• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantitative fluctuation

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Modified Tei index in patients with Kawasaki disease by tissue doppler imaging (가와사키병 환아에서 Tissue doppler imaging으로 측정한 modified Tei 지수)

  • Kim, Hee Jung;Cha, Jung Hwa;Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.1202-1210
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : A quantitative and easily measured Doppler index of combined systolic and diastolic ventricular myocardial performance (Tei index) was recently proposed as a potentially useful predictor of global myocardial performance. However, presence of heart rate fluctuation makes it unreliable. Therefore, the modified Tei index was introduced by using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) which enables measuring contraction and relaxation velocities from myocardium simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the modified Tei index in the evaluation of global cardiac function. Methods : Forty eight patients in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) were studied. These patients were divided into two groups according to the modified Tei index. TDI and conventional echocardiography were performed. Systolic velocity, systolic displacement, E' velocity, E' displacement, A' velocity and A' displacement were measured at the base, mid-septum and the apex of the interventricular septum. Ejection fraction (EF), Tei index and modified Tei index were estimated. Results : Modified Tei index correlated negatively with systolic displacement, E' displacement and A' displacement at the base. Modified Tei index correlated positively with ESR and CRP. EF and Tei index were normal in KD patients. Conclusion : Modified Tei index is a safe, feasible and sensitive index for evaluating global ventricular functions in spite of normal EF and Tei index in KD.

Effects of Sediment Harvesting on Bacterial Community Structure (골재채취가 세균군집구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Ji-Eun;Lee, Young-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.172-178
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    • 2006
  • The dynamics of bacterial populations belonging to $\alpha\;\beta\;\gamma-subclass$ proteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium (CF) group and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in water column of the middle reaches of Nakdong River depending on sediment harvesting were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) at sediment harvesting site (near the Seongju bridge) and non-sediment harvesting site (near the Gumi bridge). In addition, some physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, $chi-\alpha$ and electrical conductivity were measured. Regarding the number of total cell counts, cells stained by DAPI, there were no substantial quantitative differences between both sites, but those fluctuation at sediment Harvesting site was greater. And also the ratios of CFgroup and SRB to total cell counts tend to increase at sediment harvesting site with higher $chl-\alpha$, maybe due to the resuspension of sediment into water column. But the total proportion of all determined bacterial populations to total cell counts were greater at non-sediment harvesting site, compared with those at sediment harvesting site. Since the detectibility of bacteria by FISH depends on their metabolic activity, those lower proportion at the sediment harvesting site implies that sediment harvesting may lead to malfunction of those bacteria respect to nutrient recycling and subsequently negative effects on microbial food web.

Application of Real Option based Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Reflecting Operational Flexibility in Solar Heating Systems (실물옵션 기반의 LCC분석을 통한 태양열난방시스템의 운영유연성 반영 방안)

  • Choi, Ju-Yeong;Kim, Hyeong-Bin;Son, Myung-Jin;Hyun, Chang-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 2015
  • With the rise of the interest in a renewable system, the importance of the Life Cycle Cost Analysis(LCCA), an economic evaluation tool, has been increasing. However, there is an inevitable gap between a real cost and an estimation from LCCA because of the uncertainty of the external environment in real world. As the input variables in an analysis, such as a real discount rate and an energy cost, ares subject to change as time goes by, strategic decision on the current operating system is made depending on the real cost. Current economic evaluation approaches have treated only the fluctuation of input variables without consideration of the flexibility in operation, which has consequently led to the impairment on the reliability of LCCA. Therefore, new approach needs to be proposed to consider both the uncertainty of input variables and operational flexibility. To address this issue, the application of the Real Option to LCCA is presented in this study. Through a case analysis of LCCA of a solar heating system, the limits and current status of LCCA are identified. As a result, quantitative presentation of strategic decisions has been added in the new approach to implement the traditional approach.

