• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein Supplementation

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Effects of High-Protein Diet and/or Resveratrol Supplementation on the Immune Response of Irradiated Rats

  • Kim, Kyoung Ok;Park, Hyunjin;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.156-163
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    • 2014
  • We investigated the effects of a high-protein diet and resveratrol supplementation on immune cells changes induced by abdominal irradiation in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) control diet, 2) control diet with irradiation 3) 30% high-protein diet with irradiation, 4) normal diet with resveratrol supplementation and irradiation, and 5) 30% high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation and irradiation. We measured blood protein and albumin concentrations, lipid profiles, white blood cell (WBC) counts, proinflammatory cytokine production, and splenocyte proliferation in rats that had been treated with a 17.5 Gy dose of radiation 30 days prior. A high-protein diet affected plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, which were increased by the radiation treatment. In addition, the lymphocyte percentage and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentration were increased, and the neutrophil percentage was decreased in rats fed a high-protein diet. Resveratrol supplementation decreased the triglyceride (TG) level, but increased the IgM concentration and splenocyte proliferation. Proinflammatory cytokine production was lower in rats fed a high-protein diet supplemented with resveratrol than in rats fed a control diet. The results of the present study indicate that high-protein diets, with or without resveratrol supplementation, might assist with recovery from radiation-induced inflammation by modulating immune cell percentages and cytokine production.

Effects of Isoleucine Supplementation of a Low Protein, Corn-Soybean Meal Diet on the Performance and Immune Function of Weanling Pigs

  • Zheng, C.T.;Li, D.F.;Qiao, S.Y.;Gong, L.M.;Zhang, D.F.;Thacker, P.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.70-76
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crystalline isoleucine supplementation of a low protein, corn-soybean meal diet on the performance and immune function of weanling pigs. Forty-five crossbred ($Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Large\;White$) piglets, weighing an average of $11.00{\pm}0.07kg$, were assigned to either a control diet containing 20% crude protein (0.64% isoleucine), a 16% crude protein diet without isoleucine supplementation (0.41% isoleucine) or a 16% crude protein diet supplemented with isoleucine (0.64% isoleucine). Reducing the crude protein content of the diet from 20 to 16% significantly (p<0.05) reduced both average daily gain and feed intake. Feed conversion also tended (p=0.07) to be poorer for a low protein diet without isoleucine supplementation. Isoleucine supplementation of the 16% crude protein diet increased both gain and feed intake to a level similar to that obtained by pigs fed the 20% crude protein diet (p>0.05). Blood urea nitrogen, serum total protein and serum globulin were significantly (p<0.05) higher for pigs fed the unsupplemented 16% crude protein diet than for pigs fed the isoleucine-supplemented diet or the control. Egg albumin antibody titre decreased significantly (p<0.05) in pigs fed the diet with isoleucine supplementation, whereas the antibody titre of pigs fed the low protein and low isoleucine diet was similar to that of pigs fed the diet containing 20% crude protein and 0.64% isoleucine. It was suggested that crystalline isoleucine supplementation of a low protein and low isoleucine diet improved pig performance but suppressed humoral immune function.

Using Enzyme Supplemented, Reduced Protein Diets to Decrease Nitrogen and Phosphorus Excretion of Broilers

  • Jacob, Jacqueline P.;Ibrahim, Sami;Blair, Robert;Namkung, Hwan;Paik, In Kee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1561-1567
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protein levels and supplementation of phytase and pentosanase in wheat-soybean meal diet on the performance and output of N and P in broilers. Addition of phytase alone or in combination with pentosanase to reduced or control protein diets did not affect average final body weight of mixed sexes. However, addition of phytase and pentosanase in combination to reduced protein diets in male broilers significantly depressed body weights. Intestinal viscosity of 21d broilers was significantly decreased by addition of phytase and pentosanase alone or in combination. Tibia ash content was significantly increased by phytase supplementation. Supplementation of phytase alone and in combination with pentosanase to reduced protein diets significantly decreased P in manure and daily output of P. Daily N output was lowest in the reduced protein diet supplemented with phytase and pentosanase combination. The retention of DM, N and P was highest in the reduced protein diet supplemented with phytase and pentosanase combination. In conclusion, supplementation of phytase alone or in combination with pentosanase to reduced protein diets can decrease output of N and P. But the combination of the enzymes has no beneficial effects on the performance of broilers, especially those on wheat-soybean meal diet with reduced protein level.

