• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein tyrosine kinase

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The Role of Protein Kinase C and Protein Tyrosine Kinase in the Signal Transduction Pathway of Stimulus Induced by Endotoxin in Peripheral Blood Monocyte (말초혈액 단핵구에 대한 내독소 자극의 신호 전달에서 Protein Kinase C와 Protein Tyrosine Kinase의 역할)

  • Kim, Jae-Yeol;Park, Jae-Suk;Lee, Gwi-Lae;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Han, Sung-Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.338-348
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    • 1997
  • Background : Endotoxin, the component of outermembrane of gram negative organism, plays an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory reaction by its effects on inflammatory cells. Until recently, there have been continuing efforts to delinate the mechanisms of the signal trasduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli on inflammatory cells. By uncovering the mechanisms of signal transduction pathway of endotoxin stimuli, we can expect to have tools to control the excessive inflammatory responses which sometimes may be fatal to the involved host. It was generally accepted that endotoxin exerts its inflammatory effects through inflammatory cytokines that are produced by endotoxin-stimulated inflammatory cells and there were some reports on the importance of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase activation in the production of inflammatory cytokines by endotoxin So we evaluated the effect of pretreatment of protein kinase C inhibitors (H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors(Herbimycin, Genistein) on the endotoxin-stimulated cytokines(IL-8 & TNF-$\alpha$) mRNA expression. Method : Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient method and purified by adhesion to 60mm Petri dishes. Endotoxin(LPS 100ng/ml) was added to each dishes except one control dish, and each endotoxin-stimulated dishes was preincubated with H7, Staurosporin(protein kinase C inhibitor), Herbimycin or Genistein(protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor) respectively except one dish. Four hours later the endotoxin stimulation, total RNA was extracted and Northern blot analysis for IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA was done. Result : Endotoxin stimulation increased the expression of IL-8 mRNA and TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression in human peripheral blood monocyte as expected and the stimulatory effect of endotoxin on TNF-$\alpha$ mRNA expression was inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors(H7, Staurosporin) and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein). The inhibitory effect of each drugs was increased with increasing concentration. The stimulatory effect of endotoxin on IL-8 mRNA was also inhibited by H7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (Herbimycin, Genistein) dose-dependently but not by Staurosporin. Conclusion : Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase are involved in the endotoxin induced signal transduction pathway in human peripheral blood monocyte.

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Involvement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase in Stimulated Neutrophil Responses by Sodium Fluoride

  • Chung, Ki-Kwang;Han, Eun-Sook;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 1997
  • In this study, during the activation of neutrophil responses by sodium fluoride. involvement of protein tyrosine kinase was studied. Respiratory burst lysosomal enzyme release and elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$stimulated by sodium fluoride in neutrophils were inhibited by protein kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin. The inhibitory effect of genistein and tyrphostin on superoxide and $H_{2}O_{2}$ production was less than that of protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7. Staurosporine and H-7 had little or no effect on the release of myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase stimulated by sodium fluoride. EGTA and verapamil inhibited the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ evoked by sodium fluoride. The inhibitory effect of staurosporine on the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was less than that of genistein. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated superoxide production, which is sensitive to staurosporine, was further enhanced by genistein, whereas the stimulatory action of PMA on myeloperoxidase release was inhibited by genistein. A pretreatment of neutrophils with PMA signifcantly attenuated sodium fluoride-evoked elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ These results suggest that protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in the activation process of neutrophil responses due to direct stimulation of guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins. In neutrophil responses, PMA-stimulated neutrophils appear to show a different type of inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase.

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Alteration of the Activated Responses in Platelet-Activating Factor-Stimulated Neutrophils by Protein Kinase Inhibitors (Protein Kinase 억제제 첨가 후 Platelet-Activating Factor에 의하여 자극된 호중구반응의 변경)

  • Lee, Kang-Kun;Ko, Ji-Young;Ham, Dong-Suk;Shin, Yong-Kyoo;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 1996
  • Roles of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase in the activation of neutrophil respiratory burst, degranulation and elevation of cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated neutrophils were investigated. Superoxide and $H_2O_2$ production and myeloperoxidase and acid phosphatase release in PAF-stimulated neutrophils were inhibited by protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7 and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin. The PAF-induced elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ in neutrophils was inhibited by staurosporine, genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate. Staurosporine inhibited both intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Mn^{2+}$ influx in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate inhibited $Mn^{2+}$ influx induced by PAF, whereas their effects on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release were not detected. In neutrophils preactivated by PMA, the stimulatory effect of PAF on the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was reduced. Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in respiratory burst, lysosomal enzyme release and $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization in PAF-stimulated neutrophils. The elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ appears to be accomplished by intracullular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Ca^{2+}$ influx which are differently regulated by protein kinases. Preactivation of protein kinase C appears to attenuate the stimulatory action of PAF on intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization.