A quantitative analysis of marker compounds in single herb extracts by the standard of KHP (KHP 기준에 의한 보험용 단미엑스산제의 지표성분함량 확인연구)

  • Park, Sang Jun;Kim, So Hyung;Kim, Kyeong Seok;Kim, Hyo Seon;Lee, A Yeong;Kim, Ho Kyoung;Kim, Yun-Kyung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : Since single extract powders was released at 1987, the insurance fee has not been changed, but the price of raw material has been increasing. According to this, Pharmaceutical company couldn't invest on quality of the product, so, the quality of single extracts went down and lost the consumer's trust. We checked the contents of marker ingredients in single extract thereby to recover the reliability of insurance-covered herbal preparations. Methods : we bought total twelve products of eight different single extracts of two main pharmaceutical companies among total 65 kinds of single extract powder stipulated in KHP (The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia) monograph III at Jan. 2013. Assays of selected single extract powders are performed by KHP regulation. And we surveyed price fluctuation of relevant herb raw materials from 2005 to 2012. Results : Among twelve products, eight single extract powders were suitable by the KHP regulation. But four products didn't reach the content amount of KHP. Marker contents in the single extracts product of Pueraria Root, Licorice, Peony root and Scutellaria Root of A company were 70%, 1%, 23.7% and 75.1%, respectively. Conclusions : We can acertain whether there's a quality problem in the insurance-covered single extract powders. But, A company is no longer producing these improper single extract powders. As a medicine, single extract powders needs to be strictly quality controlled by the company, and regularly monitored by the KFDA.

Estimation of Sediment Discharge Controlled by Sediment-filled Check-dam in a Forested Catchment (산림유역의 만사 사방댐에 의한 토사유출 조절 효과 추정)

  • Seo, Jung Il;Chun, Kun Woo;Song, Dong Geun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.3
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    • pp.321-329
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    • 2016
  • To estimate the sediment discharge controlled by sediment-filled check-dam and thereby enhancing factor for check-dam design and dredging criteria, we surveyed slope failures and stream-bed fluctuation caused by geomorphic disturbances (i.e., landslides and debris flows) in Inje, Gangwondo. In general, check-dams play roles for restraining and controlling sediment discharge within a section under the design equilibrium gradient and a section under the design flood gradient, respectively. The results in this study showed same pattern: that is, the closed type check-dam, which has a design restraint sediment discharge of $2,111m^3$, estimated to control a sediment discharge of $3,996m^3$ in the stream section within 250 m right upper area immediately after the disturbances occurred in 2006. As a result, a design control sediment discharge of the check-dam was larger than its design restraint sediment discharge. This represents that the check-dam is still having an own function for controlling sediment discharge although it exceeded the designed capacity by the sediment discharged from upstream during the disturbances. Our finding suggests that the sediment discharge controlling of check-dam may need to be evaluated separately from its sediment discharge restraint. Currently, the country, however, does not consider the design control (or restraint) sediment discharges, based on the actual field survey, as criteria for check-dam design and/or dredging work. Therefore, the accumulation of the quantitative data is required to support that check-dam has functions for both restraining and controlling sediment discharge. This would be a way to develop our erosion control technology to the scientific technology equipped with a more objective and systematic aspects.

Variation of zooplankton Distribution in the Seomjin River Estuary with Respect to Season and Salinity Gradients (계절과 염분 변화에 따른 섬진강 하구역 동물플랑크톤의 분포 변화)

  • Park, Chul;Lee, Pyung-Gang;Yang, Sung-Ryull
    • The Sea
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2002
  • The seasonal variation in species composition and abundance distribution of zooplankton was studied in the Seomjin river estuary along the salinity gradients. In this estuary, marine taxa predominated in all seasons and very limited number of freshwater species appeared. The total abundances showed a seasonal fluctuation. The highest total abundance appeared in spring with over 3,000 individuals/m$^3$. In summer, the high abundance was sustained although it decreased a little. The abundance was minimal in fall with about 500 individuals/m$^3$. When the study area was divided into three salinity regimes, oligohaline (salinity less than 5 psu), mesohaline (5${\sim}$18 psu), and polyhaline zone (over 18 psu), the zone of high abundance as well as the composition of zooplankton community in each salinity regime changed seasonally. In fall, marine copepods predominated in oligohaline zone while marine species other than crustaceans dominated in polyhaline zone. However, in winter copepods predominated in all area. In spring and summer, holozoic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans dominated in higher salinity regimes. We listed major copepod species of each salinity regime for each season with the ranges of water temperatures (T) and salinities (S) of their occurrence. T, S's of maximum abundances of those major copepod species were also reported. The observed very wide tolerance ranges of major copepod species for salinity suggested that the concept of 'indicator species' should be used in quantitative context rather than qualitative.