Effect of Dietary vitamin E and Protein on Cadmium toxicity in Rats (카드뮴 투여 흰주의 혈청 및 간장성분에 미치는 식이성 비타민 E와 단백질의 영향)

  • 김혜진;조수열;박종민
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 1990
  • This study was undertatken to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E on the toxicity of cadmium(Cd) in rats. The two variables were the supplmentary vitamin E(400lU/kg) and the protein amount(10.5% in the low protein diet and 18.0% in the normal protein diet) In cadmium treated rats net weight gain and food intake were decreased but improved by supplementation with vitamin E in the normal protein, hematocrit values reduced by Cd were significantly increased by the addition of vitamin E to normal protein diet in Cd intoxicated rats, The supplementation with vitamin E diminished the effect of Cd on aspartate aminotransf-rase and alanine aminotransferase activities in serum In Cd treated rats fed normal protein diet with vitamin E the contents of triglyceride were decreased and total-cholesterol contents were significantly reduced in serum and both of them in liver were markedly decreased. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in liver was decreased by Cd however supplementation with vitamin E reduced the effects of Cd on hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase. the results of this experiment indicated that there was some interaction between vitamin E and protein levels and supplementation with vitamin E had an effect more than protein levels oncd toxicity.

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Effects of Feeding Betaine on Performance and Hormonal Secretion in Laying Hens

  • Park, Jae-Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2006
  • The effects of dietary betaine on performance, blood compositions, hepatic amino acid concentrations and hormonal secretions were examined in laying hens. Egg production was significantly higher in birds fed the 16.5 % protein diet compared to those fed 14.5 % protein diet(p<0.05), whereas dietary supplementation of betaine did not show any significant effect. The high level of protein and betaine supplementation significantly improved egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion(p<0.05), while eggshell breaking strength, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were not influenced by betaine and dietary protein levels. Supplemental betaine did not affect serum total protein, albumin and BUN concentration. However, uric acid concentration significantly increased in 600 ppm betaine-fed groups(p<0.05). Concentrations of most hepatic amino acid were influenced by increased protein feeding and dietary betaine supplementation. Hormone studies recorded significantly higher serum and hepatocyte IGF-I concentration in 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine treatments(p<0.05) compared to those of control group. IGF-I mRNA gene expression of hepatocytes revealed statistically correlated increase in 600 and 1,200 ppm betaine-fed groups compared to the controls(p<0.05). Serum IGFBP-3 concentration was significantly elevated in 600 ppm betaine treatments. However, the secretion of IGFBP-1 in hepatocyte of laying hens fed with 600 and 1,200 ppm of betaine showed a significant decrease compared to the control group(p<0.05). Results of these study show that dietary betaine supplementation affects protein and hormone metabolism in laying hens.

