• Title, Summary, Keyword: QTL

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The Response of QTL in Generation during Selection (선발과정에서의 세대별 QTL 좌위 고정에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Ji-Woong
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.217-232
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to determine the response of QTL in each generation during selection to develop inbred lines. The simulation program was written in Fortran. Magnitude of QTL effects, base population size, number of QTL assigned to population, and the allelic frequency for the positive allele at each major QTL were highly associated with number of generations to fixation of QTLs during selection. Populations with larger QTL effects and larger base population size had more individuals with fixed QTL. However, a smaller number of QTL assigned to population had a higher fraction of individuals with fixed QTL at each generation compared with more populations with QTL. This simulation study will help to design biological experiments for detection of QTL-marker association using inbred population and to determine optimum number of lines with fixed QTL during inbred line development. To complement this study, additional simulation should be need with abundant replicates, more various population sizes, magnitude of QTL effects, and recombination between markers and QTLs.

Detection of Imprinted Quantitative Traits Loci (QTL) for Reproductive and Growth Traits in Region of IGF II Gene on fig Chromosome (돼지 염색체상의 IGF II 유전자 인접 부위에서 번식 및 성장형질에 연관된 Imprinting 양적형질 유전자 좌위(QTL)의 탐색)

  • Lee, Hakkyo
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.295-304
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    • 2001
  • Characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) was investigated in the experimental crosses between Berkshire and Yorkshire breed. A total of 525 F$_2$ progenies from 65 matting of F$_1$ Parents were produced. Phenotypic measurements included average daily gain (ADG), average back fat thickness (ABF), and loin eye area (LEA). To identify the presence of QTL for reproductive performance, birth weight (BWT) and body weight at 16 days (16DAY) were included as indirect trait. QTL segregation was deduced using 8 markers assigned to chromosome 2 (SSC2). Quantitative trait locus analyses were performed using interval mapping by regression under line-cross model. Presence of imprinting was tested under the statistical model that separated the expression of paternally and maternally inherited alleles. To set the evidence of QTL presence, significance thresholds were derived by permutation following statistical tests, respectively. Genome scan revealed significant evidence for three quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and body compositions, of which two were identified to be QTL with imprinting expression mode near the ICF II gene region. For average back fat thickness (ABF), a paternally expressed QTL was found on chromosome 2 (SSC2). A paternally expressed QTL affecting loin eye area (LEA) was found in the region of SSC2 where evidence of imprinted QTL was found for average back fat thickness (ABF). For average daily gain (ADG), QTL expressed with Mendelian mode was found on chromosome 2 (SS2). Also, QTL affecting average daily gain (ADC), was identified to be expressed with Mendelian express mode.

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Evaluation of a Fine-mapping Method Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium in Livestock Populations: Simulation Study

  • Kim, JongJoo;Farnir, Frederic
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1702-1705
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    • 2006
  • A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a fine-mapping method exploiting population-wide linkage disequilibrium. Data were simulated according to the pedigree structure based on a large paternal half-sib family population with a total of 1,034 or 2,068 progeny. Twenty autosomes of 100 cM were generated with 5 cM or 1 cM marker intervals for all founder individuals in the pedigree, and marker alleles and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a total of 70% phenotypic variance were generated and randomly assigned across the whole chromosomes, assuming linkage equilibrium between the markers. The founder chromosomes were then descended through the pedigree to the current offspring generation, including recombinants that were generated by recombination between adjacent markers. Power to detect QTL was high for the QTL with at least moderate size, which was more pronounced with larger sample size and denser marker map. However, sample size contributed much more significantly to power to detect QTL than map density to the precise estimate of QTL position. No QTL was detected on the test chromosomes in which QTL was not assigned, which did not allow detection of false positive QTL. For the multiple QTL that were closely located, the estimates of the QTL positions were biased, except when the QTL were located on the right marker positions. Our fine mapping simulation results indicate that construction of dense maps and large sample size is needed to increase power to detect QTL and mapping precision for QTL position.

A Least Squares Regression Model to Detect Quantitative Trait Loci with Polar Overdominance in a Cross of Outbred Breeds: Simulation

  • Kim, Jong-Joo;Dekkers, Jack C.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1536-1544
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    • 2013
  • A least squares regression interval mapping model was derived to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with a unique mode of genomic imprinting, polar overdominance (POD), under a breed cross design model in outbred mammals. Tests to differentiate POD QTL from Mendelian, paternal or maternal expression QTL were also developed. To evaluate the power of the POD models and to determine the ability to differentiate POD from non-POD QTL, phenotypic data, marker data and a biallelic QTL were simulated on 512 F2 offspring. When tests for Mendelian versus parent-of-origin expression were performed, most POD QTL were classified as partially imprinted QTL. The application of the series of POD tests showed that more than 90% and 80% of medium and small POD QTL were declared as POD type. However, when breed-origin alleles were segregating in the grand parental breeds, the proportion of declared POD QTL decreased, which was more pronounced in a mating design with a small number of parents ($F_0$ and $F_1$). Non-POD QTL, i.e. with Mendelian or parent-of-origin expression (complete imprinting) inheritance, were well classified (>90%) as non-POD QTL, except for QTL with small effects and paternal or maternal expression in the design with a small number of parents, for which spurious POD QTL were declared.

