This study identified the impact of childhood cancer on the Korean family. The purpose was to contribute knowledge for family nursing and pediatric hospice care practice with sick children and their families. This descriptive study was conducted during a 6 month period with children who were being treated for cancer at six university hospitals in Seoul. The data were gathered from members of 68 families ; 24(Group A), with a child newly diagnosed with cancer : 27(Group B), with a child under treatment and without complications, and 17 (Group C), with a child in relapse. Medical records, structured questionnaires and interviews were used for data collection. The questionnaires and interview schedules had been used previously in Martinson's research in the USA and China. The findings, conclusions, and suggestions are as follows. 1. The impact of childhood cancer on the family. Members of the family experienced fear, helplessness, guilty feelings, and anger at the time of the initial diagnosis and at relapse. Mothers complained of headache, anorexia and poor appetite, weight loss, sleep disturbance, and bad dreams. Many of the fathers either lost or changed jobs, and all working mothers stopped working. Half the parents reported changes in their marital relationships such as frequent quarrels but also stronger unity. Family members perceived cancer as the most frightening disease. Change in their world view was expressed as living on faith understanding suffering, determining to live a better life, wanting to live an upright life and valuing health as the most important. Religious activities are found most helpful through this difficult experience. Financial debt due to the treatment and care of the sick child, burdened 22 families. The above mentioned impact was most evidant in Group B(those presently undergoing treatment) and Group C(those in relapse). Findings indicate that nursing care should embrace the family of a child who is being treated for cancer. 2. Characteristics of the child with cancer The majority of the children in this sample had a diagnosis of leukemia. Their mean age was 6.8 and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.12 ; 1. The mean hospitalization frequency was 13.5 times and the mean duration of illness was 16.8 months. Most of 1.he children perceived cancer as the most frightening disease ; 32.7% of the children described their sickness as serious. Children in Group C were hospitalized more frequently, stayed in hospital for longer periods, and expressed their sickness as quite serious more often than the other two groups. These findings indicate how much comprehensive pediatric hospice nursing care services are needed along with relevant research and nursing education. 3. Characteristics of the families. The mean age of the father was 39.5 and the mother, 36,6 ; they are in their most productive life period. Mothers especially expressed feelings of financial uneasiness and powerlessness about giving up their jobs, and guilty feelings for not providing enough care and concern to other children due to taking care of the sick one. The burden of caring for the sick child can bring negative changes in family dynamics which they think provoke potential health problems in members of the family These findings suggest a need for nursing support and counselling resources. Findings also suggest the need for ethical inquiry about such questions as who should give information to the child in regard to diagnosis and prognosis, when, and how. Other suggestions included : 1) Quality health care for childhood cancer such as home care and pediatric hospice programs should be established. 2) Special and practical consideration for long-term patients should be made in the present insurance coverage. The reimbursement period for long-term patients should be lengthened. 3) Further in-depth qualitative studies are needed. 4) Education programs including guided practice experience for pediatric hospice care practitioners are needed.
Purpose: PET/CT combines functional and morphologic data and increases diagnostic accuracy in a variety of malignancies. Especially reconstructed Fusion PET/CT images or MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) images from a 2-dimensional image to a 3-dimensional one are useful in visualization of the lesion. But in Fusion & MIP 3D reconstruction image, due to hot uptake by urine or urostomy bag, lesion is overlapped so it is difficult that we can distinguish the lesion with the naked eye. This research tries to improve a distinction by removing parts of hot uptake. Materials and Methods: This research has been conducted the object of patients who have went to our hospital from September 2008 to March 2009 and have a lot of urine of remaining volume as disease of uterus, bladder, rectum in the result of PET/CT examination. We used GE Company's Advantage Workstation AW4.3 05 Version Volume Viewer program. As an analysis method, set up ROI in region of removal in axial volume image, select Cut Outside and apply same method in coronal volume image. Next, adjust minimum value in Threshold of 3D Tools, select subtraction in Advanced Processing. It makes Fusion & MIP images and compares them with the image no using Region Cut Definition. Results: In Fusion & MIP 3D reconstruction image, it makes Fusion & MIP images and compares them by using Advantage Workstation AW4.3 05's Region Cut Subtraction, parts of hot uptake according to patient's urine can be removed. Distinction of lesion was clearly reconstructed in image using Region Cut Definition. Conclusion: After examining the patients showing hot uptake on account of volume of urine intake in bladder, in process of reconstruction image, if parts of hot uptake would be removed, it could contribute to offering much better diagnostic information than image subtraction of conventional method. Especially in case of disease of uterus, bladder and rectum, it will be helpful for qualitative improvement of image.
