• Title, Summary, Keyword: Purified salt

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Comparison of Quality Characteristics of Salted Muskmelon with Deep Seawater Salt, Sun-dried and Purified Salts (해양심층수염, 천일염 및 정제염을 이용한 참외절임시 품질특성 비교)

  • 이기동;김숙경;김정옥;김미림
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2003
  • Physiochemical and sensory properties of muskmelon pickles were investigated under salting condition using deep seawater salt, sun-dried salt and purified salt. The changes of weight, shrinkage rate salinity and pH of muskmelon during salting time were almost nothing shown. Turbidity of pickle juice was the highest in salt solution using sun-dried salt and was almost nothing shown in deep seawater salt and purified salt. Solid content of pickle juice was higher in pickle juice using sun-dried salt than deep seawater salt and purified salt. The calcium content of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt and sun-dried salt were increased to 4.3 times and 3.7 times, respectively. Hardness became a little higher on muskmelon using deed seawater salt ann sun dried salt than purified salt. In organoleptic result, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall palatability of muskmelon salted by deep seawater salt became higher in other salt solution (sun-friend salt and purified salt).

Changes of Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Oiji(Korean Pickled Cucumbers) Prepared with Different Salts (소금종류에 따른 오이지의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성 변화)

  • 박용곤;박미원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.419-424
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    • 1998
  • This study was carried out to investigate changes in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Oiji(Korean pickled cucumbers) prepared with different salts(bay, refined and purified salt). The pH of Oiji prepared with bay salt was higher than those prepared with refined and purified salts. The salt concentration of Oiji prepared with purified salt showed the highest value during fermentation period. The cutting forces at middle part of Oiji prepared with bay and refined salts were higher than those of raw cucumber, and bay salt resulted in the highest force during fermentation period. The result of sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptability among salts at 5% level. Oiji prepared with bay salt showed the highest score in most the sensory characteristics.

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Properties of Gul Jeotgal (Oyster Jeotgal) Prepared with Different Types of Salt and Bacillus subtilis JS2 as Starter

  • Kim, Jeong A;Yao, Zhuang;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Gul (oyster) jeotgals (GJs) were prepared using different types of salt (23%, w/v): purified salt, solar salt aged for 3 years, and bamboo salt crystalized 3 times. One set of GJs was fermented with Bacillus subtilis JS2 ($10^6CFU/g$), while the other GJ set was fermented without starter. During fermentation for 24 weeks at $15^{\circ}C$, the starter GJs showed 10-fold higher bacilli counts than the no-starter GJs, where the maximum bacilli count was $8{\times}10^3CFU/g$. All 28 bacilli strains isolated from the 6-week GJs were identified as B. subtilis by using a RAPD-PCR, indicating that some of the B. subtilis JS2 cells remained viable. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were present at low levels, $10^1-10^2CFU/g$. LAB with protease activities isolated from 10-week samples were identified as Enterococcus species. The isolates obtained at 16 weeks were all Staphylococcus species. The GJs with bamboo salt showed higher pH and lower titratable acidity (TA) values than the other GJs due to the strong alkalinity of bamboo salt. The amino-type nitrogen in the GJs increased slowly during the fermentation. At 24 weeks, the GJs with purified salt showed the highest amino-type nitrogen (412-430 mg%), followed by the GJs with solar salt (397-406 mg%) and GJs with bamboo salt (264-276 mg%). Meanwhile, the GJs with bamboo salt showed the highest ammonia-type N (63.67 mg%), followed by the GJs with purified salt (49 mg%) and solar salt (48 mg%).

