• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protozoa

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Protozoa as an Indicator of Activated In Sludge Plant Effluent Quality (원생동물을 이용한 하수처리장의 수질 예측)

  • 이찬형;문경숙
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.361-366
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    • 2000
  • Genera and number of protozoa were investigated in the conventional activated sludge pilot plant used for the treatment of municipal sewage and pre-treated night soil-containing sewage. In both case, the predominant protozoa was ciliates and among them Vorticella was the most common. In the pilot plant where pre-treated night soil was mixed with municipal sewage, genera of free-swimming ciliates, flagellates and amoeba was higher than in those withour night soil. Correlation analysis on the quality of effluent and protozoa indicates that municipal sewage has positive correlation with protozoa. However in the pilot plan 샐 sewage contatinin pre-treated night coil soil more samples show negative correlation. Followed equations were derived by the regression analysis of BOD in both the pilot plants. In case of pilot plant A of municipal sewage, the analysis B of munici-pal and pre-treated night soil-containing sewage, the analysis of BOD was $6.731$\times$10_{-2}$ $\times$Bodo+0.306(Adjusted $R^2$=0.864). At low temperature, number of protozoa was decreased to 35% and among therm, Aspidisca was the most common genus. Therefore, protozoa can be used as indicator of quality of the effluent in sewage treatment plants.

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Ultrastructure of Babesia gibsoni in the erythrocyte from dogs (견적혈구(犬赤血球)에 감염(感染)된 Babesia gibsoni의 미세구조(微細構造)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Jae-Cheol;Lee, Joo-Muk;Chae, Joon-Seok;Yoon, Chang-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 1991
  • For the ultrastructural observation on Babesia gibsoni(B gibsoni), the protozoa were challenged experimentally to splectomized dog. To examine the ultrastructure of the B gibsoni in the erythrocyte, the infected erythrocytes were collected at the cephalic or jugular vein of the dog. The results obtained by TEM(transmission electron microscopy) were as follows; 1. The sizes of protozoa in erythrocytes are $0.92{\pm}0.36{\mu}m{\times}0.67{\pm}0.21{\mu}m$, the sizes of nucleus of the protozoa are $0.55{\pm}0.24{\mu}m{\times}0.38{\pm}0.26{\mu}m$, and sizes of rhoptries in plasma of the protozoa are $0.33{\pm}0.05{\mu}m{\times}0.25{\pm}0.07{\mu}m$, respectively. 2. The tropozoite membrane in the erythrocyte was one, and it's nuclear membrane was made up of double. But the protozoa of initial stage in infected erythrocyte had double clear mambranes, and distinguished from plasma membrane of red blood cell. 3. The mitochondrialike structures covered with two membranes were observed in the protozoa. 4. Mitochondria and vesicles of the reticulocyte were observed near protozoa in the erythrocyte. 5. There are rhoptry, coiled structure and single nucleous in the merozoite. 6. The shape of rhoptry was round or ovoid form and in occasionally, the content of rhoptry was lost partially. 7. There was able to observe the dividing process of the protozoa. 8. Maurer's cleft-like structure was observed.

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The Role of Protozoa in Feed Digestion - Review -

  • Jouany, J.P.;Ushida, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.113-128
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    • 1999
  • Protozoa can represent as half of the total rumen microbial biomass. Around 10 genera are generally present on the same time in the rumen. Based on nutritional aspects they can be divided in large entodiniomorphs, small entodiniomorphs and isotrichs. Their feeding behaviour and their enzymatic activities differ considerably. Many comparisons between defaunated and refaunated animals were carried out during the last two decades to explain the global role of protozoa at the ruminal or animal levels. It is now generally considered that a presence of an abundant protozoal population in the rumen has a negative effect on the amino acid (AA) supply to ruminants and contribute to generate more methane but, nevertheless, protozoa must not be considered as parasites. They are useful for numerous reasons. They stabilise rumen pH when animal are fed diets rich in available starch and decrease the redox potential of rumen digesta. Because cellulolytic bacteria are very sensitive to these two parameters, protozoa indirectly stimulate the bacterial cellulolytic activity and supply their own activity to the rumen microbial ecosystem. They could also supply some peptides in the rumen medium which can stimulate the growth of the rumen microbiota, but this aspect has never been considered in the past. Their high contribution to ammonia production has bad consequences on the urinary nitrogen excretion but means also that less dietary soluble nitrogen is necessary when protozoa are present. Changes in the molar percentages of VFA and gases from rumen fermentations are not so large that they could alter significantly the use of energy by animals. The answer of animals to elimination of protozoa (defaunation) depends on the balance between energy and protein needs of animals and the supply of nutrients supplied through the diet. Defaunation is useful in case of diets short in protein nitrogen but not limited in energy supply for animals having high needs of proteins.