Since mechanical security systems are mostly composed of electronic, information and communication devices, they have effects in the aspects of overall social environment and crime-oriented environment. Also, the importance is increasing for wireless recognition of RFID and tracing function, which will be usefully utilized in controlling the incomings and outgoings of people/vehicles or allowance, surveillance and control. This is resulting from the increase in the care for the elderly according to the overall social environment, namely, the aging society, and the number of women entering, as well as the increase in the number of heinous crimes. The purpose of this study is to examine the theoretical considerations on ubiquitous sensor network and present a direction for securities companies for their development by focusing on the technological and application areas. To present strategies of response to a new environment for security companies, First, a diversification strategy is needed for security companies. The survival of only high level of security companies in accordance with the principle of liberal market competition will bring forth qualitative growth and competitiveness of security market. Second, active promotion by security companies is needed. It is no exaggeration to say that we are living in the modern society in the sea of advertisements and propaganda. The promotional activities that emphasize the areas of activity or importance of security need to be actively carried out using the mass media to change the aware of people regarding security companies, and they need to come up with a plan to simultaneously carry out the promotional activities that emphasize the public aspect of security by well utilizing the recent trend that the activities of security agents are being used as a topic in movies or TV dramas. Third, technically complementary establishment of ubiquitous sensor network and electronic tag is needed. Since they are used in mobile electronic tag services such as U-Home and U-Health Care, they are used throughout our lives by forming electronic tag environment within safe ubiquitous sensor network based on the existing privacy guideline for the support of mobile electronic tag terminal commercialization, reduction in communication and information usage costs, continuous technical development and strengthening of privacy protection, and the system of cooperation of academic-industrial-research needs to be established among the academic world and private research institutes for these parts.
Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae induces severe losses of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. To control clubroot of Chinese cabbage, many CR (clubroot resistance) F1 hybrid cultivars have been bred and released in Korea, China and Japan. In this study, we determined the race of P. brassicae 12 field isolates, which collected from 10 regions in Korea, using Williams' differential varieties including two cabbage ('Jersey Queen', 'Badger Shipper') and two rutabaga ('Laurentian', 'Whilhelmsburger'). By Williams' differential varieties, 12 clubroot pathogens were assigned into one (GN2), two (HS and YC), two (HN1 and HN2), three (DJ, KS and SS) and four (GS, GN1, JS and PC) isolates for races 1, 2, 4, 5 and 9, respectively. In addition, the degree of resistance of 45 CR cultivars that were from Korea, China and Japan was tested with the 12 isolates. The 45 CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage were differentiated into three genotypes according to their resistance responses. Even though the 12 P. brassicae isolates were same race by Williams' differential varieties, three CR genotypes showed different resistance response to the isolates. These results indicate that races of P. brassicae by Williams' differentials were not related with resistance of CR cultivars, and three CR genotypes represented qualitative resistance to the P. brassicae isolates. CR genotype I including 'CR-Cheongrok' showed resistance to GN1, GN2, JS, GS, HS, DJ and KS isolates and susceptibility to YC, PC, HN1, HN2 and SS isolates. And CR genotype II such as 'Hangkunjongbyungdaebaekchae' was resistant to GN1, GN2, JS, GS, HS, YC, PC and HN1 and susceptible to DJ, KS, SS and HN2. CR genotype III including 'Chunhajangkun' and 'Akimeki' represented resistance to 10 isolates except for SS and HN2 isolates. Based on these results, we selected 'CR-Cheongrok', 'Hangkunjongbyungdaebaekchae', and 'Chunhajangkun' as a representative cultivar of three CR genotypes and 'Norangkimjang' as a susceptible cultivar. Furthermore, we investigated the resistance of 15 lines of Chinese cabbage, which were provided by seed companies, to 11 isolates except for HN1 of P. brassicae. The results showed that three lines were susceptible to all the tested isolates, whereas five, four, and three lines represented the similar responses corresponding to the CR genotypes I, II, and III, respectively; there is no line of Chinese cabbage showing different resistance patterns compared to three CR genotypes. In particular, line 'SS001' showing resistance responses of CR genotype II was a parent of 'Saerona' that have been commercialized as a CR $F_1$ cultivar of Chinese cabbage. Together, we divided 12 isolates of P. brassicae into 4 races, designated by wild type, mutant type 1, mutant type 2, and mutant type 3. Wild type including GN1, GN2, JS, GS, and HS isolates of P. brassicae was not able to infect all the cultivars of three CR genotypes, whereas, mutant type 3 such as SS and HN2 isolates developed severe clubroot disease on all the CR genotype cultivars. To mutant type 1 including DJ and KS isolates, CR genotypes I, II and III were resistant, susceptible and resistant, respectively. In contrast, to mutant type 2 including YC, PS, and HN1 isolates, CR genotypes I, II and III showed susceptibility, resistance and resistance, respectively. Taken together, our results provide the extended knowledge of classification of P. brassicae races, which is useful information for the breeding of resistant crops, with a suggestion that 'Norangkimjang', 'CR-Cheongrok', 'Saerona' and 'Chunhajangkun' cultivars of Chinese cabbage could be used as new race differentials of P. brassicae for clubroot disease assay.
