• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantitative health objectives

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Consistency issues in quantitative safety goals of nuclear power plants in Korea

  • Kim, Ji Suk;Kim, Man Cheol
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.1758-1764
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    • 2019
  • As the safety level of nuclear power plants (NPPs) relates to the safety of individuals, society, and the environment, it is important to establish NPP safety goals. In Korea, two quantitative health objectives and one large release frequency (LRF) criterion were formally set as quantitative safety goals for NPPs by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission in 2016. The risks of prompt and cancer fatalities from NPPs should be less than 0.1% of the overall risk, and the frequency of nuclear accidents releasing more than 100 TBq of Cs-137 should not exceed 1E-06 per reactor year. This paper reviews the hierarchical structure of safety goals in Korea, its relationship with those of other countries, and the relationships among safety goals and subsidiary criteria like core damage frequency and large early release frequency. By analyzing the effect of the release of 100 TBq of Cs-137 via consequence analysis codes in eight different accident scenarios, it was shown that meeting the LRF criterion results in negligible prompt fatalities in the surrounding area. Hence, the LRF criterion dominates the safety goals for Korean NPPs. Safety goals must be consistent with national policy, international standards, and the goals of other counties.

Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

  • Kim, Sungjune;Hong, Seokpyo;Ahn, Kilsoo;Gong, Sungyong
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.30 no.sup
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    • pp.3.1-3.11
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    • 2015
  • Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies.

A Comparative Study of Healthy City Project Evaluation in U.K. and Korea: Focusing on Liverpool City and Wonju City (영국과 한국의 건강도시 사업 평가방법 비교 연구: 리버풀과 원주시를 중심으로)

  • Kang, Shin Hee;Nam, Eun Woo;Moon, Ji Young
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.93-103
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was to compare two healthy cities, Liverpool in England and Wonju in Korea, which evaluated healthy city projects and to reorient evaluation strategy which fits into Korean Healthy cities. Methods: Comparatives analysis was used by reviewing documents, healthy city plan and evaluation report, of two cities. Results: Healthy city projects in two cities, fifteen programs were identical items among twenty-seven but there were differences in seven items for Liverpool and five items for Wonju. In Liverpool evaluation was done by a stakeholder group called Liverpool Local Involvement Network(LINK), while in Wonju by Yonsei Healthy City Research Center. The evaluation tool was two types; quantitative and qualitative analysis. Liverpool mostly used qualitative and added quantitative, vice versa in Wonju. Conclusions: Evaluation plan for Healthy city projects need to be made in the first phase of the projects, instead of in the end. Moreover, it is important to include stakeholder in conducting qualitative analysis for unquantifiable evidence of effectiveness, as well as quantitative analysis.

Current Status and Challenges of Research Methology for Health Promotion Research: Focusing on Research Funded by the Korea Health Promotion Foundation, 2005-2011 (건강증진 연구방법의 현황과 과제 : 한국건강증진재단 연구과제(2005-2011년)를 중심으로)

  • An, Ji-Young;Kim, Kwang Kee;JeKarl, Jung;Moon, Hyunjung;Cha, Sun Kyung;Jeong, Eunha
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To investigate the current status and challenges of research methodology for health promotion research (HPR), this study analyzed HPR funded by the Korea Health Promotion Foundation (KHPF) from 2005 to 2011. Methods: All of the research reports funded by the KHPF for the period were included in this study. From the literature reviewed, a framework of this study was developed. Results: Quantitative research was 67.7%. The most common quantitative research design was cross-sectional survey (46.6%). Only 7.3% of quantitative research employed theoretical frameworks, and more than a half (53.4%) used primary data. For qualitative research (2.8%), most cases were conducted together with quantitative research. No qualitative research employed a philosophical underpinning. Only 7.0% of research received consent form, and 2.1% was approved by institutional review board. The results of this study indicate that there is a need to employ various research methods to study key concepts of HPR more in-depth. Efforts should be made to reduce statistical errors and also employ newly introduced statistical methods. Conclusions: Overall, a lack of scientific evidence from the HPR reports analyzed in this study was observed. Therefore, the KHPF and the academia should work together to solve the problems indicated from this study.

An Analytical Study of the Development, Improvement, and Direction of the Korean Society of School Health (한국학교보건학회의 발전과정과 전망에 관한 논고)

  • Kim, Young Im
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 1998
  • The Korean society of School Health was opened to research school health, publish a Journal, survey activities, educate members, and exchange information etc This society has operated these services actively since 1987. The objectives of this study are (1) To review the quantitative development process of the society of school health (2) To review the qualitative development process of the society. (3) To suggest improvement and new directions of the society The quantitative aspects include number of members, number of conferences, and number of journals published; the qualitative aspects deal with comprehension and sufficiency of these activities A literature review method was used for this study The results are as follows. (1) The number of members increased to 987 from 200 (2) The number of conferences total led 15 at an average of 1 5 per year since 1987 (3) The journal of the Korean society of school health was published a total of 20 times at an average of 2 per year. (4) Many health behavior and student-oriented articles were published (5) There are few activities that exchange international information, suply data to members, and investigate the opinions of society concerning school health Consequently, positive activities concerning major school health themes, research concerning the health rights of teachers in a school environment, and a more systematic management of members should be developed. Also, it is necessary to develope an in-service education program for those same members.

