• Title, Summary, Keyword: Public goods

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The Estimation of Production Cost of Local Public Goods with Environmental Difference (환경요인에 따른 지역공공재 생산비용의 격차 추정)

  • 최영호;박상우
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.21-36
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    • 1996
  • This thesis focused on the extent of the area-by-area gap of the unit production cost that should be taken into account without exception in supply of the local public goods production cost. With the advent of the local autonomy era, what should be considered in the local governmen's production of the local public goods are the government's fiscal capacity and the environmental difference that shows up in accordance with the area's characteristics. Though with the same level of the fiscal capacity, an occurrence of environmental difference will lead inevitably to the different level of actual supply of the local public goods. The method of analysis used in this thesis was first to bring out implicit price, to combine this with induced expenditure function, to separate demand function parameter and cost function parameter, and then to analyzed the impact of environmental variables on the production cost. The environmental variables were set on the basis of the ones that affected expenditure per person of the public goods. The analysis was conducted in distinction of city areas and county areas. The results showed that, in cases of cities, more production cost of the public goods was in presence in urban areas and in areas where there was sluggish development. In other words, distinction could be drawn between areas where there was a large consumption of production cost resulting from poor environmental sparked by slow development and those where additional costs were required due to population concentration caused by a certain level of accomplished development. In the meantime, in cases of county areas, the results were around the same. However, a comparison between city areas and county ones told that overall difference between city areas was not that big in the production cost while that in county areas was large enough. In times ahead, in implementation of grant-in-aid scheme, production cost index for local public goods could be used as it was written in consideration of environmental characteristics of areas concerned.

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Housewives Perception Degree on Saving Goods - In Seoul Area (저축상품에 대한 주부들의 인식도 - 서울 지방을 중심으로)

  • 이혜임;한상순
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.119-136
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    • 1986
  • To survey the intensities of housewives perception on savings-goods and to suggest them some guiding direction for reasonable saving behavior, a total of 392 questionaires was distributed to housewives in Seoul. The data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage, x2-test, F-test and Pearson's Correlation. The Results were as follows; 1) Housewives awareness degree on savings-goods scored total average marks of 37/100 which was in the relatively low level. 2) Housewives interest degree on saving-goods scored total average marks of 70/100 which was in the fairly high level. 3) The correlation between awareness and interest degree on savings-goods was very highly significant. 4) The major information source of savings-goods was from pamphlet, TV, radio and newspaper, namely, public information. 5) Housewives perception of public information on savings-goods was very weak.

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A Study on the Core List Development of Library Goods by Library Types (관종별 공간구성을 위한 핵심 도서관용품 리스트 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, In-Ja;Noh, Young-Hee;Park, Mi-Young;Lee, Jae-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.195-220
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    • 2011
  • As public interests and demands on the library space and library goods increase, the role of librarians dealing with this issue has become more important. This research develops lists of core and non-core goods in space managements of public libraries, children's libraries, and school libraries. The lists will make the librarian's tasks effective and maximize user satisfaction. For public libraries, the space is divided into nine main areas, and a total of 80-90 goods(50-60 core and 20-30 non-core goods) are identified. The space of children's libraries is divided into four main areas(space for reading, books, entry, and special activities) with a list of 60-70 library goods(30 core and 30-40 non-core goods). School libraries consist of seven distinctive spaces, including spaces for books, multi-media, reading, and teaching, and it requires 90 goods in total(30-40 core and 50-60 non-core goods). The findings of this study can be utilized in listing up library goods. Further research should be conducted to develop such tools as guidelines, standards and manuals for space management.

Quasi-public operating Bus nature of the public interest as a moral hazard - Game theoretical approach as the Yeosu area cases (도덕적 해이로서 공익적 성격의 버스운송 체계 - 여수 시내버스 사례에 대한 게임이론적 접근)

  • Lee, Moo-Seong
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.10 no.11
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    • pp.1285-1296
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    • 2015
  • As examples of the region's transition to quasi-public goods a previous stage of full public goods also extremely limited in research. However, in this way can it compensate for this paper as a system to minimize moral hazard by electronic information and communication systems focused on safety in accordance with the methods and gave public goods introduction of grafting of electronic information systems played the Yeosu area to specific cases I went to the deployment.

