• Title, Summary, Keyword: Q-방법론

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Effects of Stress and Personality Characteristics on Sleep (스트레스와 성격요인이 수면에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Ho-Kyoung;Kang, Seung-Gul;Ham, Byung-Joo;Lee, Heon-Jeong;Kwon, Ho-In;Suh, Kwang-Yoon;Kim, Leen
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of stress and personality on sleep patterns, and further, to identify potential correlations between stress and personality characteristics. Methods: A total of 174 healthy college students were subjects for this study. Participants filled out the Daily Stress Inventory before sleep and the Modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index after sleep on three consecutive days. They also filled out the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16-PF), BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) and STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Results: Minor stresses highly correlated with subjective sleep quality and symptoms of non-restorative sleep. However, total sleep time, sleep latency, awakening frequency, and frequency of dreams were not explained by stress scores. The O (guilty feeling), C (low ego strength) and Q4 (high anxiety) factors of the 16-PF also highly correlated with symptoms of non-restorative sleep and significantly affected sleep patterns. BDI and STAI scores also correlated with the above personality factors and minor stresses. Conclusion: This study showed that minor stresses impaired the restorative effects of sleep. Personality characteristics such as low ego strength, high levels of anxiety, and feelings of guilt were vulnerable to minor stresses. Minor stress, various personality characteristics, different coping patterns, and emotional response are highly correlated with each other and affect sleep patterns.

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Production and Assessing Usefulness of the Moving Phantom for Respiration Gated Radiotherapy (호흡동조 방사선치료용 팬텀의 제작 및 유용성 평가)

  • Lee, Yang-Hoon;Lee, Jae-Hee;Yoo, Suk-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is that through production of phantom for respiration gated radiotherapy, assessing appropriacy of exposure dose for the therapy using RPM (Real-time Position Management). Materials and Methods: We located measurement object on the phantom for respiration gated radiotherapy made of 2 linear actuator, acrylic panel, stanchion, iron plate ets. to drive (up, down, front, back). Using 4D CT scan, we analyzed patient's respiration and reproduced the movement by computer. On the phantom, we located a 2D-Array (PTW) and an White water phantom (4.5 cm) and used DMLC (interval 2 cm) in the field size $10{\times}10\;cm$, then exposed 21EX X-ray 100 MU, in the case of phantom was (1) static (2) moving (3) gated using RPM respectively gantry $0^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ We measured with a 0.125 CC ionization chamber (PTW) on the phantom (7.5 cm) in the same condition. Results: Ionization chamber: There were within 0.3% of error with gating respiration and approximately 2% of error without gating in the same condition. 2D-Array: Gantry $90^{\circ}$, field size $10{\times}10\;cm$, using DMLC. There were within 3% of error with gating respiration and approximately 16% of error without gating. Conclusion: The phantom for respiration gated radiotherapy makes plans considering patient's movement, quantitative analysis of exposure dose and proper assessment therapy for IMRT patients using RPM possible.

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The aesthetics of irony in repetition and the difference of Oh! Soojung (<오! 수정>의 아이러니 미학 - 반복과 차이의 구조를 중심으로)

  • Suh, MyungSoo
    • 기호학연구
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    • no.57
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    • pp.121-153
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    • 2018
  • In terms of the story told, we see that Oh! Soojung(Virgin Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors) is a film of the ideololgy of masculinity. However, from the point of view of the manner of presenting story, Oh! Soojung is a film that aims to devalue this ideology. How will it be possible? This is the principle of the irony that the speaker, by saying P, wants to make Q listen that devalues and contradicts P. Our study is tempted to explain the process of interpreting the irony in the film. The ideology of the film occurs when the presupposed contents have become the subject. For example Cendrion who tells a story of a girl married to a prince presupposes that the girl, Cendrion, is obedient. The subject of this story is that the presupposition: /the girls who want to be happy must be obedient/, which represents the ideology of masculinity. Presupposed content thus imposes on the public a collective and conservative value, as its enunciator belongs to the collective voice. Since ironisation occurs when the utterance itself is annulled, one must also deny or cancel the story told of Oh! Soojng: /Jeahun who is rich and Soojung who is obedient and virgin have become lovers/. Since there is no semantic mark within the utterance, irony is a voice that comes from without; this is how we understand irony in a purely pragmatic way. The outer voices are two things: the way to build the story: question of focusing, ocularization and auricularization, and the way to present the story: question the order, the frequency or the plot. Our study is focused on the question of frequency at Oh! Soojung which has a repetition structure in which the memory of Jeahun and that of Soojung are represented one after the other. Since the memories of two characters are not identical, the repetition is accompanied by differences. The differences at first allow the public to build their own story from the di?g?se of the film and then make the audience fall into confusion where we can not be certain of what we see and know in the di?g?se of the film, and finally make their knowledge questionable. About repetition, so that it can have validity in terms of the informativeness of the utterance, it must deny the existence of the previous repetition. This is how repetition cancels itself and consequently the utterance. We see that the irony of Oh! Soojung occurs by repetition with differences that cancels the story of the film.