A franchise can be said to be the main method of distribution and marketing. It appears to be the future of the retail industry and is one of the world's fastest growing businesses sectors, as many policy reports and research results have acknowledged. Korea's franchise industry began in the 1970s, spread out into many areas (including food services, retail, and the service industry), and has grown by over 10% each year ever since. The industry's influence on the national economy becomes ever greater. Although the size of the franchise industry is expected to grow as it spreads and as the government expands its support, it has not yet attracted much academic interest. Research has so far been very fragmented. The main interest has been the relationship and conflicts between the head offices and the affiliates. No study has yet occurred on whether the concepts of satisfaction and intent to conclude a contract directly affect the success or failure of the affiliates. Few studies have empirically inquired into the demographic characteristics and abilities of the affiliates that significantly affect their results. Domestic franchise industries must prepare to leap from quantitative to qualitative growth. Most important is the need for affiliate headquarters and affiliates to build confidence between them. A friendly and reliable relationship between affiliate headquarters and affiliates will eliminate distrust from the franchise and maintain a healthy franchise system. This study suggests that current and prospective heads of affiliation should concentrate not on attracting affiliates but on investment and techniques of affiliate support. They should work on the reinforcement of brand power, the appropriate affiliate business environment, systematic education/training, taking burdens off the affiliate business persons, consolidating the relationship with the affiliate business persons, marketing mix factors (e.g. products, price conditions, logistics and shipping services, promotion, supervising and supervisor, operation procedures/processes, and material evidence); these all greatly affect the success or failure of the affiliate business. Supporting the affiliates is an important factor that enhances their results and satisfaction and consequently increases the positive recommendations to others and the ratio of recurrent conclusions of contracts, which ultimately generate the growth of the franchises. In addition, it is suggested that prospective franchise founders should make every effort to choose a good head office since the characteristics of the head office greatly influence the success of the affiliates. This study is significant in that it grasps the characteristics of the head office of affiliation and of the affiliates that influence affiliate results in ways not yet academically attempted.
The strategy of "soft power" in the foreign and internal policies of modern Russia is one of the important factors in the implementation of public policies, and the influence of soft power is increasingly becoming stronger and gaining new forms and methods of implementation. The Russian government exerts efforts to form a positive image of Russia in the international arena, in order to strengthen the country's competitiveness, based on active use of "soft power." Currently, Russian cultural policy is developing in two main directions. In the internal policy sphere, the Russian government emphasizes national unity and civic solidarity, and fosters a sense of patriotism and national pride. In the sphere of foreign policy, the Russian government is attempting to regain its status as a great power and to create a new image of Russia that is different from that of the former Soviet Russia. In this article, we examine and analyze various aspects of the hidden political mechanisms involved in mega-sporting events, in particular the Sochi Olympics, from the viewpoint of Russian internal and foreign policy. We address the major functions of mega-sporting events and their influence in the political realm. The political impact of mega-sports projects can even compensate for economic losses incurred during the preparation and hosting of the Olympic games. In this respect, we can define mega-sporting events as one of the main components of soft power; such events reflect the basic directions of internal and foreign policy in post-Soviet Russia, which are to form and promote an image of Russia using national branding. In order to fairly and objectively analyze the recognition and perception held by Russians of the significance of mega-sporting events, in this work, we carefully studied the results of various surveys conducted by the Russian research organization VCIOM (Russian Public Opinion Research Center) before and after Russia hosted the Winter Olympic games in Sochi (2014) and the Summer Olympic games in Kazan (2013). Furthermore, on the basis of the ranking of national brands by Simon Anholt (Anholt Nation Brands Index - NBI), and on the basis of the ranking of 100 national brands conducted by the British consulting company "Brand Finance" (Brand Finance Nation Brands 100), we minutely trace the development and qualitative change in Russia's image and the role of the mega-sporting projects. This article also examines the Kremlin's internal and foreign policies that were successfully carried out in practical terms. This study contributes to the understanding of the value of mega-sporting events from the point of view of cultural policy of the current ruling party of Russia. This standpoint allows us to outline the main directions of Russian cultural policy and to suggest perspectives on the branding strategy of modern Russia, including strategies related to consolidating Russia's position in the international arena.