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Effects of Dietary Mixed Protein and L-Carnitine Supplementation on Lipid Metabolism in Rats fed High Fat Diet (고지방식에 혼합단백질과 L-카르니틴을 첨가했을 때 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Won Hyang Rye;Kim Min Sun;Rhie Seung Gyo
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2004
  • This study is to investigate the effect of dietary mixed protein and L-carnitine supplementation on lipid metabolism in the rats fed high fat diet. Six experimental groups were organized and each group had eight Sprague-Dawley male white rats with the initial weight of around 180g. The six experimental groups were CO(supplemented with casein), CC(supplementedwith casein and cartinine), ISO(supplemented with isolated soy protein), ISC(supplemented with isolated soy protein and cartinine), CIM(supplemented with casein and isolated soy protein), and CIC(supplemented with casein, isolated soy protein and cartinine). Each group was supplemented with the experimental diet for four weeks, and carnitine contained 3efo of the diet. The results were as follows; 1. There was no significant difference in food intake among the experimental groups. The weight increased more significantly in the group supplemented with the mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein(p<0.05).2. There was weight reduction effect by the supplementation of carnitine(p<0.05), however no weight reduction effect by the supplementation of carnitine was observed in the group supplemented with the mixed protein and isolated soy protein. 3. Food efficiency was lower in the group supplemented with the mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein (p<0.05), however it was similar in the group supplemented with isolated soy protein.4. Serum total lipid and se겨m total cholesterol were lower in the group supplemented with mixed protein than in the group supplemented with casein(p<0.05). 5. There was no significant difference of serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol among the experimental groups. 6. Liver triglyceride was the highest in the group supplemented with mixed protein (p<0.05), and there was no significant difference of liver total lipid and total cholesterol among the experimental groups. 7. In the groups supplemented with mixed protein, the level of liver TBARS showed the lowest when casein was supplemented(p<0.05), and there was no significant difference of GSH-Px activities among the experimental groups. In summary, when mixed protein was supplemented to the rats weight gain and food efficiency were similar with those in the group supplemented with isolated soy protein, however they were lower than those in the group supplemented with casein. The effect of carnitine on weight was not observed in the group supplemented with mixed protein and isolated soy protein, however it was observed in the group supplemented with casein. Serum Total lipid and total cholesterol were lower than those in the group supplemented with casein. Liver total triglyceride was high in the group supplemented with mixed protein, and the antioxidant effect was observed in the group supplemented with mixed protein.

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Effect of Long-Term Pyridoxine Depletion on Lipid Composition in the Developing Rat Brain (장기간의 Pyridoxine 부족이 새끼쥐 뇌의 지방조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김정희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.318-329
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    • 1987
  • Weanling female Sprague Dawley rate were fed 1.2mg pyridoxine' HCl/kg diet Cdepleted diet) and 2 22mg pyridoxine' HCI/kg dietCcontrol diet). The control and one depleted group were fed their diets throughout growth, gestation, and lactation. Other three depleted groups were fed the depleted diet throught growth and gestation, and then pyridoxine w was supplemented by feeding control diet at 5, 10, and 21 days postpartum. The brains were analyzed for proteolipid protein, cholesterol, and cerebrosi­d de. Percentage stimulation of erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity was also determined. Body and brain weight were significantly lower at all ages in depleted group than the control and depleted group showed inadequacy of B6 at all ages. PProteolipid protein and cholesterol were significa­n ntlylower in the depleted group at 10, 21, 35 and 5 50 days. The postnatal development of cerebroside in brain was delayed in depleted groups suppleme­I nted at 5, 10, and 21 days. When supplementation was initiateo at 5 days postparturn, contents of cho­lesterol proteolipid protein were reversed. But some differences in brain development of pups we­re evident when supplementation of dams was de­layed to 10 days or 21 days.

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Effects of Yucca Extracts and Protein Levels on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization in Growing Pigs

