• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantization Model

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The Design of Optimal Filters in Vector-Quantized Subband Codecs (벡터양자화된 부대역 코덱에서 최적필터의 구현)

  • 지인호
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2000
  • Subband coding is to divide the signal frequency band into a set of uncorrelated frequency bands by filtering and then to encode each of these subbands using a bit allocation rationale matched to the signal energy in that subband. The actual coding of the subband signal can be done using waveform encoding techniques such as PCM, DPCM and vector quantizer(VQ) in order to obtain higher data compression. Most researchers have focused on the error in the quantizer, but not on the overall reconstruction error and its dependence on the filter bank. This paper provides a thorough analysis of subband codecs and further development of optimum filter bank design using vector quantizer. We compute the mean squared reconstruction error(MSE) which depends on N the number of entries in each code book, k the length of each code word, and on the filter bank coefficients. We form this MSE measure in terms of the equivalent quantization model and find the optimum FIR filter coefficients for each channel in the M-band structure for a given bit rate, given filter length, and given input signal correlation model. Specific design examples are worked out for 4-tap filter in 2-band paraunitary filter bank structure. These optimum paraunitary filter coefficients are obtained by using Monte Carlo simulation. We expect that the results of this work could be contributed to study on the optimum design of subband codecs using vector quantizer.

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An improvement in FGS coding scheme for high quality scalability (고화질 확장성을 위한 FGS 코딩 구조의 개선)

  • Boo, Hee-Hyung;Kim, Sung-Ho
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartB
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    • v.18B no.5
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 2011
  • FGS (fine granularity scalability) supporting scalability in MPEG-4 Part 2 is a scalable video coding scheme that provides bit-rate adaptation to varying network bandwidth thereby achieving of its optimal video quality. In this paper, we proposed FGS coding scheme which performs one more bit-plane coding for residue signal occured in the enhancement-layer of the basic FGS coding scheme. The experiment evaluated in terms of video quality scalability of the proposed FGS coding scheme by comparing with FGS coding scheme of the MPEG-4 verification model (VM-FGS). The comparison was conducted by analysis of PSNR values of three tested video sequences. The results showed that when using rate control algorithm VM5+, the proposed FGS coding scheme obtained Y, U, V PSNR of 0.4 dB, 9.4 dB, 9 dB averagely higher and when using fixed QP value 17, obtained Y, U, V PSNR of 4.61 dB, 20.21 dB, 16.56 dB averagely higher than the existing VM-FGS. From results, we found that the proposed FGS coding scheme has higher video quality scalability to be able to achieve video quality from minimum to maximum than VM-FGS.

Frame-Layer H.264 Rate Control for Scene-Change Video at Low Bit Rate (저 비트율 장면 전환 영상에 대한 향상된 H.264 프레임 단위 데이터율 제어 알고리즘)

  • Lee, Chang-Hyun;Jung, Yun-Ho;Kim, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SD
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2007
  • An abrupt scene-change frame is one that is hardly correlated with the previous frames. In that case, because an intra-coded frame has less distortion than an inter-coded one, almost all macroblocks are encoded in intra mode. This breaks up the rate control flow and increases the number of bits used. Since the reference software for H.264 takes no special action for a scene-change frame, several studies have been conducted to solve the problem using the quadratic R-D model. However, since this model is more suitable for inter frames, the existing schemes are unsuitable for computing the QP of the scene-change intra frame. In this paper, an improved rate control scheme accounting for the characteristics of intra coding is proposed for scene-change frames. The proposed scheme was validated using 16 test sequences. The results showed that the proposed scheme performed better than the existing H.264 rate control schemes. The PSNR was improved by an average of 0.4-0.6 dB and a maximum of 1.1-1.6 dB. The PSNR fluctuation was also in proved by an average of 18.6 %.

An Effective of Rate Control for Scene Change in H.264/AVC (장면전환에 효율적인 H.264/AVC 비트율 제어 기법)

  • Son, Nam-Rye;Shin, Yoon-Jeong;Lee, Guee-Sang
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.26-39
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    • 2007
  • In recent years, rate control is an important technique in real time video communication applications using H.264/AVC. Many existing rate control algorithms employ the quadratic rate-distortion model, which is determine the target bits for each P frame. In this paper, a new rate control algorithm for transmission of H.264/AVC video bit stream through CBR(Constant Bit Rate) channel is proposed. The proposed algorithm predicts an adaptive QP(Quantization Parameter) for improving video distortion, due to high motion and abruptly scene change, which target bit rate and MAD(Mean of Absolute Difference) for current frame considering image complexity variance between previous and current frames. Additionally, it uses frame skip technique to maintain bit stream within a manageable range and protect buffer from overflow or underflow. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives a quality improvement of about 0.5dB when compared to previous rate control algorithm. Also our proposed algorithm encodes the video sequences with less frame skipping compared to the existing rate control for H.264/AVC.