Research on the welfare state or income inequality has been concerned with variations in inequality between societies or families. These studies tend to view the family as a unit of shared interests where incomes are pooled and distributed equally. This study makes a theoretical and empirical case for why it is important to look at economic dependency within the family in comparative welfare state research. Using the Luxembourg Income Study data this study examined married women's dependency on their husbands' earnings in 16 western industrialized countries. The constructed measure for married women's level of economic dependency followed the procedure of Sørensen & McLanahan(1987), which stated : "her dependency is measured by the extent to which a woman's standard of living(as determined by her share of income) is derived from a transfer from her husband." The finding suggested that married women's economic dependence was lowest in Scandinavian countries. On the contrary, in Southern Europe countries most married women were dependent on husbands' earnings. In Netherlands, Austria, Germany where the share of part-time work among married women was high, married women's economic dependence was also high. This showed the women's labor force participation did not mean that the majority of couples were equal with respect to earnings, nor that a major shift in the sexual division of labour has taken place. This paper analysed the causal relationship between the married women's economic independence and the welfare state by using Ragin(2000)'s Fuzzy-Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. This analysis considered the various conditions of the welfare state : namely, left power, union mobilization density, women's mobilization, public service sector employment and generous support on the family. The result showed that powerful union, high level of women's mobilization and the generous support on the family were necessary conditions for 'relatively high' level of married women's economic independence.
The purpose of this study was to derive evaluator's role and capability for institution accreditation evaluation of NCS-based vocational competency development training. This study attempted to explore in various ways evaluator's minute roles using Delphi method, and to derive knowledge, skill, attitude and integrity needed to verify the validity. To the end, this study conducted the Delphi research for over three rounds by selecting education training professionals and review evaluation professions as professional panels. From the results, roles of evaluators were defined as the total eight items including operator, moderator-mediator, cooperator, analyzer, verifier, institution evaluator, institution consultant, and learner, and the derived capabilities with respect to each role were 25 items in total. The area of knowledge included four items of capabilities such as HRD knowledge, NCS knowledge, knowledge of vocational competency development training, and knowledge of training institution accreditation evaluation, and the area of skill comprised fourteen items of capabilities such as conflict management ability, interpersonal relation ability, word processing ability, problem-solving ability, analysis ability, pre-preparation ability, time management ability, decision making ability, information comprehension and utilization ability, comprehensive thinking ability, understanding ability of vocational competency development training institutions, communication ability, feedback ability, and core understanding ability. The area of attitude was summarized with the seven items in total including subjectivity and fairness, service mind, sense of calling, ethics, self-development, responsibility, and teamwork. The knowledge, skill and attitude derived from the results of this study may be utilized to design and provide education programs conducive to qualitative and systematic accreditation and assessment to evaluators equipped with essential prerequisites. It is finally expected that this study will be helpful for designing module education programs by ability and for managing evaluator's quality in order to perform pre-service education and in-service education according to evaluator's experience and role.
