• Title, Summary, Keyword: Public diplomacy

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Policy Implications of Global Governance through Public Diplomacy Activities (공공외교활동을 통해 본 글로벌거버넌스의 정책적 함의)

  • Kim, Young Mi
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2020
  • While networks of many countries around the world are actively connected with the establishment of ICT-based infrastructure, diplomatic activities are also evolving into various diplomatic forms that are different from traditional diplomacy before. In particular, in the process, public diplomacy activities that focus on subjects other than the government and new diplomatic areas are accelerating. This study identifies the current state of public diplomacy that has emerged as a representative type of new diplomatic style and derives policy implications for the revitalization of global governance. The analysis was attempted based on data generated mainly on the main contents of various diplomatic activities by each entity, and the future direction of public diplomacy was sought. In particular, the subject of diplomacy is becoming more diverse, and most of all, various activities are being carried out based on the world stage due to changes in diplomatic means. Most of all, they understood that all the people are playing the role of private diplomacy, and that the roles and capabilities of local governments are becoming stronger. Global governance needs to be built to revitalize public diplomacy, and support policies need to be continued by expanding the role of public diplomacy and various topics.

The Paradox of Public Diplomacy on the Web: An Empirical Analysis on Interactivity and Narratives of Nation-States' Ministry of Foreign Affairs Web Sites

  • Lee, Hyung Min;Wang, Kevin Y.;Hong, Yejin
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.24-33
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    • 2015
  • Against the backdrop of Habermas' theory of communicative action, we empirically analyzed the level of interactivity and narratives offered in nation-states' ministry of foreign affairs Web sites. A multiple regression analysis was performed in an attempt to identify factors affecting the level of interactivity in such Web sites. Findings revealed that the level of economic development is the sole significant factor in regards to the level of interactivity. Further, self-interested, goal-directed, and strategic purposes behind the allegedly transparent, engaging, and interactive public diplomacy were evidenced through a critical analysis of the objectives, key issues, and target publics addressed and highlighted in the public diplomacy narratives on the Web. The results suggested a possible digital divide in the interactive adoption of Web public diplomacy as well as strategic motives and interests embedded in the public diplomacy communication on the Web. This study helps increase our understanding of the paradox of public diplomacy in the digital age.

The Influence of Public Diplomacy with Social Media on Country Image and Country Brands -Focusing on Cultural Contents- (소셜 미디어를 이용한 공공외교가 국가이미지와 국가 브랜드에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Yong-Seok;Kim, Hyo-Mi
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.426-438
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not social media could have influence upon diplomatic activities and become effective means of diplomatic communication, focusing on the communication channel of public diplomacy. Study subjects were 301 foreigners from 42 countries in 7 continents, and influencing relationship among the fondness of social media-utilized public diplomacy cultural contents, country images and country brands was examined, together with its effectiveness. The results attained are as follows: First, all independent variable except interactivity and immediacy had significant influencing relationship with the fondness of public diplomacy cultural contents. Second, the fondness of public diplomacy cultural contents had significant influence upon country images, whereas country images had significant influence upon the fondness of country brands and the loyalty of country brands. Based on study findings, the influence of social media as effective means of communication of public of diplomacy policy in the 21st century was confirmed. In addition, This study contribute to expansion of public diplomacy research area from pre-exisiting study and provide basic information to future activities.

An Exploration of Korean Discourses on Public Diplomacy

  • Ayhan, Kadir Jun
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.31-42
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    • 2020
  • There is great confusion over what constitutes public diplomacy (PD), who its actors are, and the relevance of non-state actors. In the Korean context, in addition to the general fuzziness of the concept, linguistic peculiarities of the terms gonggong and gongjung both of which refer to public, waegyo, which is interchangeably used for international affairs, foreign policy and diplomacy, and juche which is simultaneously used for actor and agent, add more layers of confusion. While the term PD in Korea is based almost entirely on Western conceptualization, these linguistic peculiarities prevent fruitful conversations among scholars and practitioners on PD. Against this background, this research note explores and addresses conceptual ambiguities that pertains to PD and the policy discourse on the topic, particularly on non-state PD in Korea. The paper draws on Korean government's PD-related policy documents and Diplomatic White Papers and all relevant academic articles found in Korean-language journals registered in the Korean Citation Index (KCI), which are analysed to gain an understanding of the PD-related policy discourse in Korea.

Policy Implementation Process of Korean Government's Public Diplomacy on Climate Change

  • Choi, Ga Young;Song, Jaeryoung;Lee, Eunmi
    • Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2020
  • In 2015, the State Council of South Korea finalized its goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by "37% from the business-as-usual (BAU) level" by 2030 across all the economic sectors. Of that reduction, 4.5% will be achieved overseas by leveraging Emission Trading Systems (ETS) aided by international cooperation. In line with this, considering both the demand for and supply of the carbon market increased after the Paris agreement, the importance of public diplomacy in negotiating climate change actions also rose. This study aimed to analyze the impact of international discussions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on domestic policies and the types of public diplomatic climate change policies pursued by different government agencies, and draw implications from them. This study attempted to find implications from the Korean government's public diplomacy on climate change for developing countries. Lessons learned regarding Korea's public diplomacy would provide a practical guidance to the Asian developing countries, which are suffering from environmental crisis at a phase of rapid economic growth.