Comparison of Mineral Content and External Structure of Various Salts (소금의 종류별 미네랄 함량과 외형구조 비교연구)

  • 박건영;하정옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 1998
  • There are several types of salts that classifed into raw salts(Chunil salt, Saeng salt), purified salts (NaCl reagent grade, Hanju salt) and processed salts(Gueun salt, Saeng kum, Bamboo salt) in Korea. Their major element is NaCl but raw salt from sea water contains other minerals such as K, Mg and S. Mineral contents of the various kinds of salt analyzed with ICP-AES and AAS were different, especially on the contents of K, Mg and Ca. Chunil salt was abundant in Ca(1,037ppm), K(3,707ppm), Mg(10,266ppm) and S(7,459ppm), and salt water from the Chunil salt contained small amounts of Pb, Al, Cr and Hg. Processed salts contained high levels of Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Especially, high levels of K, P, Fe and Ge were detected in bamboo salt. Purified salts showed regular crystal form and raw salts exhibited irregular crystal form under the SEM. The processed salts were not crystal form, but fused and irregular round form.

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Alkaline and Antioxidant Effects of Bamboo Salt (죽염의 알칼리성 및 항산화 효과)

  • Zhao, Xin;Jung, Ok-Sang;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.1301-1304
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    • 2012
  • Mineral contents of various salts were determined by the ICP-OES method. Bamboo salt (baked 9 times) contained more potassium, calcium, magnesium, and manganese, compared to purified and solar salts. Bamboo salt had a pH of 11.04, higher than those of purified (6.29) and solar (9.13) salts. Contents of [$OH^-$] were measured by using the FT-IR spectra. Bamboo salt exhibited higher reduction potential and contained more OH groups than purified and solar salts. The reduction peak of bamboo salt was observed to be about three times broader than that of solar salt in terms of redox potential amperometry. At a salt concentration of 25%, bamboo salt showed higher radical scavenging activities (81.4%) than solar (5.0%) and purified (2.0%) salts, as evaluated by DPPH assay. Bamboo salt revealed alkaline property, more OH groups and antioxidative activity.

Molecular Characterization of Bile Salt Hydrolase from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi30

  • Jarocki, Piotr
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.838-845
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    • 2011
  • The present work describes the identification, purification, and characterization of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) from Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The enzyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by hydrophobic chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and ultrafiltration. SDS-PAGE analysis of putative BSH and gel filtration revealed that the analyzed protein is presumably a tetramer composed of four monomers each of about 35 kDa. The purified enzyme was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to LTQ FT ICR mass spectrometry and unambiguously identified as a bile salt hydrolase from B. animalis. The isoelectric point of the studied protein was estimated to be around pH 4.9. The pH optimum of the purified BSH is between 4.7 to 6.5, and the temperature optimum is around 50oC. The BSH of B. animalis could deconjugate all tested bile salts, with clear preference for glycine-conjugated bile salts over taurine-conjugated forms. Genetic analysis of the bsh showed high similarity to the previously sequenced bsh gene from B. animalis and confirmed the usefulness of bile salt hydrolase as a genetic marker for B. animalis identification.

Effects of Different Kinds of Salt in the Comutagenicity and Growth of Cancer Cells (소금의 보돌연변이 및 암세포성장억제 효과)

  • Zhao, Xin;Kim, So-Hee;Qi, Yongcai;Kim, So-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 2012
  • Purified salt and several different types of sea salts showed comutagenicity in the presence of MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine). However, the salts exhibited anti-cancer effects in HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells and AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Sea salt showed less comutagenicity effects than purified salt. French sea salt (Salines de Guerande) and Korean sea salt I, which contained higher levels of minerals, showed less comutagenicity. In MTT assay, when HCT-116 and AGS cancer cells were treated with the salts, French sea salt (36% and 34%) and Korean sea salt I (35% and 33%) showed higher anticancer activities than Spanish sea salt (33% and 31%), Italian sea salt (29% and 27%), Korean sea salt II (22% and 22%), or purified salt (18% and 15%) at a salt concentration of 1%. French sea salt and Korean sea salt I also showed better anticancer activities than the other salt samples at a low concentration of 0.5% (p<0.05). Apoptosis related genes of Bax and Bcl-2 were regulated by the treatment of the salt in the colon cancer cells. French sea salt and Korean sea salt I especially increased Bax mRNA expression, but decreased Bcl-2 expression, indicating that they can induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. From the experimental results, sea salt showed better health functional effects than the purified salt, and French sea salt and Korean sea salt I which contained high levels of Ca, K, and Mg showed better effects.

