• Title/Summary/Keyword: Quantity-per-unit

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A Study on the Standard of Cost Estimation in the Construction of Pavement and Maintenance (도로포장 및 유지공사 표준품셈 개정 방법에 대한 연구)

  • Jung, Dae-Kwon;Tae, Yong-Ho;Ahn, Bang-Ryul;Cho, Yoon-Ho
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2009
  • In cost estimation of construction, several methods including quantity-per-unit costing, job costing, unit cost estimation and lumpsum estimation are being utilized in Korea. Among them, a Quantity-per-unit Costing Method is used as a standard of cost estimation in public and private works. This paper presents the realistic job-costing method on all road construction tasks through statistical analyses with field survey data to solve the problems induced by the existing quantity-per-unit costing method. Furthermore, it was found that the newly developed job costing method is able to produce a simple costing procedure and a more actual construction cost estimation by a case study, which was performed to compare particular construction costs produced by two different methods, existing quantity-per-unit costing and newly developed job costing. These methods is compared by Case-study about sub-base. In the case of Job costing method, the estimate is shorter than the other case about 50% and can make up for the weak point about instrument in the current Standard of cost estimation. And it can be depict by Job Costing method about progress of work for using by a plan about construction management.

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Comparative Study of Cost Estimate System in Landscape Architectural Construction - Comparison of Unit Price between Actual Construction Cost and Standard Quantity per Unit - (조경공사 적산방식의 비교연구 - 실적공사비와 표준품셈의 단가비교 -)

  • Jung, Un-Soo;Choi, Key-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.97-111
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    • 2012
  • This study aims to find a proper construction cost calculation method by comparing unit prices of cost estimate in landscape construction among other public ordering construction projects. There were 7 out of 12 items from the actual work cost in the first half of 2011 were compared. The 12 items were classified as landscape Architectural construction and the 7 items were the approximate standard. As applied construction types, the comparable 35 items out of the 80 actual work cost items applied to 5 sites were compared to the unit price of the standard quantity per unit in March 2011, which was the approximate standard. Actual construction rate of the 7 items in the category of landscape sector was 104.86% for each item and 92.09% as a total construction cost. The high actual construction rate was caused by the high rate of seed spray depending on the status of applying rocks. However, there were more fundamental reasons for the cost generated from aslope treatment for grass and seed spray. So, it requires more detailed regulations on the modification factors for each soil type, the standard and needs to improve theillogical standard quantity per unit system. Actual construction rate of the 35 items in the applied sectors of civil engineering and architecture was 78.65% for each item and 71.31% (70.17%) as a total construction cost. This shows that actual unit cost cannot reflect actual cost structurally and standard quantity per unit system lacks practicality in terms of construction due to thelabor force. 85.1~91.2 % actual construction rate announced by the Ministry of Land and Maritime Affairs referred to the newly switched items. So the result was estimated as actual construction rate. This requires supplementation after verification in order to make the actual work cost produce at a proper rate. Also, standard quantity per unit system needs complementation with these actual data and so on.

A Experimental Study on Property of Matters of Traditional Starch Lime as Eco-Friendly Plaster Material (친환경 미장재료로서 전통 수회(水灰)의 물성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Cheul-Woo;Lim, Nam-Gi;Lee, Kweon-Yeong
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.47-54
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    • 2014
  • The study aims at securing basic data for developing Starch lime, one of traditional construction material from the era of Chosun Dynasty, as eco-friendly plaster material, which is applicable to contemporary buildings, by mixing Starch lime and checking its property of matters. The results of experiments after historical research and selection of mix ratio are as follows: For viscosity and softness of dough before hardening after initial mix, it was excellent without workability affected by both mixing method of Yeonggeon-euigwe and field mixture. For setting time, mixing of Yeonggeon-euigwe seems to be very inferior for the contemporary construction process. And in the quantity per unit mixture only, it cannot expect moisture-proofness and waterproofness. Therefore if a construction is done according to the quantity per unit mixture, there will be a plenty of problems. For increasing adhesive hardness of Starch lime as adhesive material for laying traditional bricks and reducing its cracks after hardening, referring to the method according to field mixture seems to secure higher quality. Therefore, in order to develop eco-friendly material for the contemporary buildings, it requires new mixture method through reflecting Yeonggeon-euigwe and field mixture.

The Estimating Method of Construction Workable-quantity per Unit Time for Tub Grinder (이동식 임목파쇄기 시공능력 산정 개선방안)

  • Ahn, Bnag Ryul;Tae, Yong Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • 2012.05a
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    • pp.169-171
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    • 2012
  • Although work-efficiency of construction machinery is a critical factor for estimating its workable-quantity per unit time, the coefficient figure table presented in the Poom-Sam that is used for Construction Cost Estimation of public sectors in Korea is very subjective for practical usage. In order to suggest objective work-coefficient table for a Tub Grinder, domestic and overseas documentary records were investigated and on-going construction sites were also visited. The research found that the table can be revised by means of detailing down by several factors. The research will be the foundation for applying the rapid development of Construction Equipment and technology to the appropriate cost estimations and the ground work of related studies.

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A Study on the Improvement of Depreciation Management for Construction Equipment Considering Economic Efficiency (경제성에 의한 건설중장비 감가상각관리 개선)

  • Lee, Yongsu
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.32 no.4D
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 2012
  • Construction equipment has applied to depreciation over the years, however, the price index for construction equipment is not properly reflected in existing quantity per unit and the local tax law. Thus, this study shows the analysis of the corporate tax law, the local tax law and business accounting standards, characteristics of the domestic depreciation system and depreciation methods, and the capital recovery factor of construction equipment applying the theory for economic efficiency. It also presents cases of depreciation on the basis of quantity per unit and tax law using straight-line depreciation method and declining balance method. It is proposed that the relations of the application system of permissible period for construction equipment and the existing system be explained and the application system of permissible period for construction equipment be imposed. Furthermore, it proposes the development of depreciation tables of construction equipment monthly expenses based on the domestic price index and applications. In addition of that, it proposes the analysis of pros and cons of the methods suggested and application limits of the study and subsequent improvement plans. This study should reflect more rational and objective reality in quantity per unit and tax law.

