• Title, Summary, Keyword: RNA binding specificities

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RNA Binding Specificities of Double-Stranded RNA Binding Protein (RBF) as an Inhibitor of PRK Kinase (PKR인산화효소 억제인자인 이중선RNA결합단백질 (RBF)의 RNA결합특이성)

  • 박희성;최장원
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 1996
  • A double-stranded RNA binding factor (RBF), characterized as an inhibitor of PKR kinase in our previous study, was evaluated for its RNA binding specificities by RNA gel electrophoretic mobility shift analysis and membrane filter binding assay, RBF displayed affinities for a broad range of RNAs including viral RNAs and synthetic RNAs consiting of stem and loop structures. GC-rich RNA stem helices as short as 11 bp are suggested to represent the minimal binding motif for RBF. RBF binding to all the natural RNAs tested was reversible by poly(I): poly(C) addition, but E. coli 5S RNA was inefficient.

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Novel TGACG-Motif Binding Protein of Soybean

  • Hong, Jong-Chan
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 1996
  • The promoters of a variety of plant genes are characterized by the presence of TGACG motif-containing sequences. These genes often exhibit quite diverse expression characteristics and in many case the TGACG-motif has been demonstrated to be essential for expression. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a soybean cDNA that encodes a novel basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, STF1, that specifically interacts with Hex (TGACGTGG) and CRE (TGACGTCA) sequences. This protein contains a bZIP motif at C-teminus and an acidic domain at N-terminus. DNA binding specificities, heterodimer formation, and expression characteristics of STF1 were compared with a soybean TGA1 protein, STGA1. The soybean STF1 interacts with TGACG-sequences containing an ACGT core, while STGA1 requires TGACG as a sufficient binding sequence. The flanking sequences to the TGACG motif affected DNA binding of STF1 siginificantly. The STF1 mRNA is found mainly in dark grown soybean seedling with higher expression in apical and elongating hypocotyl, while STGA1 mRNA is highly abundant in roots of light grown plants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that STF1 heterodimerzes with G-box binding factorss (GBFs) which was not observed with TGA1. The fact that STF1 possesses both distinct DNA binding speficities and heterodimerization properties suggest that STF1 belongs to a new family of plant bZIP proteins which recognize the Hex/CRE motif.

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Anti-DNA Autoantibodies from on MRL/Ipr Mouse

  • Park, Jeong-Soo;Kim, Young-Tai;Lee, Chan-Hee;Youn, Jung-Koo;Jang, Young-Ju
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.371-375
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    • 1998
  • Twenty-one monoclonal anti-DNA autoantilndies were produced by fusing spleen cells from an autoimmune MRL/lpr mouse with SP2/0 myeloma cells. Hybridomas generated by the fusions were chosen for cloning on the basis of DNA binding by supernatant antibody. Each monoclonal antibody was purified to homogeneity and analyzed for the heavy and light chain isotypes and the binding specificity for single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, and RNA. Sequence specificities and isoelectric points of the antibodies were also examined. All of the antibodies were lgG and tended to bind to both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with a preference for the double-stranded form. Some of them also bound to RNA. Isoelectric points of the antibodies were shown to be high. The antibodies described in this report have characteristics of pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies.

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Screening and Development of DNA Aptamers Specific to Several Oral Pathogens

  • Park, Jung-Pyo;Shin, Hye Joo;Park, Suk-Gyun;Oh, Hee-Kyun;Choi, Choong-Ho;Park, Hong-Ju;Kook, Min-Suk;Ohk, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.393-398
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    • 2015
  • Aptamers are composed of single-stranded oilgonucleotides that can selectively bind desired molecules. It has been reported that RNA or DNA could act as not only a genetic messenger but also a catalyst in metabolic pathways. RNA aptamers (average sizes 40-50 bp) are smaller than antibodies and have strong binding capacities to target molecules, similar to antigenantibody interactions. Once an aptamer was selected, it can be readily produced in large quantities at low cost. The objectives of this study are to screen and develop aptamers specific to oral pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial cell pellet was fixed with formaldehyde as a target molecule for the screening of aptamers. The SELEX method was used for the screening of aptamers and a modified western blot analysis was used to verify their specificities. Through SELEX, 40 kinds of aptamers were selected and the specificity of the aptamers to the bacterial cells was confirmed by modified western blot analysis. Through the SELEX method, 40 aptamers that specifically bind to oral pathogens were screened and isolated. The aptamers showed possibility as effective candidates for the detection agents of oral infections.