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Regulatory Action of Protein Tyrosine Kinase in Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in C5a-stimulated Neutrophils (C5a에 의해 자극된 호중구에서 세포내 칼슘동원에 대한 Protein Tyrosine Kinase의 조절작용)

  • Choi, Won-Tae;Han, Eun-Sook;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.417-424
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    • 1996
  • The present study was done to examine the involvement of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ mobilization in C5a-stimulated neutrophils. Although protein kinase C inhibitors, staurosporine and H-7 inhibited intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release in C5a-stimulated neutrophils, they did not affect $Ca^{2+}$ influx across the plasma membrane and elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ C5a-induced intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Ca^{2+}$ influx were inhibited by protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate. ADP-evoked elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was inhibited by genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate but was not affectd by staurosporine and H-7. Genistein and methyl-2,5-dihydroxycinnamate reduced the store-regulated $Ca^{2+}$ influx in thapsigargin-treated neutrophils, while the effect of staurosporine and H-7 was not detected. When neutrophils were preincubated wih phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the stimulatory effect of C5a on the elevation of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was reduced. These results suggest that protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in control of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release and $Ca^{2+}$ influx across the plasma membrane in C5a-activated neutrophils.

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Stimulatory Effect of Ginsenosides on $pp60^{c-src}$ Protein Tyrosine Kinase

  • Hong, Hee-Youn;Park, Seon-Yang;Lee, Seung-Ki;Yoo, Gyurng-Soo;Choi, Jung-Kap
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.114-117
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    • 1993
  • Ginsenosides present in the roots of panax ginseng C.A. Meyer were shown to induce a stimulatory effect on the overexpressed cellular chicken c-src protein tyrossine kinase in NH3T3 cells. Among 4 ginsenosides studied $(G-Rb_2,\;G-Rc,\;G-Re\;and\;G-Rg_1),\;G-Rg_1$ showed the most stimulatory effect at $16.7\mu{g/ml}$ ginsenoside concentration increasing the activity by 2-4 times. Inhibitors of either protein synthesis or RNA synthesis blocked the activation of c-src proein tyrosine kinase. These results suggest that the csrc kinase activation apprars to involve an increase in the amount of protein of the kinase by transcriptional control mechanism rather than an increase in the kinase activity.

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The Involvement of Protein Kinase C and Tyrosine Kinase in Vanadate-induced Contraction

  • Sim, Sang-Soo;Kim, Chang-Jong
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.315-319
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    • 1998
  • Gastric smooth muscle of cats was used to investigate the involvement of protein kinase in vanadate-induced contraction. Vanadate caused a contraction of cat gastric smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Vanadate-induced contraction was totally inhibited by 2 mM EGTA and 1.5 mM $LACI_3$ and significantly inhibited by $10\mu$M verapamil and $1\mu$M nifedipine, suggesting that vanadate-induced contraction is dependent on the extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration, and the influx of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ was mediated through voltage-dependent $Ca^{2+}$ channel. Both protein kinase C inhibitor and tyrosine kinase inhibitor significantly inhibited the vanadate-induced contraction and the combined inhibitory effect of two protein kinase inhibitors was greater than that of each one. But calmodulin antagonists did not have any influence on the vanadate-induced contraction. On the other hand, both forskolin ($1\mu$M) and sodium nitroprusside ($1\mu$M) significantly inhibited vanadate-induced contraction. Therefore, these results suggest that both protein kinase C and tyrosino kinase are involved in the vanadate-induced contraction which required the influx of extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ in cat gastric smooth muscle, and that the contractile mechanism of vanadate may be different from that of agonist binding to its specific receptor.