Identification of soil Remedial Goal due to Arsenic in Soil near Abandoned Mine- Approach to Regarding Future Land Use - (폐광산 지역의 비소오염에 대한 복원목표 설정 - 미래 토지용도를 고려한 접근방법 -)

  • 이효민;윤은경;최시내;박송자;황경엽;조성용;김선태
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.13-29
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    • 1998
  • Recently, It is increasing popularity to research on the soil remediation in aspect of management by reason of the hazardous impact on the contaminated soil in Korea. It was investigated high levels of arsenic salts in soil near abandoned five mines(Darak, Daduk, Jingok, Dalsung, Ilkwang) located in Youngnam area. Arsenic, classified as group A(Human Carcinogens) from IRIS, have shown statistically significant increment in skin cancer with oral exposure. This paper was conducted to predict excess cancer risk value (to the skin cancer) based on multiple pathway such as soil ingestion, dermal uptake and food(plant) ingestion contaminated by arsenic, and also, to identify the remedial goal regarded in future land use. The mine having the highest arsenic level was Daduk(mean : 1950mg/kg) and the next rank was Jingok(1690mg/kg), Ilkwang(352.37mg/kg), Dalsung(86.08mg/kg), Darak(0.83mg/kg). The chronic daily intake to the multiple exposure were calculated using Monte-Carlo simulation regarded in future land use and used q: value was $1.5(mg/kg/day)^{-1}$ to the oral proposed by IRIS(1997). The computated excess cancer risk 95th value to all the mine regarding future land use as residential and rural area were more than $10^{-4}$. If the level of acceptable risk is aimed for 1$\times$$10^{-6}$, it could be used Darak as commercial and industrial area without soil remediation due to the lowest risk value(6$\times$$10^{-8}$ and 3$\times$$10^{-8}$). Computated remedial goal based on 1$\times$$10^{-6}$ of acceptable risk to the future land use as the residential, rural, commercial and industrial area were 0.02mg/kg, 0.003mg/kg, 97.31mg/kg and 194.62mg/kg, respectively.

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Analysis of the Dose Distribution of Moving Organ using a Moving Phantom System (구동팬텀 시스템에 의한 움직이는 장기의 선량분포 분석)

  • Kim, Yon-Lae;Park, Byung-Moon;Bae, Yong-Ki;Kang, Min-Young;Lee, Gui-Won;Bang, Dong-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: Few researches have been peformed on the dose distribution of the moving organ for radiotherapy so far. In order to simulate the organ motion caused by respiratory function, multipurpose phantom and moving device was used and dosimetric measurements for dose distribution of the moving organs were conducted in this study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate how dose distributions are changed due to respiratory motion. Materials and Methods: A multipurpose phantom and a moving device were developed for the measurement of the dose distribution of the moving organ due to respiratory function. Acryl chosen design of the phantom was considered the most obvious choice for phantom material. For construction of the phantom, we used acryl and cork with density of $1.14g/cm^3,\;0.32g/cm^3$ respectively. Acryl and cork slab in the phantom were used to simulate the normal organ and lung respectively. The moving phantom system was composed of moving device, moving control system, and acryl and cork phantom. Gafchromic film and EDR2 film were used to measure dose ditrbutions. The moving device system may be driven by two directional step motors and able to perform 2 dimensional movements (x, z axis), but only 1 dimensional movement(z axis) was used for this study. Results: Larger penumbra was shown in the cork phantom than in the acryl phantom. The dose profile and isodose curve of Gafchromic EBT film were not uniform since the film has small optical density responding to the dose. As the organ motion was increased, the blurrings in penumbra, flatness, and symmetry were increased. Most of measurements of dose distrbutions, Gafchromic EBT film has poor flatness and symmetry than EDR2 film, but both penumbra distributions were more or less comparable. Conclusion: The Gafchromic EBT film is more useful as it does not need development and more radiation dose could be exposed than EDR2 film without losing film characteristics. But as response of the optical density of Gafchromic EBT film to dose is low, beam profiles have more fluctuation at Gafchromic EBT. If the multipurpose phantom and moving device are used for treatment Q.A, and its corrections are made, treatment quality should be improved for the moving organs.

