• Title, Summary, Keyword: Quantitative fluctuation

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The Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Uppermost Sediments of the Lake Hovsgol, North Mongolia : It's Implication to the Paleoenvironmental Changes

  • Tumurhuu, D.;Narantsetseg, Ts.;Ouynchimeg, Ts.
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.3-3
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    • 2004
  • One short core with length of 146cm(HB-107, at coordinates of $N51^{\circ}$11'37.5";$E100^{\circ}$24'45.6", from 229m water depth was subject of the present study. The sub-samples of the core were analyzed for the water contents (WC%), biogenic silica, identification of the main phases, grain size distribution, geochemistry and some physical properties of sediment(Wet density and Magnetic susceptibility) with aims of recording palaeo-environmental changes in Northem Mongolia. The evaluation of the geochemical and mineralogical proxies on palaeo-climated and palaeo-environmental changes are based on comparison to the behvior of biogenic silica through core, as later one had been showed itself, as good indicator of the climate and environmental fluctuation. Age model of the investigating core based on previously C 14 dated core HB105 taken from the central part of the Hobsgol Lake and the result had been published elsewhere. The core consists of two litological varieties : upper diatomaceous silt, lower clay. According to the age model the upper diatomaceous silt formed during the Holocene, lower caly-during the late Pleistocene glacial period. The geochemistry and phase identification analysis on the core samples are resulted in determining main minerals that form the bottom sediments and their geochemistry. The main include quartz, felspar, muscovite, clinochlore, amphibole and carbonate phase(dolomite and calcite). Through the core not only occur the relative quantitative changes of the main phases, but also happen that the carbonate phase completely disappear in diatomaceous silt. This is believed to be related to the lake water salinity changes, which occurred during the trassition period from Pleistocene glacial-to the Holocene interglacial. These abrupt changes of the mineralogy have been clearly traced in geochemistry of sediments, specially in calcium concentration, which is high in lower clay and low in upper diatomaceous silt. That means, geochemistry and mineralogy of the bottom sediments can be used as proxy data on palaeo-climate and palaeo-environmental changes.

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Adaptive Input Traffic Prediction Scheme for Proportional Delay Differentiation in Next-Generation Networks (차세대 네트워크에서 상대적 지연 차별화를 위한 적응형 입력 트래픽 예측 방식)

  • Paik, Jung-Hoon
    • Convergence Security Journal
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, an algorithm that provisions proportional differentiation of packet delays is proposed with an objective for enhancing quality of service (QoS) in future packet networks. It features an adaptive scheme that adjusts the target delay every time slot to compensate the deviation from the target delay which is caused by the prediction error on the traffic to be arrived in the next time slot. It predicts the traffic to be arrived at the beginning of a time slot and measures the actual arrived traffic at the end of the time slot. The difference between them is utilized to the delay control operation for the next time slot to offset it. As it compensates the prediction error continuously, it shows superior adaptability to the bursty traffic as well as the exponential rate traffic. It is demonstrated through simulations that the algorithm meets the quantitative delay bounds and shows superiority to the traffic fluctuation in comparison with the conventional non-adaptive mechanism. The algorithm is implemented with VHDL on a Xilinx Spartan XC3S1500 FPGA and the performance is verified under the test board based on the XPC860P CPU.

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The Expression Patterns of Connexin Isoforms in the Rat Caput Epididymis During Postnatal Development

  • Han, Su-Yong;Lee, Ki-Ho
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2013
  • Intercellular interactions are important for the proper development and regulation of tissue function. This is especially necessary in the epididymis, a part of male reproductive tract where sperm become mature and acquire their fertilizing capacity. The caput region of the epididymis consists of several types of cells, including principal, basal, and apical cells. Direct intercellular communication is thus required to precisely regulate the functions of the caput epididymis. In this regard, connexin (Cx) is a molecule that forms channels, which allow the direct exchange of small molecules between cells, enabling intercellular communication. In this study, the expression of Cx isoforms in the caput epididymis at different postnatal ages was determined by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine of 13 Cx isoforms were detected. The transcript levels of Cx30.3, 31, 31.1, 32, and 40 were highest at 45 days of age, while the expression of Cx43 and 45 gradually decreased with age. A substantial fluctuation of Cx26 expression was detected, with significant decreases before and during puberty, followed by a transient increase at adult-hood and rapid decreases at an old age. A significant increase in Cx37 transcript was observed at 25 days of age, followed by gradual decreases at adult and old ages. These results indicate the significant differential expression of various Cx isoforms in the caput epididymis during postnatal development. It further suggests that the functional regulation and developmental maturation of the caput epididymis are highly related to the postnatal age-related differential expression of Cx isoforms.