  • Min, T.S.;Kim, J.D.;Tian, J.Z.;Cho, W.T.;Hyun, Y.;Sohn, K.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2001
  • A total of 120 pigs were used to investigate the effects of yucca extracts on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excretion of growing pigs fed different levels of dietary protein. Pigs were allotted into $2{\times}3$ factorial design by the supplementation with yucca extract (YE, 0 and 120 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary protein (16, 18, 20%). During the whole experimental period (18 to 52 kg body weight), there were no significant differences in ADG, ADFI or F/G by YE addition or different protein levels among treatments (p>0.05). Overall, although addition of YE to the diet and elevation of protein level showed better ADG, there were no significant differences in growth performance among treatments. Pigs fed diets with YE showed significantly (p<0.05) higher dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA) and crude protein (CP) digestibility than did the others during the growing period. Concerning the levels of dietary protein, only the CP digestibility was significantly higher in pigs fed high protein diet. Pig fed the low protein diet without YE showed a significantly low CP digestibility (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in crude fat (CF), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) digestibilities regardless of YE supplementation or dietary protein levels. Pigs fed YE supplemented diets showed significantly (p<0.05) higher amino acid digestibility. Also, high CP level diets showed a higher amino acid digestibility than low CP diets (p<0.05). DM and N excretion did not show any significant differences among treatments, there was a slightly lower excretion with increase in dietary protein level. Supplementation with YE significantly decreased the DM and N excretion. Interaction (YE$\times$protein) was found in P excretion. Pigs fed a medium protein diet without YE showed the lowest P excretion during the growing period. The NH3-N content in the feces tended to be increased by the increased dietary protein levels and with YE supplementation. During the whole experimental period, the cost for YE supplementation was similar to value of the improvements of performance obtained. The cost of feeding high level protein was significantly higher than that of medium level protein by 10% and low level protein by 9% (p<0.05). It could be concluded that the effects of dietary protein level and yucca extract on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and excretion might play a role to some extent in growing pigs from the aspect of pollution control.

PROTEIN SPARING EFFECT AND AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITIES OF SUPPLEMENTAL LYSINE AND METHIONINE IN WEANLING PIGS

  • Han, I.K.;Heo, K.N.;Shin, I.S.;Lee, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.393-402
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    • 1995
  • Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritive values of supplemental L-lysine, liquid and powder type, and DL-methionine in weanling pigs. For feeding trial, 165 weanling pigs were treated in 2 controls; 18 and 16% CP, 6 supplementations of lysine alone to 16% CP diets; 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% of liquid and powder type each, and 3 supplementations of lysine + methionine to 15% CP diets; 0.05 + 0.025, 0.1 + 0.05 and 0.2 + 0.1%. Pigs were fed for 5 week to investigate the protein sparing effect of supplemental amino acid, and the optimal supplemental level. A metabolic trial included the measurements of digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, energy, phosphorus and amino acids. The liver acinar cell culture was conducted for the protein synthesis activity of the pigs fed each experimental diet. Supplementation of both type of L-lysine in 16% CP diet showed improved daily weight gain and feed efficiency which were compatible with those of pigs fed 18% CP diet. Groups fed liquid lysine did not differ from those fed powder type in growth performance. Supplementation of lysine and methionine to 15% CP diet did not improve growth performance of pigs to the extent that 18% CP diet was fed. In nutrient digestibility, 16% CP control diet showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower crude protein digestibility than any other treatments. Digestibilities of 16% CP diets with lysine supplementation were equal to that of 18% CP control, while digestibilities of 15% CP diets with the supplementation of lysine + methionine was inferior to that of 18% CP control. Supplementation of lysine alone reduced the nitrogen excretion compared to the none supplemented control groups. However, addition of lysine + methionine excreted more nitrogen than controls. Pigs fed diet supplemented with lysine alone, or lysine + methionine excreted less fecal phosphorus than those fed none supplemetation. Retained protein from liver tissue of pigs fed 18% diet was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than those fed 16% CP diet. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in physical type of lysine. Feeding of powder type showed less secreted protein and greater retained protein in the culture of liver acinar cell. It is concluded that supplementation of lysine at the level of 0.1 to 0.2% can spare 2% of dietary protein and reduce nitrogen excretion by 19.3%. Also, no difference in nutritional values was observed between liquid and powder lysine in weanling pigs.

Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

  • Anantasook, N.;Wanapat, M.;Cherdthong, A.;Gunun, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.820-826
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of $405{\pm}40$ kg and $36{\pm}8$ DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, $NH_3$-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS) in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05) while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.