Development and Evaluation of QTL-NILs for Grain Weight from an Interspecific Cross in Rice

  • Yun, Yeo-Tae;Kim, Dong-Min;Park, In-Kyu;Chung, Chong-Tae;Seong, Yeaul-Kyu;Ahn, Sang-Nag
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2010
  • In a previous study, we mapped 12 QTLs for 1,000 grain weight (TGW) in the 172 $BC_2F_2$ lines derived from a cross between Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Hwaseongbyeo and O. rufipogon. These QTLs explained 5.4 - 11.4% of the phenotypic variance for TGW. Marker-aided selection combined with backcrosses was employed to develop QTL-NILs for each QTL. $BC_2F_2$ lines with each target QTL were backcrossed to Hwaseongbyeo twice and then allowed to self to produce $BC_4F_5$ populations. SSR markers linked to TGW were employed to select QTL-NILs with the respective target QTL. Six QTL-NILs with the recurrent parent, Hwaseongbyeo were evaluated for nine traits for three years from 2007 and 2009. Differences were observed between each of the 6 QTL-NILs and Hwaseongbyeo in TGW. In addition to TGW, these QTL-NILs displayed differences in other agronomic traits possibly indicating a tight linkage of genes controlling these traits. The direction of the QTL for TGW in 6 QTL-NILs was consistent as in the $BC_2F_2$ lines from the same cross. Difference in TGW between each of the QTL-NILs and Hwaseongbyeo was associated with the difference in one or two grain shape traits; grain length, grain width, and grain thickness. SSR markers linked to the QTL for TGW will facilitate selection of the grain shape character in a breeding program to diversify grain shape and provide the foundation for map-based gene isolation. Also, the QTL-NILs developed in this report and the progenies from crosses between the QTL-NILs will be useful in clarifying epistatic interactions among QTLs for TGW.

Evaluation of Cofactor Markers for Controlling Genetic Background Noise in QTL Mapping

  • Lee, Chaeyoung;Wu, Xiaolin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.473-480
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    • 2003
  • In order to control the genetic background noise in QTL mapping, cofactor markers were incorporated in single marker analysis (SMACO) and interval mapping (CIM). A simulation was performed to see how effective the cofactors were by the number of QTL, the number and the type of markers, and the marker spacing. The results of QTL mapping for the simulated data showed that the use of cofactors was slightly effective when detecting a single QTL. On the other hand, a considerable improvement was observed when dealing with more than one QTL. Genetic background noise was efficiently absorbed with linked markers rather than unlinked markers. Furthermore, the efficiency was different in QTL mapping depending on the type of linked markers. Well-chosen markers in both SMACO and CIM made the range of linkage position for a significant QTL narrow and the estimates of QTL effects accurate. Generally, 3 to 5 cofactors offered accurate results. Over-fitting was a problem with many regressor variables when the heritability was small. Various marker spacing from 4 to 20 cM did not change greatly the detection of multiple QTLs, but they were less efficient when the marker spacing exceeded 30 cM. Likelihood ratio increased with a large heritability, and the threshold heritability for QTL detection was between 0.30 and 0.05.

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Affecting Teat Number in Pigs

  • Kim, Tae-Hun;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Yoon, Du-Hak;Park, Eung-Woo;Jeon, Jin-Tae;Han, Jae-Young;Oh, Sung-Jong;Cheong, Il-Cheong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.1210-1213
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    • 2004
  • Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can be applied to detect chromosomal locations that control economic traits in farm animals. Teat number has been considered as one of the most important factors to evaluate mothering ability of sow. Especially, teat number is more important when the number is less than the litter size. This study was conducted to identify QTL affecting teat number in the Korean native pig${\times}$Landrace resource family. A total of 240 animals was genotyped for 132 polymorphic microsatellites covering the 18 pig autosomes. Mean and standard deviation of teat number in $F_2$animals is 13.46${\pm}$1.40. QTL was analyzed using F2 QTL Analysis Servlet of QTL express. A QTL for teat number on SSC9 was significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level and three suggestive QTL were detected on SSC3, 7 and 14. All QTL detected in this study had additive effect and Landrace alleles were associated with higher teat number in comparison with Korean native pig for three of four QTL.

