assay and RNase T1 mapping study, the specific nucleotide sequences in the stem-loop region were not required for the accurate RNA cleavage by the viral capsid protein, but the formation of a stem-loop like structure in a region (nucleotides from 267 to 287) stabilized by Mg$\^$2+/ ions was critical for the accurate RNA cleavage. The RNase T1 mapping and EMSA studies revealed that the Ca$\^$2+/ and Mn$\^$2+/ ions, among the reagents tested, could change the mobility of the substrate RNA 5' 249-342 on a gel similarly to that of Mg$\^$2+/ ions, but only Ca$\^$2+/ ions identically showed the stabilizing effect of Mg$\^$2+/ ions on the stem-loop structure, suggesting that binding of the metal ions (Mg$\^$2+/ or Ca$\^$2+/) onto the RNA substrate in solution causes change and stabilization of the RNA stem-loop structure, and only the substrate RNA with a rigid stem-loop structure in the essential region can be accurately cleaved by the LRV1-4 viral capsid protein.

Expression of PACT and EIF2C2, Implicated in RNAi and MicroRNA Pathways, in Various Human Cell Lines

  • Lee, Yong-Sun;Jeon, Yesu;Park, Jong-Hoon;Hwang, Deog-Su;Dutta, Anindya
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.8 no.3
    • /
    • pp.213-220
    • /
    • 2004
  • MicroRNA and siRNA (small interfering RNA), representative members of small RNA, exert their effects on target gene expression through association with protein complexes called miRNP (microRNA associated ribonucleoproteins) and RISC (RNA induced silencing complex), respectively. Although the protein complexes are yet to be fully characterized, human EIF2C2 protein has been identified as a component of both miRNP and RISC. In this report, we raised antiserum against EIF2C2 in order to begin understanding the protein complexes. An immunoblot result indicates that EIF2C2 protein is ubiquitously expressed in a variety of cell lines from human and mouse. EIF2C2 protein exists in both cellular compartments, as indicated by an immunoblot assay with a nuclear extract and a cytosolic fraction (S100 fraction) from HeLa S3 lysate. Depletion of EIF2C1 or EIF2C2 protein resulted in a decrease of microRNA, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in microRNA stability or biogenesis. We also prepared antiserum against dsRNA binding protein PACT, whose homologs in C. elegans and Drosophila are known to have a role in the RNAi (RNA interference) pathway. The expression of PACT protein was also observed in a wide range of cell lines.

RNA content of Bombyx mori egg during its development and irradiation effect on its RNA content (Part. 1) (가잠란 발육과정에 따른 RNA 함량의 변동 및 방사선이 잠란 RNA 함량에 미치는 영향 (1))

  • 김영수;이기영;최병희
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
    • /
    • v.3
    • /
    • pp.23-28
    • /
    • 1963
  • The RNA content of fertilized egg of Bombyx mori was shown a continuing great increase reaching peak at the 5th day after egg laying and a slight decrease there after. Such a change of RNA content is considered to be directly associated with the formation and development of egg embryo of silk worm. (2) The RNA content of nonfertilized egg is much less than that of fertilized one at first day of egg laying and it increased slightly until 4 th day after egg laying then decreased. (3) The RNA content of fertilized egg irradiated by gamma-ray (3,000 r) was shown a slight increase until 2nd day after irradiation, but no change was observed there after. This fact shows that irradiation suppressed the biosynthesis of RNA silk worm egg. (4) The RNA content of HCl treated silk worm egg was shown a continuing steep rise until 7 th day after the acid treat, while no change was observed in the non-treated egg. The RNA content of HCl treated egg with irradiation of gamma-ray (1,500 r), decreased until 3 rd day after irradiation in contrast to that of non-irradiated group, but it increased rapidly from 4 th day until 7 th day after acid treating.