Reliability-Based Design Optimization Using Enhanced Pearson System (개선된 피어슨 시스템을 이용한 신뢰성기반 최적설계)

  • Kim, Tae-Kyun;Lee, Tae-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.125-130
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    • 2011
  • Since conventional optimization that is classified as a deterministic method does not consider the uncertainty involved in a modeling or manufacturing process, an optimum design is often determined to be on the boundaries of the feasible region of constraints. Reliability-based design optimization is a method for obtaining a solution by minimizing the objective function while satisfying the reliability constraints. This method includes an optimization process and a reliability analysis that facilitates the quantization of the uncertainties related to design variables. Moment-based reliability analysis is a method for calculating the reliability of a system on the basis of statistical moments. In general, on the basis of these statistical moments, the Pearson system estimates seven types of distributions and determines the reliability of the system. However, it is technically difficult to practically consider the Pearson Type IV distribution. In this study, we propose an enhanced Pearson Type IV distribution based on a kriging model and validate the accuracy of the enhanced Pearson Type IV distribution by comparing it with a Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, reliability-based design optimization is performed for a system with type IV distribution by using the proposed method.

Improved SIM Algorithm for Contents-based Image Retrieval (내용 기반 이미지 검색을 위한 개선된 SIM 방법)

  • Kim, Kwang-Baek
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2009
  • Contents-based image retrieval methods are in general more objective and effective than text-based image retrieval algorithms since they use color and texture in search and avoid annotating all images for search. SIM(Self-organizing Image browsing Map) is one of contents-based image retrieval algorithms that uses only browsable mapping results obtained by SOM(Self Organizing Map). However, SOM may have an error in selecting the right BMU in learning phase if there are similar nodes with distorted color information due to the intensity of light or objects' movements in the image. Such images may be mapped into other grouping nodes thus the search rate could be decreased by this effect. In this paper, we propose an improved SIM that uses HSV color model in extracting image features with color quantization. In order to avoid unexpected learning error mentioned above, our SOM consists of two layers. In learning phase, SOM layer 1 has the color feature vectors as input. After learning SOM Layer 1, the connection weights of this layer become the input of SOM Layer 2 and re-learning occurs. With this multi-layered SOM learning, we can avoid mapping errors among similar nodes of different color information. In search, we put the query image vector into SOM layer 2 and select nodes of SOM layer 1 that connects with chosen BMU of SOM layer 2. In experiment, we verified that the proposed SIM was better than the original SIM and avoid mapping error effectively.

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A Correlation Analysis between Land Surface Temperature and NDVI in Kunsan City using Landsat 7 TM/ETM+ Satellite Images (Landsat 7 TM/ETM+ 위성영상을 이용한 군산지역 지표 온도와 NDVI에 대한 상관분석)

  • Lee, Hong-Ro;Kim, Hyung-Moo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 2005
  • Four time points of the fractional area data during the 15 years of the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of NDVl of the Kunsan city Chollabuk_do, Korea located beneath the Yellow sea coast, are observed and analyzed their correlations for the intention to detect the changes of urban land cover. As long as the effective contributions of satellite images in the continuous monitoring of the wide area for wide range of time period, Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ artificial satellite images, acquisited over the Kunsan city area, are surveyed by the compared calibration after quantization and classification of the deviations between TM and ETM+ images substituted approved error correction thresholds such as gains and biases or offsets. This experiment and research applied Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ artificial satellite images in change detection of urban land cover in urbanized Kunsan city, then detected strong and proportional correlation relationship between the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of NDVI which exceeded R=(+)0.9478, so the proposed Correlation Analysis Model between the highest group of land surface temperature and the lowest group of NDVI will be able to give proof an effective suitability to the land city change detection monitoring.

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A Development of Automatic Lineament Extraction Algorithm from Landsat TM images for Geological Applications (지질학적 활용을 위한 Landsat TM 자료의 자동화된 선구조 추출 알고리즘의 개발)

  • 원중선;김상완;민경덕;이영훈
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.175-195
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    • 1998
  • Automatic lineament extraction algorithms had been developed by various researches for geological purpose using remotely sensed data. However, most of them are designed for a certain topographic model, for instance rugged mountainous region or flat basin. Most of common topographic characteristic in Korea is a mountainous region along with alluvial plain, and consequently it is difficult to apply previous algorithms directly to this area. A new algorithm of automatic lineament extraction from remotely sensed images is developed in this study specifically for geological applications. An algorithm, named as DSTA(Dynamic Segment Tracing Algorithm), is developed to produce binary image composed of linear component and non-linear component. The proposed algorithm effectively reduces the look direction bias associated with sun's azimuth angle and the noise in the low contrast region by utilizing a dynamic sub window. This algorithm can successfully accomodate lineaments in the alluvial plain as well as mountainous region. Two additional algorithms for estimating the individual lineament vector, named as ALEHHT(Automatic Lineament Extraction by Hierarchical Hough Transform) and ALEGHT(Automatic Lineament Extraction by Generalized Hough Transform) which are merging operation steps through the Hierarchical Hough transform and Generalized Hough transform respectively, are also developed to generate geological lineaments. The merging operation proposed in this study is consisted of three parameters: the angle between two lines($\delta$$\beta$), the perpendicular distance($(d_ij)$), and the distance between midpoints of lines(dn). The test result of the developed algorithm using Landsat TM image demonstrates that lineaments in alluvial plain as well as in rugged mountain is extremely well extracted. Even the lineaments parallel to sun's azimuth angle are also well detected by this approach. Further study is, however, required to accommodate the effect of quantization interval(droh) parameter in ALEGHT for optimization.

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