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Prognostic Significance of Cyclin D1 Overexpression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Cyclin D1의 발현이 비소세포폐암의 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seok-Chul;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee;Keum, Joo-Seob;Kong, Gu;Lee, Jung-Dal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.776-784
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    • 1998
  • Background: The cyclin D1 gene is one of the most frequently amplified chromosomal regions(11q13) in human carcinomas. In laryngeal and head and neck carcinomas, its overexpression has been shown to be associated with advanced local invasion and presence of lymph node metastases. Cyclin D1 may therefore playa key role in cell growth regulation and tumorigenesis. Lung cancer is a worldwide problem and in many contries it is the most lethal malignancy. As relapse is frequent after resection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer, there is an urgent need to define prognostic factors. Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prognostic value of the cyclin D1, that is one the G1 cyclins which control cell cycle progression by allowing G1 to S phase transition, on the patients in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Method: Total 81 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from resected primary non-small cell lung cancer from January 1, 1983 to July 31, 1995 at Hanyang University Hospital were available for both clinical follow-up and immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies for cyclin D1. Results : The histologic classification of the tumor was based on WHO criteria, and the specimens included 45 squamous cell carcinomas, 25 adenocarcinomas and 11 large cell carcinomas. Cyclin D1 overexpression was noted in 26 cases of 81 cases tested (30.9%). Cyclin D1 expression was not significantly associated with cell types of the tumor, pathological staging and the size of the tumor. But cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly correlated with positive lymph node metastasis(p=0.035). The mean survival duration was $22.76{\pm}3.50$ months in cyclin D1 positive group and $45.38{\pm}5.64$ months in eyclin D1 negative group. There was a nearly significant difference in overall survival between cyclin D1 positive and negative groups(p=0.0515) in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusion: Based on this study, cyelin D1 overexpression appears an important poor prognostic indicator in non-small cell lung cancer and may have diagnostic and prognostic importance in the treatment of resectable non-small cell lung cancer.

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Usefulness assessment of secondary shield for the lens exposure dose reduction during radiation treatment of peripheral orbit (안와 주변 방사선 치료 시 수정체 피폭선량 감소를 위한 2차 차폐의 유용성 평가)

  • Kwak, Yong Kuk;Hong, Sun Gi;Ha, Min Yong;Park, Jang Pil;Yoo, Sook Hyun;Cho, Woong
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.87-95
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    • 2015
  • Purpose : This study presents the usefulness assessment of secondary shield for the lens exposure dose reduction during radiation treatment of peripheral orbit. Materials and Methods : We accomplished IMRT treatment plan similar with a real one through the computed treatment planning system after CT simulation using human phantom. For the secondary shield, we used Pb plate (thickness 3mm, diameter 25mm) and 3 mm tungsten eye-shield block. And we compared lens dose using OSLD between on TPS and on simulation. Also, we irradiated 200 MU(6 MV, SPD(Source to Phantom Distance)=100 cm, $F{\cdot}S\;5{\times}5cm$) on a 5cm acrylic phantom using the secondary shielding material of same condition, 3mm Pb and tungsten eye-shield block. And we carried out the same experiment using 8cm Pb block to limit effect of leakage & transmitted radiation out of irradiation field. We attached OSLD with a 1cm away from the field at the side of phantom and applied a 3mm bolus equivalent to the thickness of eyelid. Results : Using human phantom, the Lens dose on IMRT treatment plan is 315.9cGy and the real measurement value is 216.7cGy. And after secondary shield using 3mm Pb plate and tungsten eye-shield block, each lens dose is 234.3, 224.1 cGy. The result of a experiment using acrylic phantom, each value is 5.24, 5.42 and 5.39 cGy in case of no block, 3mm Pb plate and tungsten eye-shield block. Applying O.S.B out of the field, each value is 1.79, 2.00 and 2.02 cGy in case of no block, 3mm Pb plate and tungsten eye-shield block. Conclusion : When secondary shielding material is used to protect critical organ while irradiating photon, high atomic number material (like metal) that is near by critical organ can be cause of dose increase according to treatment region and beam direction because head leakage and collimator & MLC transmitted radiation are exist even if it's out of the field. The attempt of secondary shield for the decrease of exposure dose was meaningful, but untested attempt can have a reverse effect. So, a preliminary inspection through Q.A must be necessary.