Analysis stages of anesthesia with Bispectrum Coherence and DFA algorithm of the EEG (뇌파신호의 바이스펙트럼 Coherence와 DFA 알고리듬을 이용한 마취단계 분석)

  • Ye, Soo-young;Eum, Sang-hee
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1471-1476
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    • 2015
  • Due to the anesthesia process is inappropriate on the operation, awakening state was appeared. To prevent the state, it is necessary to monitor the patients by measuring the depth of anesthesia. In this study, we investigate the possibility of the development of actual surgery available quantitative indicators. The DFA which is included the correlation property of the EEG is used to analysis the depth of anesthesia and bispctrum index. In the results, at the pre-operation, the peak of bispectrum was widely distributed, DFA value was decreased. At the during operation, bispectrum was concentrically appeared in the low frequency area. At the post operation, bispectrum and DFA was both returned to the pre-operation state. We confirmed to be close correlation between the peaks of the bispectrum and DFA value.

Tonality Design for Sound Quality Evaluation in Printer (프린터 음질평가를 위한 순음도 설계)

  • Kim, Eui-Youl;Lee, Young-Jun;Lee, Sang-Kwon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.318-327
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    • 2012
  • The operating sound radiated from a laser printer includes tonal noise components caused by the rotating mechanical parts such as gear, shaft, motor, fan, etc. The negative effects of the tonal noise components need to be considered in the process of developing a sound quality index for the quantitative evaluation of the emotional satisfaction in terms of psycho-acoustics. However, in a previous paper, it was confirmed that the Aures tonality did not have enough correlation with the results of jury evaluation. The sound quality index based on loudness, articulation index, fluctuation strength has a little problem in considering the effects of rotating mechanical parts on the sound quality. In this paper, to solve the tonality evaluation problem, the calculation algorithm of Aures tonality was investigated in detail to find the cause of decreasing the correlation. The new tonality evaluation model was proposed by modifying and optimizing the masking effect, loudness ratio, and shape of weighting curve based on the basic algorithm of Aures tonality, and applied to two kinds of operating sound groups in order to verify the usefulness of proposed model. As a result, it is confirmed that the proposed tonality evaluation model has enough correlation and usefulness for expressing the tonalness in the operating sounds of laser printers. In the following paper, this results will be used to model the sound quality index as the input data by using the classification algorithm.

Design of Sound Quality Index for Laser Printers and Its Application for Improvement Study (프린터의 음질 인덱스 제작과 음질개선에 대한 응용)

  • Kim, Eui-Youl;Lee, Young-Jun;Lee, Sang-Kwon
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.509-523
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    • 2012
  • The sound quality based on design optimization, throughout the development process of various electronic office equipments, needs to be considered in order to respond the increased needs for the emotional satisfaction of customers in terms of psycho-acoustics. This paper focuses on how to describe the characteristics of operating sound radiated from laser printers by using various sound attributes, and to model the sound quality index that can properly evaluate the subjective preference on modification conditions in the improvement study quantitatively. Especially, the proposed verification process, in the form of combining the correlation based method and the decision error based method, was applied to improve the generality and reliability of a group of participants in the jury evaluation. The modified Aures tonality model was also proposed to improve the correlation coefficient with the mean response of participants by optimizing some parameters. As a result, the loudness, articulation index, roughness, tonality, fluctuation strength were used to model the sound quality index for laser printers by using the multiple-linear regression method. Through the improvement study, it was confirmed that replacing the absorbing materials is effective to reduce the tonalness radiated from the side of a reference printer model. Based on above results, it can be concluded that the proposed model has enough usefulness as quantitative evaluation index to evaluate the difference between modification conditions in the improvement study.

A Study on Development Algorithm of Variation of Energy Consumption and Room Temperature of Building HVAC (건물 HVAC의 에너지사용량 변동과 실온변화를 통한 고장발견진단 알고리즘 개발 연구)

  • Park, Seong-Cheol;Lee, Tae-Won;Kim, Hwan-Yong;Song, Young-Hak
    • 한국건축친환경설비학회 논문집
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.499-516
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    • 2017
  • Looking at domestic energy consumption patterns, energy consumption by buildings accounts for more than 10% of the total that is increasing. The energy required for HVAC system accounts for 50 to 60% of the total energy of the building. As one of energy conservation measures of buildings, fault detection and diagnosis applied to BEMS is emerging. For efficient operation of BEMS, FDD module is installed. To develop the FDD algorithm, which is the core of the system, it is necessary to analyze and characterize the response state of the HVAC system according to the fault occurrence. The purpose of this study is to understand the quantitative performance change of HVAC due to faults and to develop FDD algorithm using it. As a result of fault simulation of HVAC, if the degree of fault is the most serious, the increase / decrease of energy consumption per year compared to the non-fault model is at least -0.3% up to 68.6%. Room temperature showed the greatest fluctuation at the fault of the increase in infiltration. It rose up to $31^{\circ}C$ in summer and dropped to $-6^{\circ}C$ in winter. The energy consumption and room temperature changes of the other 10 items were classified according to the trends, and the monthly and annual algorithms were proposed using them. Finally, the algorithm proposed in this study improved the accessibility of FDD to users and it is easy to grasp the outline of HVAC fault easily.

