• Title, Summary, Keyword: R&D Paradox

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The Effects of Open Innovation on Innovation Productivity: Focusing on External Knowledge Search (기업의 개방형 혁신이 혁신 생산성에 미치는 영향: 외부 지식 탐색활동을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jong-Seon;Park, Ji-Hoon;Bae, Zong-Tae
    • Knowledge Management Research
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-72
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    • 2016
  • Extant research on firm innovation productivity is limited in measuring the innovation productivity, in which they measured firm innovation productivity by using either inputs or outputs of innovation. The present study complemented the extant research by employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to measure firm innovation productivity. Furthermore, this paper examined the effects of firms' external knowledge search, as one of open innovation practices, on firm innovation productivity, for open innovation activities are regarded as an influencing factor on firm innovation productivity in the previous literatures. Using the data of the Korean Innovation Survey (KIS) of manufacturing industries conducted in 2008, this study developed hypotheses in which we considered not only two dimensions of external knowledge search (breadth and depth) but also two subtypes of external knowledge search (market-driven and science-driven). The results found that searching deeply and market-driven search are positively related to firm innovation productivity, but science-driven search is somewhat negatively related to firm innovation productivity. Furthermore, market-driven search can mitigate the negative effect of science-driven search on innovation productivity.

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A theoretical study on Determinants of National Competitive Advantage (산업의 국제경쟁력 결정요인에 관한 이론적 관찰)

  • 이학헌;민성규
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Navigation
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.49-69
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    • 1995
  • What is the national competitive power\ulcorner What are the determinants of national competitive advantage\ulcorner In order to find these problems, this study was initiated theoretically through the international trade theory and international managerial strategic theory. The flow of studies, in connection with these competitive advantage, come into industries competitive advantage from national competitive advantage. It is understood that the flow of studies is based on the change of paradigm about the international industry environment. Today, the international industry environment has been changed into vigorous situation with the new trade system such as globalization, UR negotiation, WTO system instead of GATT. Among these environments, all enterprises in any industries should try to enhance their benefit, income profits and develop their management strategy, because it is essential for them to keep and make a profit in order to be competitive against all other rivaling enterprises. According to researchers and the ages of history, the concept and determinants of competitive advantage have been dissimiliar as followings. 1) Theory of absolute advantage : Absolute Product Cost. 2) Theory of comparative advantage : Comparative Product Cost. 3) Theory of reciprocal demand : the Reciprocal Demand Structure. 4) Theory of Hechsher-Ohlin : Factor Endowment. 5) Paradox of Leontief : the Quality of Factor Endowment. 6) Theory of technological gap : R & D. 7) Technological gap model : The Technological Gap. 8) Theory of the product life cycle : Product Life Cycle. 9) Christensen's study : Firm's character & manager's character. 10) Monopolistic Advantage Theories : Monopolistic Advantage 11) Electic theory : Ownership, location and internalization specific advantages. 12) Theory of value chain : Cost advantage, Differentiation, Focus. However all these theories have the limit of illustration regarding today's competitive situation, the Porter's theory shows well the determinants of competitive advantage with competitive strategy. Therefore, the analysis of the competitive advantage for maritime industry should be studied by the determinants of competitive advantage of nations

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When Dose Losses of Maternal Lymphocytes Response to Trophoblast Antigen or Alloantigen Occur in Women with a History of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion? (반복유산을 경험한 환자에서 임신중 태반항원과 동종항원에 노출된 모체 림프구면역반응은 언제부터 소실되나?)

  • Choi, Bum-Chae;Hill, Joseph A.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 1998
  • The maintenance of a viable pregnancy has long been viewed as an immunological paradox. The deveolping embryo and trophoblast are immunologically foreign to the maternal immune system due to their maternally inherited genes products and tissue-specific differentiation antigens (Hill & Anderson, 1988). Therefore, speculation has arisen that spontaneous abortion may be caused by impaired maternal immune tolerance to the semiallogenic conceptus (Hill, 1990). Loss of recall antigen has been reported in immunosuppressed transplant recipients and is associated with graft survival (Muluk et al., 1991; Schulik et al., 1994). Progesterone $(10^{-5}M)$ has immunosuppressive capabilities (Szekeres-Bartho et al., 1985). Previous study showed that fertile women, but not women with unexplained recurrent abortion (URA), lose their immune response to recall antigens when pregnant (Bermas & Hill, 1997). Therefore, we hypothesized that immunosuppressive doses of progesterone may affect proliferative response of lymphocytes to trophoblast antigen and alloantigen. Proliferative responses using $^3H$-thymidine ($^3H$-TdR) incorporation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to the irradiated allogeneic periperal blood mononuclear cells as alloantigen, trophoblast extract and Flu as recall antigen, and PHA as mitogen were serially checked in 9 women who had experienced unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Progesterone vaginal suppositories (100mg b.i.d; Utrogestan, Organon) beginning 3 days after ovulation were given to 9 women with unexplained RSA who had prior evidence of Th1 immunity to trophoblast. We checked proliferation responses to conception cycle before and after progesterone supplementation once a week through the first 7 weeks of pregnancy. All patients of alloantigen and PHA had a positive proliferation response that occmed in the baseline phase. But 4 out of 9 patients (44.4%) of trophoblast antigen and Flu antigen had a positive proliferative response. The suppression of proliferation response to each antigen were started after proliferative phase and during pregnancy cycles. Our data demonstrated that since in vivo progesterone treated PBMCs suppressed more T-lymphocyte activation and $^3H$-TdR incorporation compare to PBMCs, which are not influenced by progesterone. This data suggested that it might be influenced by immunosuppressive effect of progesterone. In conclusion, progesterone may play an important immunological role in regulating local immune response in the fetal-placental unit. Furthermore, in the 9 women given progesterone during a conception cycle, Only two (22%) repeat pregnancy losses occured in these 9 women despite loss of antigen responsiveness (one chemical pregnancy loss and one loss at 8 weeks of growth which was karyotyped as a Trisomy 4). These finding suggested that pregnancy loss due to fetal aneuploidy is not associated with immunological phenomena.

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