Protozoa as an Indicator of Effluent Quality at Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants (고도폐수처리장에서 원생동물을 이용한 수질예측)

  • Lee, Chan-Hyung;Moon, Kyung-Suk;Park, Sang-Jung;Lee, Eun-Ju;Cho, Jae-Keun;Jin, Ing-Nyol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2006
  • A quantitative survey of the protozoa microfauna at two advanced wastewater treatment plants has been carried out on a weekly basis. The abundance of the protozoa were compared with operating parameters and effluent quality using statistical procedures. The protozoa distribution indicated it seemed the composition of the influent wastewater and operating conditions of plant influenced the structure of protozoa in the plant. In statistical analysis, the distribution of protozoa showed the present operating condition of plant and predicted near-future effluent qualify. Enough data concerning protozoa, operating parameters and effluent has been gathered, the operator has a valuable tool for predicting plant performance and near-future data of effluent based on microscopic examination. Perhaps more importantly it can be used to actually control the plant to adjust the operating conditions to obtain the protozoal populations that have been shown to provide the best effluent quality.

Multiplex PCR Detection of Waterborne Intestinal Protozoa: Microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium

  • Lee, Seung-Hyun;Joung, Mi-Gyo;Yoon, Se-Joung;Choi, Kyoung-Jin;Park, Woo-Yoon;Yu, Jae-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.297-301
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    • 2010
  • Recently, emerging waterbome protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from $10^1$ to $10^2$ oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium paNum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

The Effects of Temperature, Coagulants, and Pre-chlorination on the Removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by Coagulation Process (응집침전공정에서 수온, 응집제 종류, 전염소 주입에 따른 크립토스포리 디움과 지아디아 제거 효율 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Jung;Chung, Young-Hee;Chung, Hyen-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.531-538
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    • 2007
  • The effects of temperature, coagulants and pre-chlorination on the removal of turbidity and pathogenic protozoa by coagulation process were investigated using jar test of lab scale. In room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$), protozoa were removed over 1.0log at the proper concentration range of coagulants, and up to over 2log at the optimal concentration of coagulants. Considering the 1.5log target removal for Giardiain the processes of coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration, this results implies that the target could be satisfied. However, the removal of protozoa and turbidity was reduced, and optimal PAC concentration was narrowed in low turbidity and cold temperature ($5^{\circ}C$). These results suggest that the drop of coagulation efficiency may be occurred in winter if the conditions are not optimized. Despite the effect of water temperature, the relation of turbidity and protozoa removal appeared to be good. The various kinds of coagulants did not significantly affected for removals of turbidity and protozoa when the concentrations of $Al_2O_3$ were considered. Prechlorination did not increase or decrease the removal of turbidity and protozoa in optimum condition at room temperature, pH 7, 15mg/L of PAC concentration.

Bioindicator at $A_2O$ Wastewater Treatment Plant ($A_2O$ 공법 처리장의 Bioindicator)

  • Lee, Chan-Hyung;Moon, Kyung-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2005
  • The occurrence and abundance of protozoa at advanced wastewater treatment plant were compared with operating parameters and effluent quality using statistical procedures. In correlation analysis between the distribution of protozoa and operating parameters, the distribution of protozoa was showed the operating condition of plant. Regression analysis between the distribution of protozoa and effluent quality up to 7 days, showed the R-square values of most regression equation were more than 0.6 and constant was higher than slope and could indicate effluent quality from sampling day to 7 days. Once enough data concerning protozoa, operating parameters and effluent has been gathered, the operator has a valuable tool for predicting plant performance and near-future effluent quality based on microscopic examination. Plant operator manipulates operating conditions if he knows near-future data of effluent is deteriorating. Perhaps more importantly it can be used to actually control the plant to adjust the operating conditions to obtain the protozoal populations that have been shown to provide the best effluent quality.

A Taxonomic Study of Order Arcellinida (Protozoa: Sarcomastigophora: Rhizopoda) from Korea (II)

  • Chung, Wan-ho;Park, Jin-Bok
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 1995
  • Eight species of the freshwater Arcellinida(Protozoa : Sarcomastigophora : Rhizopoda) are described from South Korea ; Centropyxis aerophila, Bullinularia garacilis, NEtzelia oviformis , Nebela caudata , N. collaris, N. lageniformis, Difflugia lanceolata, and D. wailesi. They are newly recorded from Korea.

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