A Game theoretic analysis of public goods allocation in p2p networks

  • Zhang, Qingfeng;Wang, Sheng;Liao, Dan
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.8
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    • pp.2854-2874
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents a game theoretic approach to analyze the public goods (PGs) allocation in peer-to-peer (p2p) networks. In order to reduce the free-riders and promote the cooperation among peers, we propose an incentive mechanism with cooperation-based game theory. In this paper, we regarded the contributed resources by cooperators as public goods (PGs). We also build the PGs allocation in P2P networks to be the optimization problem, and the optimal solution of PGs allocation satisfies the Bowen-Lindahl-Samuelson equilibrium. Firstly, based on the subscriber mechanism, we analyze the feasibility and prove the validity, which can achieve Nash equilibrium. However, this strategy cannot meet to Bowen-Lindahl-Samuelson equilibrium as the free-riders do not pay with their private goods for consuming the PGs. Secondly, based on the Walker mechanism, we analyze the feasibility and prove the validity for the same allocation problem, which meets to Bowen-Lindahl-Samuelson equilibrium and achieves Pareto efficiency within cooperative game. Simulations show that the proposed walker mechanism can significantly improve the network performance of throughout, and effectively alleviate free-riding problem in P2P networks.

The Changes in Transportation Expenditure Patterns of Urban Households During 1985-1998 (도시가계의 교통비 지출 변화 : 1985-1998)

  • 전윤숙;이희숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.139-154
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in transportation expenditure patterns of urban households during 1985-19o8. The data were drawn from 'Annual Report on the family Income and Expenditure Survey' by National Statistical Office, Republic of Korea. For data analysis, frequency, percentile, mean, and multiple regression analysis were utilized by the SAS window program. The results of this study were as follows; Frist, the levels of public transportation expenditure showed increasing trend, whereas the portions of public transportation expenditure have showed decreasing trend during 1985-1998. And both the level and the portion of private transportation expenditure showed increasing trends during 1985-1998. Second, the marginal propensities to consume of public transportation have decreased, whereas the marginal propensities to consume of private transportation have increased during 1985-1998. Third, income elasticities of public transportation showed decreasing trend during 1985-1998, impling that consumers have less demand public transportation with increasing income. And income elasticities of private transportation showed increasing trend till 1993, and then showed decreasing trend till 1998, impling that consumers have perceived the car as one of necessary goods rather than luxury goods gradually since 1993.

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A Study on the Status and Problem Concerning Overseas Shopping Service (중국의 해외구매대행 현황과 문제점에 관한 연구)

  • OH, Won-Suk;LI, Jing-Hua
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.65
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    • pp.141-160
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    • 2015
  • With the steady growth of our nation's economy, the purchase power of our domestic citizens has continuously enhanced. In recent years, online overseas shopping has rapidly warmed up, increasing number of Chinese people have started to purchase overseas products via internet. According to China's current legislation, the imported goods are divided into goods and items based on "profitability standard", and regulated by different rules of clearance supervision and import duties. Goods can't pass through custom and pay duties in the form of items, and the import duties burden of goods is generally much heavier than that of items. Goods of entrusted overseas shopping pass through custom and pay duties in the form of items, but goods of profitable purchasing are goods, not items. Therefore, the profitable-purchasing behavior is smuggling. Although goods of unprofitable purchasing are items, unprofitable-purchasing behavior may also constitute smuggling. The author concludes that causes of smuggling crime are: huge market demand for overseas goods, lack of customs supervision, law blank of petty foreign trade, and public's misconception of entrusted overseas purchasing are the major factors. The author proposes the corresponding preventive measures against the crime, such as to establish an one-stop service system in online Shopping Mall, to modify the Passengers' Baggage Declaration Form, to establish a relatively simplified clearance system of small cargo, to establish a relatively reasonable import duties of petty trade.