Quality Characteristics of White Pan Breads Prepared with Various Salts (소금의 종류를 달리한 식빵의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Hyeog;Choi, Cha-Ran;Ham, Kyung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.72-80
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of various salts on the physical and fermentative characteristics of doughs and on the quality of white pan breads produced using purified salt, Korean solar salt, Chinese solar salt, Mexican solar salt, washed and dehydrated salt, roasted salt, and bamboo salt. In farinogram patterns, dough prepared using the purified salt had the highest water absorption. Extensograms showed that the resistances and resistance/extensibility ratios of the doughs with the solar salts were higher than those with the purified salt. In amylograms, the dough with the bamboo salt had the highest viscosity value. A specific volume was the smallest in the bread with the Korean solar salt (4.11 mL/g), while the largest with the Mexican solar salt (4.85 mL/g). A baking loss rate of the bread prepared with the Korean solar salt (10.34%) was less compared to other samples (10.91 $\sim$ 11.65%). The crust of the bread added with the Korean solar salt showed higher L value and lower a value while its crumb showed the highest b value. A sensory evaluation indicated that significant differences in some characteristics of the breads were observed in the breads prepared with the Korean solar salt and Mexican solar salt. However, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability showed no significant differences among all breads prepared with different salts.

Increased in vitro Anticancer Effects of Potassium Bamboo Salt (칼륨죽염의 in vitro 항암 기능성 증진 효과)

  • Zhao, Xin;Jeong, Ji-Kang;Kim, So-Young;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.1248-1252
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    • 2012
  • Potassium added with bamboo salt showed better antioxidative effects than bamboo salt, solar salt, or purified salt. It also showed inhibitory effects on the mutagenicity of MNNG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) in a Salmonella Typhimurium TA100 tester strain. At concentrations of 1.25 and 2.5 mg/plate, potassium bamboo salt and bamboo salt showed weaker co-mutagenicity effects than either purified salt or solar salt, respectively. Anticancer effects of salts were evaluated using MTT assay in HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. At a 1% salt concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of potassium bamboo salt was 54%, higher than that of 1 time baked bamboo salt (36%). However, purified salt and solar salt showed relatively lower inhibitory effects of 19% and 23%, respectively. To determine the inhibitory mechanisms of potassium bamboo salt, the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 genes in HCT-116 cells were determined by RT-PCR. Potassium bamboo salt significantly increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression levels unlike bamboo salt, purified salt, and solar salt (p<0.05). Therefore, addition of potassium to salt decreased co-mutagenicity and increased in vitro antioxidative and anticancer effects.

Proteases and Antioxidant Activities of Doenjang, Prepared with Different Types of Salts, during Fermentation (소금 종류를 달리하여 제조한 된장들의 발효 중 protease 역가 및 항산화 활성 변화)

  • Shim, Jae Min;Lee, Kang Wook;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Jeong Hwan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.303-310
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    • 2016
  • In this study, doenjang samples were prepared with different types of salts (12%, w/w): purified salt (PS), 3-year aged solar salt (SS3), 1-year aged solar salt (SS1), and bamboo salt melted 3 times (BS). Whole-soybean mejus were fermented with starters consisting of 2 Bacillus strains, a yeast, and a fungus (starter doenjang), and control mejus were fermented with organisms present naturally in rice straw (non-starter doenjang). The whole-soybean mejus were dried, and then mixed with cooked soybeans and the respective salts. The doenjang samples were fermented for 13 weeks at 25℃. The protease (acid, neutral, and alkaline) activities, fibrinolytic activities, and antioxidant capacities of the samples were examined every week. BS doenjang showed the highest acid protease (6.46 ± 0.20 unit/g) and fibrinolytic activities (0.61 unit/ml). Among the starter doenjang samples, those made with SS and BS showed the highest total phenolic contents after 91 days of fermentation. For antioxidant activities, SS3 doenjang showed higher activities than the other doenjang samples, as evaluated by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. These results suggest that solar salt, especially aged for 3 years, is better than purified salt in terms of producing better functionalities of doenjang.