Analysis of Changes in Forest According to Urban Expansion Pattern and Morphological Features - Focused on Seoul and Daegu - (도시의 공간 확장 및 형태적 특징에 따른 산림녹지의 변화 분석 - 서울, 대구를 중심으로 -)

  • Ryu, Jieun;Hwang, Jinhoo;Lee, Junhee;Chung, Hye-In;Lee, Kyung-il;Choi, Yu-Young;Zhu, Yongyan;Sung, Min-Jun;Jang, Raeik;Sung, Hyun-Chan;Jeon, Seongwoo;Kang, Jin-Yung
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.33 no.5_3
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    • pp.835-854
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    • 2017
  • Government regulations and policies are important means of restraining the indiscreet expansion of urban areas. According to the standards from those means, it is clear that the fluctuation of forest green proportion encroached by the increase of urban space is obvious. In this study, we interpreted the changes of urban areas as well as the green ones owing to the urban expansion by the decades from 1996, with focusing on the cities of Seoul and Daegu highly developed in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to analyze the spatial expansion and morphological characteristics of urban land cover using not only satellite imageries (1996, 2006, 2016). but also the urban expansion intensity index (UEII) and GUIDOS program. Ultimately, this study is to compare the changes in the rate of forests due to urban expansions annually analyzed based on areas of forest elevation, slope, and the area of single forest patch. In Seoul, the expansion begun from urban space to suburban areas was comparatively rapid, which led the forest fragmentation and the gradual decline of the single patch. However, when it comes to DEM (Digital elevation model) and slope above a certain standard, by the development regulations, there was little decrease in area by anthropogenic developments. The city of Daegu has increased at a slow speed since 1996 in urban and suburban areas, whereas green forests have greatly increased through green forest conservation campaigns. In this way, as to the government policies and regulations, the quantitative and morphological expansion of cities owing to development could be controlled and forest spaces could be preserved as well. Therefore, regulations and policies by the government should be appropriately utilized for sustainable cities.

A Study on the Construction Cost Risk through Analyzing the Actual Cost of Public Apartment (공공주택 실적공사비 분석을 통한 공사비 리스크에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Woo-Sung;Go, Seong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 2011
  • Construction business, which is complex and long-term business, requires accurate estimation and verification in construction costs and payment procedure from project planning to the completion of construction phase. And more importantly, it is necessary to investigate and determine the risk factors related to construction costs during the entire process including design planning, construction drawings, and quantity calculating. But, currently, it is not seem to be adequate to cope with the risk and increased construction costs against the operational budget in terms of actual costs when screening and estimating the bidding cost of public apartment. Therefore, this study selected and analyzed 40 sites' report of construction completion account from 2004 to 2010 focused on the adequacy on the modification of contract and design planning and on the complication of the budget in the beginning of the project. This study deducted various risk causes and results by analyzing actual costs according to year, architectural area, region, construction cost and sale/lease classification. We could find out construction risk according to annual variation of government policy and economy, and also deducted risk items by construction characteristic according to region and architectural area. Study result, we first found out the problems of lowest price award system according to the construction costs. The weight of the cost increase risk was analyzed that subcontract and material costs are very high. Roof and tile work were analyzed highly in subcontract cost risk and reinforcing bar and cement were analyzed highly in material cost risk, among direct construction cost. Finally, this study results could be used in comparing the categories of the construction costs made by specific construction process, belonging to the construction costs, with the operational budget made in the beginning of the project that can enable to grasp unpredictable risks over the construction costs and making quantitative analysis for it through analyzing the range of fluctuation and variations led by the fluctuations in the actual construction costs.