Many firms in Korea have adopted and used advanced information technology in an effort to boost efficiency. The process of adapting to the new technology, at the same time, can vary from one firm to another. As such, this research focuses on several relevant factors, especially the roles of social interaction as a key variable that influences the technology adaptation process and the outcomes. Thus far, how a firm goes through the adaptation process to the new technology has not been yet fully explored. Previous studies on changes undergone by a firm or an organization due to information technology have been pursued from various theoretical points of views, evolved from technological and institutional views to an integrated social technology views. The technology adaptation process has been understood to be something that evolves over time and has been regarded as cycles between misalignments and alignments, gradually approaching the stable aligned state. The adaptation process of the new technology was defined as "appropriation" process according to Poole and DeSanctis (1994). They suggested that this process is not automatically determined by the technology design itself. Rather, people actively select how technology structures should be used; accordingly, adoption practices vary. But concepts of the appropriation process in these studies are not accurate while suggested propositions are not clear enough to apply in practice. Furthermore, these studies do not substantially suggest which factors are changed during the appropriation process and what should be done to bring about effective outcomes. Therefore, research objectives of this study lie in finding causes for the difference in ways in which advanced information technology has been used and adopted among organizations. The study also aims to explore how a firm's interaction with social as well as technological factors affects differently in resulting organizational changes. Detail objectives of this study are as follows. First, this paper primarily focuses on the appropriation process of advanced information technology in the long run, and we look into reasons for the diverse types of the usage. Second, this study is to categorize each phases in the appropriation process and make clear what changes occur and how they are evolved during each phase. Third, this study is to suggest the guidelines to determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group and organizational level. For this, a substantially grounded theory that can be applied to organizational practice has been developed from a longitudinal comparative case study. For these objectives, the technology appropriation process was explored based on Structuration Theory by Giddens (1984), Orlikoski and Robey (1991) and Adaptive Structuration Theory by Poole and DeSanctis (1994), which are examples of social technology views on organizational change by technology. Data have been obtained from interviews, observations of medical treatment task, and questionnaires administered to group members who use the technology. Data coding was executed in three steps following the grounded theory approach. First of all, concepts and categories were developed from interviews and observation data in open coding. Next, in axial coding, we related categories to subcategorize along the lines of their properties and dimensions through the paradigm model. Finally, the grounded theory about the appropriation process was developed through the conditional/consequential matrix in selective coding. In this study eight hypotheses about the adaptation process have been clearly articulated. Also, we found that the appropriation process involves through three phases, namely, "direct appropriation," "cooperate with related structures," and "interpret and make judgments." The higher phases of appropriation move, the more users represent various types of instrumental use and attitude. Moreover, the previous structures like "knowledge and experience," "belief that other members know and accept the use of technology," "horizontal communication," and "embodiment of opinion collection process" are evolved to higher degrees in their dimensions of property. Furthermore, users continuously create new spirits and structures, while removing some of the previous ones at the same time. Thus, from longitudinal view, faithful and unfaithful appropriation methods appear recursively, but gradually faithful appropriation takes over the other. In other words, the concept of spirits and structures has been changed in the adaptation process over time for the purpose of alignment between the task and other structures. These findings call for a revised or extended model of structural adaptation in IS (Information Systems) literature now that the vague adaptation process in previous studies has been clarified through the in-depth qualitative study, identifying each phrase with accuracy. In addition, based on these results some guidelines can be set up to help determine which strategies are needed in an individual, group, and organizational level for the purpose of effective technology appropriation. In practice, managers can focus on the changes of spirits and elevation of the structural dimension to achieve effective technology use.
The purpose of this study was to research into the satisfaction with orthodontic treatment and the psychologically satisfactory condition to be expected, and to offer information in order to enhance medical-treatment service, by surveying the influential factors upon satisfaction with treatment targeting patients who receive orthodontic treatment. Targeting 382 patients who are under treatment at S dental clinic in Gyeonggi Province, B dental clinic in Daegu Metropolitan City, and Y dental clinic in Busan Metropolitan City, which specialize in orthodontic treatment, it carried out the direct interview survey of using the structured questionnaire from January 20, 2009 to February 28. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSSWIN 17.0 K. The following conclusions were obtained. 1. In the satisfaction with orthodontic treatment according to aesthetic factor, the group with bad aesthetic health condition was higher than the group with good health condition(p<0.05). As for the factor of tooth alignment, a case of good health condition was indicated to have higher(p<0.05) satisfaction than a case of being bad. 2. As for satisfaction according to necessity for orthodontic treatment, the satisfaction was high in a case of recognizing necessity much and of understanding medical-treatment contents much, and in a case of being well adjusted to the progression of orthodontic treatment. As for a psychological change after orthodontic treatment, the satisfaction was high in a case with a positive change(p<0.001). 3. The factors of influencing satisfaction with orthodontic treatment had significant influence in order of necessity for orthodontic treatment(p<0.001), adjustment to progression of orthodontic treatment(p<0.001), psychological change after orthodontic treatment(p<0.01), expectation level of dental health after orthodontic treatment(p<0.01), and understanding about treatment contents(p<0.01). As a result of research, the satisfaction with orthodontic treatment in patients with orthodontics is indicated to be relatively high. Thus, the careful consideration is considered to be probably necessary on qualitative part in medical treatment and on patients' expectation by grasping patents' mentally psychological condition.
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