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Regulation of $Ca_v3.2Ca^{2+}$ Channel Activity by Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation

  • Huh, Sung-Un;Kang, Ho-Won;Park, Jin-Yong;Lee, Jung-Ha
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.365-368
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    • 2008
  • Calcium entry through $Ca_v3.2Ca^{2+}$ channels plays essential roles for various physiological events including thalamic oscillation, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, and sperm acrosomal reaction. In this study, we examined how protein tyrosine phosphatases or protein tyrosine kinases affect $Ca_v3.2Ca^{2+}$ channels reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found that $Ca_v3.2$ channel activity was reduced by 25% in response to phenylarsine oxide (tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor), whereas it was augmented by 19% in response to Tyr A47 or herbimycin A (tyrosine kinase inhibitors). However, other biophysical properties of $Ca_v3.2$ currents were not significantly changed by the drugs. These results imply that $Ca_v3.2$ channel activity is capable of being increased by activation of tyrosine phosphatases, but is decreased by activation of tyrosine kinases.

Multiple Regulation of Roundabout (Robo) Phosphorylation in a Heterologous Cell System

  • Park, Hwan-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.111-115
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    • 2004
  • Roundabout (Robo) is the transmembrane receptor for slit, the neuronal guidance molecule. In this study, the tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo was observed in Robo-transfected human embryonic kidney cells and developing rat brains, and found to be increased by the treatment with protein kinase A activator, forskolin. In contrast, protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate decreased the phosphorylation of Robo. Intracellular calcium was required for the tyrosine phosphorylation. Furthermore, the transfection of an Eph receptor tyrosine kinase dramatically enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation. These findings indicate that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo is regulated by multiple mechanisms, and that Eph receptor kinases may play a role in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Robo in the rat brain.

Action of Phospholipase $A_2$in Histamine Release from Mast Cells (비만세포에서 Histamine유리에 관여하는 Phospholipase $A_2$의 작용)

  • 이윤혜;이승준;서무현;장용운;윤정이
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.287-292
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    • 2001
  • To investigate whether phospholipase $A_2$pathway is involved in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells, we measured histamine release in the presence of various enzyme inhibitors involved in eicosanoid pathway, such as phospholipase $A_2$, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Phospholipase $A_2$inhibitors, manoalide and OPC, significantly inhibited histamine release induced by 100 $\mu$M ATP and 1$\mu$g/ml compound 48/80. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, ibuprofen and indomethacin, significantly inhibited ATP-induced histamine release and lipoxygenase inhibitors, baicalein and caffeic acid, also significantly inhibited. To investigate the involvement of protein kinase in ATP- and compound 48/80-induced histamine release, we observed effects of protein kinase inhibitors on histamine release. Bisindolmaleimide (protein kinase C antagonist) dose-dependently inhibited both ATP and compound 48/80-induced histamine release. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (methyl 2,5-dihydroxy cinnamate and genistein) dose-dependently inhibited ATP and compound 48/80-induced histamine release. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase seem to be involved in histamine release induced by ATP and compound 48/80. These results suggest that phospholipase $A_2$pathway as well as protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase are involved in histamine release of rat peritoneal mast cells by ATP and compound 48/80.

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The Human PTK6 Interacts with a 23-kDa Tyrosine-Phosphorylated Protein and is localized in Cytoplasm in Breast Carcinoma T-47D Cells

  • Bae, Joon-Seol;Lee, Seung-Thek
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2001
  • The human PTK6 (also known as Brk) polypeptide, which is deduced from its full-length cDNA, represents a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). It contains SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase catalytic domains that are closely related to Src family members. We generated an antihuman PTK6 antibody by immunizing rabbits with a PTK6-specific oligopeptide conjugated to BSA, which corresponds to 11 amino acid residues near the C-terminus. An immunoblot analysis with the antibody detected an expected 52-kDa band in various mammalian transformed cell lines. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses demonstrated that PTK6 is phosphorylated on the tyrosine residues) and interacts with approximately a 23-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated polypeptide (most likely a substrate of PTK6) in breast carcinoma T-47D cells. An immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that PTK6 is localized throughout the cytoplasm of T-47D cells. These results support a possible role for PTK6 in the intracellular signal transduction through tyrosine phosphorylation.

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