Survey Studies on Serviceable Sericultural Communities in Korea (養蠶適地選定에 관한 調査硏究)

  • Choe, Byong-Hee;Gwon, Yeong-Ha;Mun, Jae-Yu;Baek, Hyeon-Jun;Lee, Geon-Yeong;Lee, Sang-Pung;Lee, Won-Ju;Im, Su-Ho;Jo, Dong-Ok;Kim, Seong-Ho;Hwang, Hong-Do;Kim, Gi-Seok;Kim, Su-Gyeong;Go, Nak-Yong;So, Byeong-Ju;Lee, Geon-U;Lee, Jae-Ok;Im, Dong-Rak;Jo, Jin-Gu
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.34-43
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    • 1983
  • These studies have been carried out to find better locations for sericultural service regardless of the international silk market fluctuation in Korea. In order to acieve the purpose, various investigations and analyses have been carried out for more than four hundred sericultural communities to find out the main factors which caused to decrease in cocoon production in spite of a gloomy past silk market. Now, we believe that we have set up some fundamental guide lines in developing sound serviceable sericultural communities in Korea in case the government accepts the written advices, and the results obtained are as follows: 1. The Korean sericulture has been very prosperous from the 60's to the 70's. In 1976 the cocoon production was at its peak, reaching 41,704M/T from which its decline took place with annual averages of 18.5% for total cocoon production and 16.4% for mulberry field. These figures represent a quantitative decrease to one-third of the total amount in 1976. Since then, the Korean sericulture had continuously suffered from a shortage of raw silk resulting in a slow development of sericulture. At present, a steady development through all possible measures is great importance. 2. The downfall of the korean sericulture resulted from two factors of such as the external, which led to the decline in the price of raw silk at the international market and restrain of import and, the internal, resulting in the little increase of cocoon price and a comparatively lower benefits from the sericulture than from other cash crops. 3. The already established sericultural zone collapsed and then reorganized with the outstanding regional specialization so the decline in total cocoon production in the country. Based on the agricultural regions, 1980 cocoon production was very stable in the mountaineaus area of the east-south which used with intercropping. In this area there was small decline of 33% compare with that of the 1979, and with 70% decline in the dry field farming area of Kangwon Do. In an administrative districtwise, six counties beginning with Sanchnung county of Kyungsang Nam Do, showed less than 20% decline of cocoon production, sixteen counties beginning with Samchuck county of Kangwon Do marked above 80% decrease of cocoon production. In the smaller unit area-wise, there was a big difference among them. twenty-five myons rather increased and a hundrd fourty-three myons decreased above 80% of it. 4. The cocoon production was positively correlated with the decreasing percentage of cocoon production per household. It was also affected by the ratio of the mulberry field area to the total cultivated area per household and cocoon productivity per 10a. 5. Four hundred sixty-four villages in the seventeen counties were surveyed on the basis of farm management and techniques concerned ('80/'79), and then the results were evaluated by using of computer. These results are summarized as foolows: (1) Cocoon production per household There was no difference among the agricultural regions in cocoon production. The cocoon production per household in the comparatively stable villages increased from 100.8kg in 1979 to 122kg in 1981. Cocoon yield in the stable villages decreased by 20% of '81/'79. The cocoon production per house hold in while that of the unstable villages decreased by more than 40% from 102.9kg in 1979 to 82kg in 1981. (2) Cocoon yield per 10a mulberry field The cocoon yield per 10a was higher in the plain area than in the mountaineous area. The stable villages had an average of 73.4kg cocoon yield/10a while the unstabe ones had only an average of 55kg. (3) Adoption the mulberry branch rearing method The branch rearing method was more popular in the plain area than in the mountainous area. In the stable vilages adopted 24.2% in spring and 16.7% in autumn of 1979. In 1981 it shwed increases of 34.3% and 10.1% in the two seasons respectivly. However, the unstable villages showed 13.3% and 126% in both seasons, respectively. (4) The patterns of the combined management system in the sericultural farming The popular management system in the sericultural from was combined with rice and other cash crops, showing 55% of the total households surveyed. Fourteen percent of the households combined the management system with rice and other cash crops and 14% of the households combined with rice only. The villages wich earned less than 20% of the total income from the sericulture reached 81% of the total houscholds indicating that they were still far beyond a complete combination system. (5) Damage by agricultural chemicals The damage caused by agricultural chemicals was mainly due to the protection of rice against insectpests and diseases in the plain areas and took place mostly in the autumn season. The chemicals applied was 65% of Iiquid and 35% of powder forms and 35% of damage was from granulat form of the chemicals. The use of the granular chemicals was low because of high cost.

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