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Comparison of quantitative detection of periodontal pathogens before and after scaling by real-time polymerase chain reaction

  • Kim, Young-Sun;Lee, Jung-Hwa;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.1063-1071
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the quantitative detection of periodontal pathogens before and after scaling by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Participants were voluntarily recruited at D university, and saliva samples were extracted before and after scaling. Multiple real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to analyze characteristics and the amount of nine kinds of periodontal pathogens; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, and Eikenella corrodens. Results: After scaling, most periodontal pathogens except Eikenella corrodens were significantly decreased in all subjects(p<0.05). In addition, the percentage of microorganisms associated with disease, the microorganism risk index of periodontitis and the prevalence of red complex, orange complex, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was also significantly reduced after scaling(p<0.05). Conclusions: Scaling decreased in the amount of major periodontal pathogens and periodontitis prevalence rate.

THE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM OF RIVER HEALTH FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

  • Carolyn G. Palmer;Jang, Suk-Hwan
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.259-267
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    • 2002
  • South Africa has developed a policy and law that calls and provides for the equitable and sustainable use of water resources. Sustainable resource use is dependent on effective resource protection. Rivers are the most important freshwater resources in the country, and there is a focus on developing and applying methods to quantify what rivers need in terms of flow and water quality. These quantified and descriptive objectives are then related to specified levels of ecological health in a classification system. This paper provides an overview of an integrated and systematic methodology, where, fer each river, and each river reach, the natural condition and the present ecological condition are described, and a level/class of ecosystem health is selected. The class will define long term management goals. This procedure requires each ecosystem component to be quantified, starting with the abiotic template. A modified flow regime is modelled for each ecosystem health class, and the resultant fluvial geomorphology and hydraulic habitats are described. Then the water chemistry is described, and the water quality changes that are likely to occur as a consequence of altered flows are predicted. Finally, the responses to the stress imposed on the biota (fish, invertebrates and vegetation) by modified flow and water quality are predicted. All of the predicted responses are translated into descriptive and/or quantitative management objectives. The paper concludes with the recognition of active method development, and the enormous challenge of applying the methods, implementing the law, and achieving river protection and sustainable resource-use.

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Reliability and Validity of the Korean Translation of Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: A Preliminary Study

  • Park, Subin;Won, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Ji Hyun;Yoon, Soyoung;Park, Eun Jin;Kim, Yeni
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.80-85
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: We aimed to assess the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and validity of the Korean version of the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT). Methods: The Korean version of the Q-CHAT and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 1.5-5 were completed by parents of 24 toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 80 unselected toddlers and preschoolers. Parents of the ASD group also completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores were obtained from medical records. Results: The ASD group scored higher on the Q-CHAT than the unselected group. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Q-CHAT was 0.658, and test-retest reliability was calculated to be 0.836. The estimated area under the curve was 0.793. The total scores of the Q-CHAT in the ASD group demonstrated significant positive correlations with findings regarding pervasive development problems in the CBCL, SCQ, and CARS. A total score of 33.5 may be a useful cutoff point to use when identifying toddlers at risk of ASD. Conclusion: The Korean version of the Q-CHAT has good reliability and validity and can be used as a screening tool in order to identify toddlers and preschool children at risk of ASD.

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms in dental unit water (치과용수 미생물의 정량적 및 정성적 분석)

  • Lee, Seung-Hee;Park, Ji-Hye;Sakong, Joon
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of microorganisms by quantitative and qualitative analysis of microorganisms before and after flushing of dental unit water. Methods: This study was conducted on the supply of high-speed handpieces, ultrasonic scalers, and air-water syringes, which sterilized from 10 dental unit chairs at a dental clinic in South Gyeongsang Province. The number of bacterial communities was calculated by collection before and after flushing (2, 4, and 6 minutes). Results: The mean number of bacteria in the handpiece water before flushing was $27,208CFU/m{\ell}$; 2 minutes after flushing, $2,180CFU/m{\ell}$; 4 minutes after flushing, $900CFU/m{\ell}$; and 6 minutes after flushing, $412CFU/m{\ell}$. Conclusions: To minimize the risk of cross-infection and intra-clinic infection in dental clinics, education and water quality monitoring may be needed.

Study on the Enumeration of Legionella in Environmental Water Samples Using Real-time PCR (Real-time PCR을 이용한 환경 중 물 시료의 레지오넬라 분석법 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Hee;Park, Myoung-Ki;Kim, Yun-Sung;Yun, Hee-Jeong;Lee, Chang-Hee;Jeong, Ah-Yong;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.511-519
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The standard method for the enumeration of environmental Legionella is culturing, which has several disadvantages, including long incubation and poor sensitivity. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of real-time PCR and to improve the standard method. Methods: In 200 environmental water samples, a real-time PCR and culture were conducted to detect and quantify Legionella. Using with the results of the survey, we compared the real-time PCR with the culture. Results: Each real-time PCR assay had 100% specificity and excellent sensitivity (5 GU/reaction). In the culture, 36 samples were positive and 164 samples were negative. Based on the results of the culture, real-time PCR showed a high negative predictive value of 99%, 35 samples were true positive, 105 samples were true negative, 59 samples were false positive and one sample was a false negative. Quantitative analysis of the two methods indicated a weak linear correlation ($r^2=0.29$, $r^2=0.61$, respectively). Conclusions: Although it is difficult to directly apply quantitative analysis results of real-time PCR in the enumeration of environmental Legionella, it can be used as a complementary means of culturing to rapidly screen negative samples and to improve the accuracy of diagnosis.