  • PDF

Biosenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus MicroRNAs in B Cells (B 세포에서 Epstein-Barr virus microRNA들의 전사 및 성숙)

  • Kim Do Nyun;Oh Sang Taek;Lee Jae Myun;Lee Won-Keun;Lee Suk Kyeong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.15 no.6
    • /
    • pp.909-915
    • /
    • 2005
  • We investigated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which is the first virus shown to produce viral miRNAs. As expected, expression of all the reported EBV miRNAs were detected by Northen blot in an EBV-infected B cell line, B95-8; BHRF1-1, BHIU1-2, BHRF1-3, BART1, and BART2. The putative EBV pri-miRWAs and pre-miRNAs predicted from the known mature EBV miRNA sequences were detected by RT-PCR in B95-8 cells. Many animal miRNA genes exist as clusters of 2-7 genes and they are expressed polycistronically. As the EBV miRNAs are clustered in two regions of the EBV genome, we examined whether these clustered EBV miRNA genes are also expressed polycistronically. A long polycistronic transcript with the expected size (1602 bp) corresponding to the BHRF1-1~BHRF1-2~BHRF1-3 was amplified. However, any polycistronic transcript containing both BART1 and BART2 was detectable in B95-8. These results suggest that EBV miRNAs may be processed in a similar way with animal miRNAs and that some of the clustered EBV miRNAs can be transcribed polycistronically.

Molecular Miology of the Poliovirus (폴리오바이러스의 분자생물학)

  • 최원상
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.7 no.4
    • /
    • pp.392-401
    • /
    • 1997
  • The poliovirus is a small, and non-enveloped virus. The RNA genome of poliovirus is continuous, linear, and has a single open reading frame. This polyprotein precursor is cleaved proteolytically to yield mature products. Most of the cleavages occur by viral protease. The mature proteins derived from the P1 polyprotein precursor are the structural components of the viral capsid. The initial cleavage by 2A protease is indirectly involved in the cleavage of a cellular protein p220, a subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F. This cleavage leads to the shut-off of cap-dependent host cell translation, and allows poliovirus to utilize the host cell machinery exclusively for translation its own RNA, which is initiated by internal ribosome entry via a cap-independent mechanism. The functional role of the 2B, 2C and 2BC proteins are not much known. 2B, 2C, 2BC and 3CD proteins are involved in the replication complex of virus induced vesicles. All newly synthesized viral RNAs are linked with VPg. VPg is a 22 amino acid polypeptide which is derived from 3AB. The 3C and 3CD are protease and process most of the cleavage sites of the polyprotein precursor. The 3C protein is also involved in inhibition of RNA polymerase II and III mediated transcription by converting host transcription factor to an inactive form. The 3D is the RNA dependent RNA polymerase. It is known that poliovirus replication follows the general pattern of positive strand RNA virus. Plus strand RNA is transcribed into complementary minus strand RNA that, in turn, is transcribed for the synthesis of plus strand RNA is transcribed into complementary minus strand RNA that, in turn, is transcribed for the synthesis of plus strand RNA strands. Poliovirus RNA synthesis occurs in a membranous environment but how the template RNA and proteins required for RNA replication assemble in the membrane is not much known. The RNA requirements for the encapsidation of the poliovirus genome (packaging signal) are totally unknown. The poliovirus infection cycle lasts approximately 6 hours.

  • PDF

In vitro Selection of RNA Aptamers which Bind to Escherichia coli tRNAVal (대장균 tRNAVal에 결합하는 RNA Aptamer들의 시험관내 선별)

  • Jo, Bong Rae
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.46 no.2
    • /
    • pp.157-163
    • /
    • 2002
  • To identify RNA motifs interacting with $tRNA^{Val}$, a SELEX(Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) was applied. Random DNA library which contains a region of ran-domized 48-mer oligonucleotide flanked by conserved sequ ence primers was transcribed into RNA pool using T7 RNA polymerase and RNA aptamers were selected with $tRNA^{Val}$ -immobilized affinity column through 14 rounds of SELEX. Some of the resulting aptamers contained a consensus sequence similar to the sequence in the loop regions of three rRNAs; C43GAAC47 sequence of 5S rRNA, G1491AAGU1495, G1379UUCC1383 sequence of 16S rRNA and C1064UUAG1068, G2110UGUA2114, C2480GACGG2485, A2600CAGU2604 sequence of 23S rRNA. These results suggest that $tRNA^{Val}$ can interact with 5S rRNA, 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA with variety in ribosome.