• Title, Summary, Keyword: Public diplomacy

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Reaction to Popular Pressure or a Political Tool? Different Interpretations of China's Policy Regarding Koizumi's Visits to the Yasukuni Shrine

  • Zakowski, Karol
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2012
  • Sino-Japanese relations suffered a great setback during the premiership of Koizumi $Jun'ichir{\bar{o}}$ (2001-2006). Although many factors, such as dispute over the resources of the East China Sea or Japan's anxiety about China's growing military expenditures, are accountable for this situation, it was Koizumi's visits to the Yasukuni Shrine that became a symbol of the controversies between the two countries. The Yasukuni issue triggered a real eruption of profound anti-Japanese feelings among the Chinese people. While commentators in China accused Koizumi of glorifying militarism and whitewashing the atrocities committed by Japanese soldiers during the Second World War, the Japanese public started perceiving China's "exaggerated" reaction as a convenient diplomatic tool used by China to apply pressure on Japan in other bilateral disputes. On the one hand, spontaneous protests against Koizumi's visits to the Yasukuni Shrine constituted a great constraint in China's diplomacy towards Japan, but on the other, they also became an ideal pretext for adopting a tougher stance in Chinese foreign policy. In this paper, I examine different points of view on the Yasukuni issue. After describing the Japanese background of the visits to the controversial shrine, I analyze various interpretations of China's reaction to the problem. Although emotions dominated discourse on the Yasukuni issue both in Japan and China, some pragmatic attempts to use this problem can still be seen. Besides being a side-effect of Koizumi's strong personality, the Yasukuni issue could be used either as a tool of factional struggle in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) or as an instrument of Chinese foreign policy towards Japan.

A Study on the Change of the Trump Administration's Alliance Policy (트럼프 행정부의 동맹정책 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Won Sang;Shin, Jin
    • Convergence Security Journal
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2019
  • For the past 66 years, the Korea-U.S. alliance has been a typical asymmetric alliance in which the U.S. supports South Korea's security during the Cold War and South Korea gives some of its policy autonomy to the U.S. But Lee Myung-bak government military alliance the 'comprehensive strategic alliance' of the character, 'value of alliance', Park Geun-hye ' a global, 'Frontier of cooperation', the government.'reciprocal, comprehensive alliance' Moon Jae-in, the government and partnerships developed with ' euroui the development of national security strategy said. The purpose of this study is to explore ways to build a reciprocal and comprehensive Korea-U.S. alliance for the development of the Korea-U.S. alliance policy in order to ensure South Korea's policy autonomy following changes in the Trump administration's alliance policy. The results of the research show the need for Korea to participate in the U.S.-led 'India-Pacific Strategy' continue diplomatic efforts for the mutual economic benefits of the two countries and strengthen public diplomacy in order to build the Korea-U.S. alliance in a reciprocal and comprehensive manner.

A Study on the Records and Archives Management System in Japan : Focusing on the Electronic Public Documents Management (일본의 기록관리 제도 연구 법령과 전자공문서 관리를 중심으로)

  • Yi, Kyoung Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
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    • no.45
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    • pp.219-253
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    • 2015
  • The Records Management System in Japan has been developed to a comprehensive and unitary records management system based on the records life-cycle principle from the enactment of 'the Public Records and Archives Management Act' in 2009 and its implementation in April, 2011. The scope of objects has also been extended to documents of independent administrative institutions and specific confidential documents on diplomacy and defense. In addition, a series of Electronic Documents Management Systems have been built for the transfer of electronic records to the National Archives of Japan, which is called the Electronic Records Archives of Japan, in connection with the records and archives management systems covering creation, management, transfer, preservation, and use of electronic records. This paper deals with the core contents and characteristics of the records management system of Japan, focusing on the operational structure of the records and archives management law and electronic documents management. Firstly, The Cabinet Office and professional groups in records and archives management started to work on reformation of the records management system from 2003 and resulted in enactment of the Public Records and Archives Management Act in 2009. In that sense, the Public Records and Archives Management Act can be evaluated as a result of constant activities of the records management community in Japan for realization of accountabilities of government agencies to the general public. Secondly, the Public Records Management Act of Japan has a coherent multi-layer structure from the law, enforcement ordinances, guidelines, and to institutional documents management regulations in the operational system. This is a systematic structure for providing practical business units of each administrative agency with detailed standards on the basis of guidelines and making them to prepare their own specific application standards related to their unique businesses. Unlike the past, the National Archives of Japan became to be able to identify specific historial documents which should be transferred to the archives by selecting important historical records as early as possible after creating and receiving them in each institution through the retention schedule. Thirdly, Japan started to operate a system in regard to electronic records transfer and preservation in 2011. In order to prepare for it, each administrative agency has used EDMS in creation and management of electronic records. A Guideline for the Standard Format and Media released by the Cabinet Office in 2010 is also for the transfer of electronic records to the Electronic Records Archives of Japan. In future, it is necessary to conduct further studies on activities of the records and archives management community in Japan, relating to long-term preservation and use of electronic records.