Digital Diplomacy via Social Networks: A Cross-National Analysis of Governmental Usage of Facebook and Twitter for Digital Engagement

  • Ittefaq, Muhammad
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.49-69
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    • 2019
  • Over the last couple of years, digital diplomacy has become a fascinating area of research among Mass Communication, Peace and Conflict Studies, and International Affairs scholars. Social media and new technology open up new avenues for governments, individuals, and organizations to engage with foreign audiences. However, developing countries' governments are still lacking in the realization of the potential of social media. This study aims to analyze the usage of social media (Facebook & Twitter) by the two biggest countries in South Asia (Pakistan and India). I selected 10 government officials' social media accounts including prime ministers', national press offices', military public relations offices', public diplomacy divisions', and ministries of foreign offices' profiles. The study relies on quantitative content analysis and a comparative research approach. The total number of analyzed Twitter tweets (n=1,015) and Facebook posts (n=1,005) include 10 accounts, five from each country. In light of Kent and Taylor's (1998) dialogic communication framework, the results indicate that no digital engagement and dialogue occurs between government departments and the public through social networking sites. Government departments do not engage with local or foreign audiences through digital media. When comparing both countries, results reveal that India has more institutionalized and organized digital diplomacy. In terms of departmental use of social media, the digital diplomacy division and foreign office of India is more active than other government departments in that nation. Meanwhile, Pakistan's military public relations office and press office is more active than its other government departments. In conclusion, both countries realize the potential of social media in digital diplomacy, but still lack engagement with foreign audiences.

A Study on the Reports of Korean and Chinese Newspapers on Public Diplomacy Issues (한·중 언론의 공공외교 이슈에 관한 보도 연구 - AIIB 보도를 중심으로)

  • Cho, Youngkwon;Na, Misu
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzed the reports of Korean and Chinese newspapers on the foundation of AIIB from the viewpoint of public diplomacy. The results showed that Chinese newspapers reported the government's statements and opinions and played as a means of conforming to the purposes of public diplomacy. Chinese newspapers employed the media paradigm of Instrumentalism among three paradigms of public diplomacy, which was due to ownership structure of the press. In the case of Korean Newspapers, they adopted paradigms of culturalism and professionalism. However, they verged to culturalism in terms of lack of discourse struggle due to few in-depth reports of the effects of national economy of AIIB.

The Objectives and Governance of Science and Technology Diplomacy: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis

  • Lee, Chansong
    • STI Policy Review
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.85-110
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    • 2015
  • Science and technology diplomacy has become an important policy agenda because of its diplomatic utility and enhancing of international science networks. However, different countries possess different objectives and governance of S&T diplomacy. In this context, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: what are the similarities and differences of S&T diplomacy in countries and what shapes these characteristics? To answer these questions, this paper conducts a comparative case study with five countries - Switzerland, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States - whose S&T diplomatic programs are highly recognized and benchmarked by other countries. A useful typology is devised to conduct a systematic comparison. For S&T diplomatic objectives, this paper suggests five types by elaborating concepts from the previous literature: access diplomacy, promotion diplomacy, public aid diplomacy, functional diplomacy, and global leadership diplomacy. Also, in terms of a governance model for S&T diplomacy, three models - a sciencecentered model, a science-outsourcing model and a top-down coordinating model - are suggested based on leadership organization. This paper reveals the different characteristics of the selected countries in S&T diplomacy. While the selected countries pursue almost every type of S&T diplomatic objective, the US and the UK tend to conduct influence-based diplomacy more than other countries do. In addition, different countries each have unique governance models for S&T diplomacy. While more research is necessary for vigorously testing the causes of different objectives and their relationship with governance models, this paper suggests more general policy implications throughout. The strength of the country's S&T base is fundamentally important for the success of S&T diplomacy. However, domestic S&T assets need to be transferred to its diplomatic capabilities. In this sense, the appropriate governance that fits best with the country's S&T mission should be established, while S&T communities should increasingly play a leadership role in evolving global S&T networks.

The Making of a Nation's Citizen Diplomats: Culture-learning in International Volunteer Training Program

  • Lee, Kyung Sun
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.94-111
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    • 2018
  • This study examines Korea's international development volunteer program as a citizen diplomacy initiative. Informed by a cultural perspective of transmission and relational models of public diplomacy, I examine the ways in which volunteer training incorporates cultural-learning into its program. The study finds that volunteer training is largely based on an instrumentalist approach to culture that places emphasis on learning the "explicit" side of culture, such as Korean traditional dance, art, and food as a strategy to promote the country's national image. In contrast, much less covered in the training program is a relational approach to culture-learning that is guided by a reflexive understanding of the "implicit" side of culture, or the values and beliefs that guide the worldviews and behavior of both volunteers and host constituents. Whereas the value of the volunteer program as a citizen diplomacy initiative is in its potential to build relationships based on two-way engagement, its conception of culture is mostly guided by that of the transmission model of public diplomacy. Based on the findings, this study calls for an integrated approach to culture-learning in volunteer training program to move the citizen diplomacy initiative forward.

Public Diplomacy, Soft Power and Language: The Case of the Korean Language in Mexico City

  • Hernandez, Eduardo Luciano Tadeo
    • Journal of Contemporary Eastern Asia
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-49
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    • 2018
  • Public Diplomacy (PD) is the third pillar of South Korean foreign policy. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, PD aims to attract foreign audiences by means of art, knowledge transmission, media, language and foreign aid. When it comes to the Korean language, its global profile has seen an especially marked increase in recent years (Kim, 2009). Thus, this paper's objective is to explain the relevance of the Korean language in the generation of South Korea's soft power. I draw from $C{\acute{e}}sar$ Villanueva's reflections in order to problematize how language promotion can be translated into soft power at five different levels: the empathetic, the sympathetic, the geopolitical, the diplomatic and the utilitarian. I observe that in the case of the Korean language in Mexico City, soft power has the potential to be generated on three levels: it helps to increase knowledge of Korean culture (empathetic); it exercises symbolic persuasion (geopolitical), since the products of cultural industries are mostly in Korean; and it is used as a tool for economic transactions in Mexico City (utilitarian).