A Study on the Development of Work-Crew based Daily-Productivity for Representative B.O.Q Item in Road Project (도로공사 대표공종의 생산성 정보 개발에 대한 연구)

  • Seo, Ji-Hyeong;Park, Hyung-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.42-53
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    • 2011
  • This study is to present a method of compiling consistently accurate construction cost estimates in minimum of time. There are two kind of applications for estimating system based on quantity-per-unit and the daily work-crew. The former system is still applied 45% as a estimating method to construction job site by the second half of 2010. However, it is necessary for quantity-per-unit to complement the defect of standard integrating specification and improve the integrating method to the various construction conditions. The later system is intended to represent a standard or basic core which can be adopted in many type of construction estimating used across the wide variety of construction in advanced countries. In this study daily work-crew based on productivity is applied to the representative B.O.Q Item in road project. These results are compared to productivity of Japan and U.S.A estimated under the similar circumstances.

Productivity Analysis on the Standard Quantity-Per-Unit Costing Method and Work Crew Combination Method : Focused on Non-Vibration Mass Excavation Method (무진동굴착공법의 일위대가방식과 작업조방식의 생산성 비교 분석)

  • Lee, Dong Wook;Cho, Hong Jun;Lee, Keun Jo;Kim, Nam-Sik
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.31 no.3D
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    • pp.457-468
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    • 2011
  • Recently, the non-vibration mass excavation method is used on sewage pipes and road construction sites in Jeju. However, a construction cost estimation based on the unit quantity does not provide a proper unit price. In this study, a comparison of the productivity of the standard quantity-per-unit costing method and the one of the work crew combination method was made based on the site monitoring of the non-vibration mass excavation method that is used in construction sites near Jeju. For this, data of 35 sites were collected: a regression equation was derived from the 30 data, and verification was carried out through the remaining 5 data. The analysis concluded that a day's workload is $16.43m^3$. In addition, a combination of the equipment considering the site conditions and the amount of labor, which varies with the number of work crew was obtained in order to estimate the construction cost of the work crew combination method. The construction cost was calculated based on the one-day workload ($16.43m^3$) derived from the regression analysis. The cost then was analyzed and compared with the standard quantity-per-unit costing method.

Analysis on the Application of Estimation Criteria for Construction Cost of Masonry and Demolition (돌쌓기 및 헐기 공사의 공사비산정기준 적용실태 분석)

  • Oh, Jae-Hoon;An, Bang-Yul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Building Construction Conference
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    • 2019.05a
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    • pp.234-235
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    • 2019
  • In the stacking and pitching items of the stone masonry and demolition process presented by 2018's standard of estimate, 7 estimating standards are presented according to the depth of masonry stone, and it is presented that the quantity per unit increases as the depth of masonry stone grows. As a result of analyzing the application status in the site, it is shown that 2 or 3 stones are mainly used according to the stone sizes regardless of the depth of masonry stone, and that as the size of the stone becomes larger, the quantity per unit decreases due to the size per square meter(㎡). Also, in most of sites, machine construction is mainly carried out by excavators with clampers attached to them. Therefore, in the 2019's application standard of estimate, it is analyzed that the size is simplified down to 3 sizes reflecting the site application status and that it is revised as a standard reflecting the result that as the stone size becomes bigger, the productivity increases.

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The Fact-finding and Analysis of the Environmental Management Cost in Construction Projects (건설공사의 환경관리비용 계상 및 운용 실태 분석)

  • Choi, Min-Soo;Kang, Woon-San
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.6 no.5 s.27
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    • pp.186-192
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to find the reality of environmental management cost in construction projects and to suggest some policies in order that owners appropriate the environmental management cost reasonably in the construction budget for reducing the environmental pollution at job sites. We surveyed the actual state of appropriating and expending the environmental management cost over 122 construction sites. According to the results of the survey, while the appropriated rate of the environmental management cost was 0.59% of the total construction cost. the expended rate reached at 0.94%. When examining the antipollution facilities which were operated in job sites, the investment for equipment against air-pollution such as tire washer, dust-proof device was relatively higher than other antipollution equipment. As the method appropriating the environmental management cost, we concluded that a quantity-per-unit costing method is more reasonable than appropriating at a fixed rate of total construction cost considering that there is little correlation between total construction cost and the environmental management cost. To do so, antipollution facilities that must be examined at a design or estimation stage of a construction project should be prescribed by the law. Moreover, referenced cost data for the quantity-per-unit costing should be prepared and officially published.

Technique for Estimating $CO_2$ and $H_2O$ Exchange between the Atmosphere and the Biosphere : Eddy Covariance Method (광합성과 증발산의 미기상학적 측정기술)

  • Wonsik Kim
    • Proceedings of The Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Conference
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    • 2003.09a
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    • pp.115-128
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    • 2003
  • o What is the flux \ulcorner Flux is the transfer of a quantity per unit area per unit time. The quantities are mass, heat, moisture, momentum and pollutant in micrometeorology. Kinematic flux (Fluid). The reduction in wind speed due to frictional drag transfers momentum from the atmosphere to the surface, creating turbulence that mixes the air and transports heat and water from the surface into the lower atmosphere. (omitted)

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