Characterization of QTL for Growth and Meat Quality in Combined Pig QTL Populations

  • Li, Y.;Choi, B.H.;Lee, Y.M.;Alam, M.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, K.S.;Baek, K.H.;Kim, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1651-1659
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thirteen growth and meat quality traits in pigs by combing QTL experimental populations. Two F2 reference populations that were sired by Korea native pig (KNP) and dammed by Landrace (LN) or Yorkshire (YK) were generated to construct linkage maps using 123 genetic markers (mostly microsatellites) and to perform QTL analysis on porcine chromosomes (SSCs) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 15. A set of line-cross models was applied to detect QTL, and a series of lack-of-fit tests between the models was used to characterize inheritance mode of QTL. A total of 23, 11 and 19 QTL were detected at 5% chromosome-wise level for the data sets of KNP${\times}$LN, KNP${\times}$YK cross and joint sets of the two cross populations, respectively. With the joint data, two Mendelian expressed QTL for live weight and cooking loss were detected on SSC3 and SSC15 at 1% chromosome-wise level, respectively. Another Mendelian expressed QTL was detected for CIE a on SSC7 at 5% genome-wise level. Our results suggest that QTL analysis by combining data from two QTL populations increase power for QTL detection, which could provide more accurate genetic information in subsequent marker-assisted selection.

Evaluation of Reciprocal Cross Design on Detection and Characterization of Non-Mendelian QTL in $F_2$ Outbred Populations: I. Parent-of-origin Effect

  • Lee, Yun-Mi;Lee, Ji-Hong;Kim, Jong-Joo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1805-1811
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    • 2007
  • A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reciprocal cross on the detection and characterization of parent-of-origin (POE) QTL in $F_2$ QTL populations. Data were simulated under two different mating designs. In the one-way cross design, six $F_0$ grand sires of one breed and 30 $F_0$ grand dams of another breed generated 10 $F_1$ offspring per dam. Sixteen $F_1$ sires and 64 $F_1$ dams were randomly chosen to produce a total of 640 $F_2$ offspring. In the reciprocal design, three $F_0$ grand sires of A breed and 15 $F_0$ grand dams of B breed were mated to generate 10 $F_1$ offspring per dam. Eight $F_1$ sires and 32 $F_1$ dams were randomly chosen to produce 10 $F_2$ offspring per $F_1$ dam, totaling 320 $F_2$ offspring. Another mating set comprised three $F_0$ grand sires of B breed and 15 $F_0$ grand dams of A breed to produce the same number of $F_1$ and $F_2$ offspring. A chromosome of 100 cM was simulated with large, medium or small QTL with fixed or different allele frequencies in parental breeds. A series of tests between Mendelian and POE models were applied to characterize QTL as Mendelian, paternal, maternal or partial expression QTL. The overall detection powers were similar between the two mating designs. However, the proportions of paternally expressed QTL that were declared as paternal QTL type were greater in the reciprocal cross design than in the one-way cross, and vice versa for Mendelian QTL. When QTL alleles were segregating in parental breeds, a significant proportion of Mendelian QTL were spuriously declared POE QTL, suggesting that care must be taken to characterize imprinting QTL in a QTL mapping population with a small number of $F_1$ parents.

Detection of Mendelian and Parent-of-origin Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat Quality in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace

  • Choi, B.H.;Lee, Y.M.;Alam, M.;Lee, J.H.;Kim, T.H.;Kim, K.S.;Kim, J.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1644-1650
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting meat quality in an $F_2$ reference population of Korean native pig and Landrace crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 411 progeny from 38 $F_2$ full-sib families, and 133 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-average map of the 17 autosomes. The data set was analyzed using least squares Mendelian and parent-of-origin interval-mapping models. Lack-of-fit tests between models were used to characterize the QTL for mode of gene expressions. A total of 10 (32) QTL were detected at the 5% genome (chromosome)-wise level for the analyzed traits. Of the 42 QTL detected, 13 QTL were classified as Mendelian, 10 as paternal, 14 as maternal, and 5 as partial expressed QTL, respectively. Among the QTL detected at 5% genome-wise level, four QTL had Mendelian mode of inheritance on SSCs 5, 10, 12, and 13 for cooking loss, drip loss, crude lipid and crude protein, respectively; two QTL maternal inheritance for pH at 24-h and shear force on SSC11; three QTL paternal inheritance for CIE b and Hunter b on SSC9 and for cooking loss on SSC15; and one QTL partial expression for crude ash on SSC13, respectively. Most of the Mendelian QTL (9 of 13) had a dominant mode of gene action, suggesting potential utilization of heterosis for genetic improvement of meat quality within the cross population via marker-assisted selection.