Roles of the Insulin-like Growth Factor System in the Reproductive Function;Uterine Connection (Insulin-like Growth Factor Systems의 생식기능에서의 역할;자궁편)

  • Lee, Chul-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.247-268
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    • 1996
  • It has been known for a long time that gonadotropins and steroid hormones play a pivotal role in a series of reproductive biological phenomena including the maturation of ovarian follicles and oocytes, ovulation and implantation, maintenance of pregnancy and fetal growth & development, parturition and mammary development and lactation. Recent investigations, however, have elucidated that in addition to these classic hormones, multiple growth factors also are involved in these phenomena. Most growth factors in reproductive organs mediate the actions of gonadotropins and steroid hormones or synergize with them in an autocrine/paracrine manner. The insulin-like growth factor(IGF) system, which is one of the most actively investigated areas lately in the reproductive organs, has been found to have important roles in a wide gamut of reproductive phenomena. In the present communication, published literature pertaining to the intrauterine IGF system will be reviewed preceded by general information of the IGF system. The IGF family comprises of IGF-I & IGF-II ligands, two types of IGF receptors and six classes of IGF-binding proteins(IGFBPs) that are known to date. IGF-I and IGF-II peptides, which are structurally homologous to proinsulin, possess the insulin-like activity including the stimulatory effect of glucose and amino acid transport. Besides, IGFs as mitogens stimulate cell division, and also play a role in cellular differentiation and functions in a variety of cell lines. IGFs are expressed mainly in the liver and messenchymal cells, and act on almost all types of tissues in an autocrine/paracrine as well as endocrine mode. There are two types of IGF receptors. Type I IGF receptors, which are tyrosine kinase receptors having high-affinity for IGF-I and IGF-II, mediate almost all the IGF actions that are described above. Type II IGF receptors or IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptors have two distinct binding sites; the IGF-II binding site exhibits a high affinity only for IGF-II. The principal role of the type II IGF receptor is to destroy IGF-II by targeting the ligand to the lysosome. IGFs in biological fluids are mostly bound to IGFBP. IGFBPs, in general, are IGF storage/carrier proteins or modulators of IGF actions; however, as for distinct roles for individual IGFBPs, only limited information is available. IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions under most in vitro situations, seemingly because affinities of IGFBPs for IGFs are greater than those of IGF receptors. How IGF is released from IGFBP to reach IGF receptors is not known; however, various IGFBP protease activities that are present in blood and interstitial fluids are believed to play an important role in the process of IGF release from the IGFBP. According to latest reports, there is evidence that under certain in vitro circumstances, IGFBP-1, -3, -5 have their own biological activities independent of the IGF. This may add another dimension of complexity of the already complicated IGF system. Messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins of the IGF family members are expressed in the uterine tissue and conceptus of the primates, rodents and farm animals to play important roles in growth and development of the uterus and fetus. Expression of the uterine IGF system is regulated by gonadal hormones and local regulatory substances with temporal and spatial specificities. Locally expressed IGFs and IGFBPs act on the uterine tissue in an autocrine/paracrine manner, or are secreted into the uterine lumen to participate in conceptus growth and development. Conceptus also expresses the IGF system beginning from the peri-implantation period. When an IGF family member is expressed in the conceptus, however, is determined by the presence or absence of maternally inherited mRNAs, genetic programming of the conceptus itself and an interaction with the maternal tissue. The site of IGF action also follows temporal (physiological status) and spatial specificities. These facts that expression of the IGF system is temporally and spatially regulated support indirectly a hypothesis that IGFs play a role in conceptus growth and development. Uterine and conceptus-derived IGFs stimulate cell division and differentiation, glucose and amino acid transport, general protein synthesis and the biosynthesis of mammotropic hormones including placental lactogen and prolactin, and also play a role in steroidogenesis. The suggested role for IGFs in conceptus growth and development has been proven by the result of IGF-I, IGF-II or IGF receptor gene disruption(targeting) of murine embryos by the homologous recombination technique. Mice carrying a null mutation for IGF-I and/or IGF-II or type I IGF receptor undergo delayed prenatal and postnatal growth and development with 30-60% normal weights at birth. Moreover, mice lacking the type I IGF receptor or IGF-I plus IGF-II die soon after birth. Intrauterine IGFBPs generally are believed to sequester IGF ligands within the uterus or to play a role of negative regulators of IGF actions by inhibiting IGF binding to cognate receptors. However, when it is taken into account that IGFBP-1 is expressed and secreted in primate uteri in amounts assessedly far exceeding those of local IGFs and that IGFBP-1 is one of the major secretory proteins of the primate decidua, the possibility that this IGFBP may have its own biological activity independent of IGF cannot be excluded. Evidently, elucidating the exact role of each IGFBP is an essential step into understanding the whole IGF system. As such, further research in this area is awaited with a lot of anticipation and attention.

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