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A Social Responsibility of Landscape Architecture as a Green Infrastructure for Environmental Justice Realization

  • Park, Chung-In;Yeom, Sung-Jin
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.281-287
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    • 2017
  • The main task of landscape architecture is to create a higher quality of the environment by utilizing resources or to provide effective stewardship for the preserved environment. These outcomes enhance the correlation between humans and the environment. Landscape architect deals with direct use of market economic goods in private property resources such as capital, land, plant, structure. But it also has indirect use of non-market economic goods in public resources like scenic view from the forest, sea, urbanscape, and refreshing atmosphere. At this point, landscaping products should have a role of public goods, and even these attribute to individuals or certain group. From the results of neo-liberalism regime in modern era such as guarantee of private property, deregulation for free market, and reduction of social welfare, minority has getting less opportunity to enjoy the quality life in ecotop and social welfare. With all future, landscape architecture should have the role of social infrastructure through planning concept that ensures public interests first. The virtuous functions of Green Infrastructure is a proper tool in realizing environmental justice in that it efficiently protects environment, and distributes fair benefits to all people.

지적재산권의 역사적 연원- 저작권과 특허를 중심으로 -

  • 황혜선
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.20
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    • pp.455-470
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    • 1993
  • In recent years, the intellectual property rights (IPR) are increasingly becoming trade goods and the subject of international trade negotiations. During the past decades, intellectual properties earned critical importance for economic development in both developed and developing countries. Developed countries, headed by the United States, that recognize the economic value of the IPR in the world market are aggressively seeking for universal protection of IPR throughout the world. Intellectual properties have unique qualities that distinguish them from other tangible goods. Most importantly, they are public goods created on the basis of knowledge and information accumulated throughout human history and shared by different cultures. However, there is a growing tendency that the quality of public goods are being etched away as the property concept in IPR expands. In this paper, I discuss how copyright and patent laws incorporated the concept of property right as natural right to one's intellectual creations in early formation of the laws in Europe. I argue that copyright law and patent law are the historical products resulting from political, economic, and ideological factors interacting in a certain society. A history of copyright and patent points to that the intellectual property rights as natural lights of authors and inventors as argued by developed countries in international disputes, are not universal, but unique historical products. Copyright and patent laws have been shaped and developed as regulatory measures by governments to promote and control industries by providing authors and inventors with monopoly incentives. Since property right was used as a regulatory device it was restricted. This is to enhance the distribution of knowledge and information rather than to ensure the property right as an absolute right.

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The Study of a rational management to the protective area of military installations (군사시설보호구역의 합리적 관리방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Myeong-Sun
    • The Journal of Military Studies
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    • pp.23-89
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    • 2004
  • The protective area of military installations can be a essential investment goods for producting public goods like military installations and national security. For the purpose of this, The protective area of military installations are set up and applicated at important strategic areas. It causes colplications and frictions among the people, government and army inevitably to set up the protective area of military installations, as the relation between the army which produces security or public goods and the people that make and use valuable goods is opposed and contradictory to each other. Heretofore, the civil petition of the protective affair to military installations has been presented individually. As local self- government is fixed, a local selg-governing body presents many civil petitions now. Therefore the protective affair to military installations came to be examined carefully in the aspecs of improving the relationship between the civil and army, raising natinal competitiveness, and increasing efficiency of military operations. Though the relationship between the civil and army is opposed and contradictory, it is required to be in keeping with each other with a situation around society, that is, changes and trend of national security, politics, economy, society. Accordingly, if you drive plans of rational management to the protective area of military installations, you can not only achieve successful military installations, but also be a great help to growth of a local community. Then 「The Army with the people」worthy of the name can be real.

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