• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein Synthesis

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Changes in Protein Synthesis Induced by Chilling in Tomato Chloroplasts

  • Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Park, Kwang-Lai;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2001
  • To find out the effect of low temperature on the regulation of tomato chloroplast genes, the optimization of the system in chloroplast protein synthesis and the identification of the changes in chloroplast protein synthesis induced by chilling were studied. Incorporation reaction occurred rapidly at the first 30 minutes and was constantly maintained after 60 minutes. A broad optimal temperature on protein synthesis was found around 20 to $30^{\circ}C$. No difference was shown in the chloroplast protein synthesis under high light intensity (1600 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) as well as under low light intensity (400 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) even darkness. $K^+$, $Mg^{++}$ and ATP at an optimal concentration act as an activator, while DTT, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, $Ca^{++}$ and inorganic phosphate act as an inhibitor in the chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of 15, 55 and 60 kd chloroplast encoded stromal proteins and 18, 24, 33 and 55 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane proteins were reduced by chilling, while 17 kd chloroplast encoded stromal protein and 16 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane protein was induced by chilling. It was expected that the 55 kd stromal protein would be the large subunit of rubisco and the 33 kd thylakoid membrane protein would be the D1 protein which was drastically reduced by chilling.

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Chicken Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Stimulates Protein Synthesis of Chicken Embryo Myoblasts Cultured in Serum-Free Medium

  • Kita, K.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 2001
  • The effect of chicken IGF-I on protein synthesis of chicken embryo myoblasts cultured in serum-free medium was examined. When myoblasts were expanded to approximate 20-30% of well, the medium was changed to the serum-free medium including 0, 2, 20, 200 or 2000 ng/ml of recombinant chicken IGF-I. The culture medium including 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) was used as positive control. After 1 day of incubation, protein synthesis was measured by the incorporation of [$^3H$]-L-leucine. Thereafter cells were continued to incubate for further 18 hours, and the radioactivity in the protein was measured as an index of protein synthesis. The values for protein synthesis cultured in the serum-free medium without chicken IGF-I or with 2000 ng/ml of chicken IGF-I were the lowest. Protein synthesis was elevated with increasing chicken IGF-I concentration from 0 to 20 ng/ml. The values for protein synthesis in the 20 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml IGF-I groups were about half of that of the FCS group. The present study revealed that the potency of chicken IGF-I at the levels of 20 to 200 ng/ml to stimulate myoblast protein synthesis was about half of that of 10% FCS.

Selection and Analysis of Genomic Sequence-Derived RNA Motifs Binding to C5 Protein

  • Kim, Kwang-sun;Ryoo, Hye-jin;Lee, June-Hyung;Kim, Mee-hyun;Kim, Tae-yeon;Kim, Yool;Han, Kook;Lee, Seol-Hoon;Lee, Young-hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.699-704
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    • 2006
  • Escherichia coli RNase P is a ribonucleoprotein composed of M1 RNA and C5 protein. Previously, analysis of RNA aptamers selected for C5 protein from a synthetic RNA library showed that C5 protein could bind various RNA molecules as an RNA binding protein. In this study, we searched cellular RNA motifs that could be recognized by C5 protein by a genomic SELEX approach. We found various C5 protein-binding RNA motifs derived from E. coli genomic sequences. Our results suggest that C5 protein interacts with various cellular RNA species in addition to M1 RNA.

Effect of Orally Administered Branched-chain Amino Acids on Protein Synthesis and Degradation in Rat Skeletal Muscle

  • Yoshizawa, Fumiaki;Nagasawa, Takashi;Sugahara, Kunio
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2005
  • Although amino acids are substrates for the synthesis of proteins and nitrogen-containing compounds, it has become more and more clear over the years that these nutrients are also extremely important as regulators of body protein turnover. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) together or simply leucine alone stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown in skeletal muscle. However, it was only recently that the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of protein turnover by BCAAs has begun to be defined. The acceleration of protein synthesis by these amino acids seems to occur at the level of peptide chain initiation. Oral administration of leucine to food-deprived rats enhances muscle protein synthesis, in part, through activation of the mRNA binding step of translation initiation. Despite our knowledge of the induction of protein synthesis by BCAAs, there are few studies on the suppression of protein degradation. The recent findings that oral administration of leucine rapidly reduced $N^{\tau}$-methylhistidine (3-methylhistidine; MeHis) release from isolated muscle, an index of myofibrillar protein degradation, indicate that leucine suppresses myofiblilar protein degradation. The details of the molecular mechanism by which leucine inhibits proteolysis is just beginning to be elucidated. The purpose of this report was to review the current understanding of how BCAAs act as regulators of protein turnover.

Zeolite-Mediated Cation Exchange Enhances the Stability of mRNA during Cell-Free Protein Synthesis

  • Kim, You-Eil;Kim, Dong-Myung;Choi, Cha-Yong
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.258-261
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    • 2006
  • The addition of zeolite particles enhances the stability of mRNA molecules in a cell-free protein synthesis system. When $20{\mu}g/{\mu}L$ of zeolite (Y5.4) is added to a reaction mixture of cell-free protein synthesis, a substantial increase in protein synthesis is observed. The stabilizing effect of zeolite is most dearly observed in an in vitro translation reaction directed by purified mRNA, as opposed to a coupled transcription and translation reaction. Upon the addition of zeolite in the in vitro translation reaction, the life span of the mRNA molecules is substantially extended, leading to an 80% increase in protein synthesis. The effect of zeolite upon the mRNA stability appears be strongly related to the cation exchange (potassium to sodium) reaction. Our results demonstrate the possibility of modifying this biological process using heterogeneous, non-biological substances in a cell-free protein synthesis system.

MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN VITRO IN CHICKS FED A LOW-PROTEIN DIET

  • Kita, K.;Kuzuya, Y.;Matsunami, S.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.171-174
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    • 1996
  • Muscle protein synthesis in vitro was measured in chicks fed low-protein(10% CP) and control(20% CP) diets. Right leg muscles (M. gastrocnemius) were mounted on a support made of stainless steel to stretch in constant tension, whereas left leg muscles were unmounted. Both leg muscles were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium including L-[$4-^3H$] phenylalanine for 60 min to measure in vitro protein synthesis. There was no significant difference in fractional synthesis rate(FSR) of muscle protein between both dietary protein levels, whereas FSR with stretch in constant tension was significantly higher than that without constant tension due to an increase in the absolute synthesis rate(ASR) per unit RNA(the efficiency of RNA to synthesize protein). The ASR of muscle protein in chicks fed the control diet was significantly higher than that in the low-protein diet group.

Effects of Taurine on Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Poultry and Mice

  • Shim, K.S.;Jung, H.J.;Na, C.S.;Yoon, C.;Park, Garng H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we have attempted to understand the effects of taurine on serum and liver concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in broiler chickens and mice in the post-absorptive state, and on in vitro protein synthesis in the livers of broiler chickens and laying hens, as well as the effects of taurine on in vivo protein synthesis in the liver of mice. The experimental animals were subjected to 24 h of starvation in order to perpetuate a post-absorptive state. Serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the taurine groups than in the controls in both the broilers and the mice. However, taurine resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in liver concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides, relative to what was seen in the control groups of both animals. Taurine stimulated the in vitro synthesis of 57-kDa, 40-kDa and 23-kDa proteins in the liver of broilers, but inhibited the in vitro synthesis of 54-kDa, 37-kDa and 24-kDa proteins. Taurine in the liver of laying hens exerted effects on in vitro protein synthesis, with the exception of the 26-kDa protein which was not detected in broiler liver, but was inhibited by taurine in the liver of laying hens. Unlike the findings regarding in vitro protein synthesis in the liver of broilers or laying hens, taurine appeared to stimulate the synthesis of only two proteins, a 47-kDa and a 40-kDa protein, in the liver of mice. Overall, theses findings indicate that taurine treatment results in a reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and also affects protein synthesis in the livers of broilers, laying hens, and mice.

EFFECT OF TRYPSIN-DIGESTED BOVINE GROWTH HORMONE ON WHOLE-BODY PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN VITRO IN CHICKEN EMBRYOS

  • Kita, K.;Hatano, S.;Okumura, J.;Muramatsu, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.319-323
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    • 1993
  • The effect of bovine growth hormone digested with trypsin on whole-body protein synthesis in vitro of chicken embryos was investigated by using a whole-embryo culture system. Bovine growth hormone at 5.3 and 530 ng/ml was digested partially and completely with trypsin for 4 min and 18 h, respectively. After culturing chicken embryos with a synthetic medium containing $L-[4-^3H]$ pheylalanine, whole-embryo protein synthesis was determined from the ratio of specific radioactivities of free and protein-bound pheylalanine. Whole-embryo protein synthesis of the control group cultured with no bovine growth hormone was $49.5{\pm}2.2%/d$. There was no significant interaction between digestion time and the concentration of trypsin-digested bovine growth hormone. Tryptic digestion of bovine growth hormone increased fractional synthesis rates of whole-body protein compared to the 0-min groups, and there was no significant difference between the 4-min and 18-h groups. The higher concentration (530 ng/ml) of trypsin-digested bovine growth hormone was more effective in enhancing whole-embryo protein synthesis than the lower concentration (5.3 ng/ml).

Continuous Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Using Glycolytic Intermediates as Energy Sources

  • Kim, Ho-Cheol;Kim, Tae-Wan;Park, Chang-Gil;Oh, In-Seok;Park, Kyung-Moon;Kim, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.885-888
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    • 2008
  • In this work, we demonstrate that glycolytic intermediates can serve as efficient energy sources to regenerate ATP during continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) protein synthesis reactions. Through the use of an optimal energy source, approximately 10 mg/ml of protein was generated from a CECF protein synthesis reaction at greatly reduced reagent costs. Compared with the conventional reactions utilizing phosphoenol pyruvate as an energy source, the described method yields 10-fold higher productivity per unit reagent cost, making the techniques of CECF protein synthesis a more realistic alternative for rapid protein production.

Effects of the Protein Fraction of Panax ginseng on Primary Cultured Chicken Brain Cells and DRG (인삼 단백분획물이 일차배양한 계배의 뇌세포 및 DRG에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Mi-Jung;Song, Jin-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yeou;Kim, Young-Choong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 1990
  • The effects of the protein fraction of Panax ginseng on primary cultured chicken embryonic brain cells and DRG cultured with a deficient medium were studied. The protein fraction was further fractionated into four groups according to the molecular weight; larger than 10,000 dalton(fraction A), between 5,000 and 10,000 daltons(fraction B), between 1,000 and 5,000 daltons(fraction C), between 500 and 1,000 daltons(fraction D). All four protein fractions at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ significantly increased the number of the brain cells which promoted the neurite outgrowth. The activity of PDHC in the brain cells was elevated significantly by the protein fraction B at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$. It was noted that $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ protein fraction C and D significantly enhanced the synthesis of protein in the brain cells. At the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$, the protein fraction B enhanced RNA synthesis and the protein fraction A significantly enhanced DNA synthesis in the brain cells. The protein fractions B, C, and D significantly promoted the neurite outgrowth of DRG at the concentration of $100\;{\mu}g/ml$.

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