Quantitative Rainfall Estimation for S-band Dual Polarization Radar using Distributed Specific Differential Phase (분포형 비차등위상차를 이용한 S-밴드 이중편파레이더의 정량적 강우 추정)

  • Lee, Keon-Haeng;Lim, Sanghun;Jang, Bong-Joo;Lee, Dong-Ryul
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2015
  • One of main benefits of a dual polarization radar is improvement of quantitative rainfall estimation. In this paper, performance of two representative rainfall estimation methods for a dual polarization radar, JPOLE and CSU algorithms, have been compared by using data from a MOLIT S-band dual polarization radar. In addition, this paper presents evaluation of specific differential phase ($K_{dp}$) retrieval algorithm proposed by Lim et al. (2013). Current $K_{dp}$ retrieval methods are based on range filtering technique or regression analysis. However, these methods can result in underestimating peak $K_{dp}$ or negative values in convective regions, and fluctuated $K_{dp}$ in low rain rate regions. To resolve these problems, this study applied the $K_{dp}$ distribution method suggested by Lim et al. (2013) and evaluated by adopting new $K_{dp}$ to JPOLE and CSU algorithms. Data were obtained from the Mt. Biseul radar of MOLIT for two rainfall events in 2012. Results of evaluation showed improvement of the peak $K_{dp}$ and did not show fluctuation and negative $K_{dp}$ values. Also, in heavy rain (daily rainfall > 80 mm), accumulated daily rainfall using new $K_{dp}$ was closer to AWS observation data than that using legacy $K_{dp}$, but in light rain(daily rainfall < 80mm), improvement was insignificant, because $K_{dp}$ is used mostly in case of heavy rain rate of quantitative rainfall estimation algorithm.

Estimation of Air-Sea Heat Exchange Using BUOY Data at the Yellow Sea, Korea (부이 관측자료를 이용한 서해 해역의 해양-대기 열교환량 산출)

  • kang, Yune-Jeung;Hwang, Seung-On;Kim, Tae-Hee;Nam, Jae-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2001
  • Heat exchange between the atmosphere and sea is produced using the data from two 3m discus buoy installed by KMA in 1996. The meteorological and oceanic characteristics at the Dukjukdo and Chilbaldo buoy for the period 1996 ${\sim}$ 2000 are discussed. Daily averaged sensible heat and latent heat flux at each site are estimated from bulk aerodynamic method using given data and analyzed. Quantitative analyses show SST indicates 1-year cycle like air temperature but has 1 month lag. Sea level pressure is lowest in July, humidity is higher from May to August, and wind speed has averaged value of 5 m/s and higher in autumn and winter. Sensible heat flux analyses present that strong heat loss from the sea occurs in autumn and winter and weak heat loss from atmosphere appears in spring and summer, and net sensible heat loss from the sea is found throughout the year. The ocean significantly releases latent heat into atmosphere from August to May but get a little latent heat from atmosphere in other months. Net latent heat loss from the sea is larger than net sensible heat loss except in January and February. Comparison with two sites suggests that the magnitude of heat flux and their fluctuation are generally stronger at Dukjukdo than at Chilbaldo. In case study, both sensible and latent heat flux is a little more at Chilbaldo in March 1998, but substantially stronger at Dukjukdo in November 1996.

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A Study on Grade Classification for Improvement of Water Quality and Water Quality Characteristics in the Han River Watershed Tributaries (한강 수계 지류 하천의 수질 특성 및 수질 개선을 위한 등급화 방안 연구)

  • Cho, Yong-Chul;Park, Minji;Shin, Kyungyong;Choi, Hyeon-Mi;Kim, Sanghun;Yu, Soonju
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.215-230
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    • 2019
  • The objective of this research is to evaluate the water quality characteristics using the statistical analysis of major tributaries in the Han River and to provide water quality improvement plan by selecting tributaries that should be preferentially managed by river grade classification method. The major 15 tributaries in Han River watershed were monitored for discharge and water quality during January-December 2017. As a result of the correlation analysis, the river discharge has been not correlation with other water quality constituents (p>0.05) but COD and TOC were significantly correlated (r=0.957, p<0.01). The main cause of water quality fluctuation was organic pollutants and nutrients in the principal component analysis (PCA) method. The BOD, COD, TOC, TN, and TP were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) by seasonal in result of one-way ANOVA analysis. Result of river grade classification by quantitative indicators the tributaries requiring improvement of water quality were Gulpocheon, Anyangcheon, Wangsukcheon, and Tancheon which affected by wastewater treatment plant.In this research, we determined tributaries that need to improve the water quality of Han River watershed and it can be used as an important data for efficient water quality management.