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A study of the plan dosimetic evaluation on the rectal cancer treatment (직장암 치료 시 치료계획에 따른 선량평가 연구)

  • Jeong, Hyun Hak;An, Beom Seok;Kim, Dae Il;Lee, Yang Hoon;Lee, Je hee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : In order to minimize the dose of femoral head as an appropriate treatment plan for rectal cancer radiation therapy, we compare and evaluate the usefulness of 3-field 3D conformal radiation therapy(below 3fCRT), which is a universal treatment method, and 5-field 3D conformal radiation therapy(below 5fCRT), and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). Materials and Methods : The 10 cases of rectal cancer that treated with 21EX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse(Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3(Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA(Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28). 3fCRT and 5fCRT plan has $0^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}$ and $0^{\circ}$, $95^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $315^{\circ}$, $265^{\circ}$ gantry angle, respectively. VMAT plan parameters consisted of 15MV coplanar $360^{\circ}$ 1 arac. Treatment prescription was employed delivering 54Gy to recum in 30 fractions. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, VMAT plans were optimized and calculated twice, and normalized to the target V100%=95%. The indexes of evaluation are D of Both femoral head and aceta fossa, total MU, H.I.(Homogeneity index) and C.I.(Conformity index) of the PTV. All VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with portal dosimetry using EPID. Results : D of Rt. femoral head was 53.08 Gy, 50.27 Gy, and 30.92 Gy, respectively, in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. Likewise, Lt. Femoral head showed average 53.68 Gy, 51.01 Gy and 29.23 Gy in the same order. D of Rt. aceta fossa was 54.86 Gy, 52.40 Gy, 30.37 Gy, respectively, in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. Likewise, Lt. Femoral head showed average 53.68 Gy, 51.01 Gy and 29.23 Gy in the same order. The maximum dose of both femoral head and aceta fossa was higher in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. C.I. showed the lowest VMAT treatment plan with an average of 1.64, 1.48, and 0.99 in the order of 3fCRT, 5fCRT, and VMAT treatment plan. There was no significant difference on H.I. of the PTV among three plans. Total MU showed that the VMAT treatment plan used 124.4MU and 299MU more than the 3fCRT and 5fCRT treatment plan, respectively. IMRT verification gamma test results for the VMAT plan passed over 90.0% at 2mm/2%. Conclusion : In rectal cancer treatment, the VMAT plan was shown to be advantageous in most of the evaluation indexes compared to the 3D plan, and the dose of the femoral head was greatly reduced. However, because of practical limitations there may be a case where it is difficult to select a VMAT treatment plan. 5fCRT has the advantage of reducing the dose of the femoral head as compared to the existing 3fCRT, without regard to additional problems. Therefore, not only would it extend survival time but the quality of life in general, if hospitals improved radiation therapy efficiency by selecting the treatment plan in accordance with the hospital's situation.

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Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient (두경부암 환자의 양성자 치료 시 사용하는 자체 제작한 BoS Frame 고정장치의 선량학적 유용성 평가)

  • Kim, kwang suk;Jo, kwang hyun;Choi, byeon ki
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2016
  • Purpose : BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. Materials and Methods : We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We' ve measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). Results : When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when not used in accordance with the use of the in-house Bos frame fixation tool was reduced by 5.4 cm ~ 15.4 cm, respectively angle. The reduced snout distance means the airgap. Lateral Penumbra could reduce left, right, 0.1 cm ~ 0.4 cm by an angle in accordance with decreasing the airgap while using each beam angle in-house Bos frame fixation tool. Due to the reduced lateral penumbra, Lt.eyeball, Lt.lens, Lt. hippocampus, Lt. cochlea, Rt. eyeball, Rt. lens, Rt. cochlea, Rt. hippocampus, stem that can be seen that the dose is decreased by 0 CGE ~ 4.4 CGE. Conclusion : It was possible to reduced the airgap by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool for the proton therapy; as a result, it was possible to figure out that the lateral penumbra reduced. Moreover, it was also possible to check through the comparative analysis of the treatment plan that when we reduce the lateral penumbra, the reduction of the unnecessary irradiation for the normal tissues. Therefore, Using the posterior oblique the Brain cancer proton therapy should be preceded by decreasing the airgap, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool; also, the continuous efforts for reducing the airgap as much as possible for the proton therapy of other area will be necessary as well.

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