• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protein Efficiency Ratio

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Effects of Fat Sources and Energy to Protein Ratio on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Chicks

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.239-243
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    • 1996
  • Three hundred and twenty-four 1 day old chicks were used to determine the effects of fat source and energy to protein ratio on growth performance , carcass composition and the efficiency on nutrient utilization. Chicks were assigned. in a completely randomized design, to 3*3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Chicks received one of three fat sources (n0 fat, tallow, corn oil) and one of three energy to protein ratios(16, 14 and 12kcal ME/g CP). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric(3.2Mcal ME/kg diets) using published ME values for the diet ingredients. Addition of tat to the diet increased ADG, average daily feed intake, and gain to feed, Chicks fed diets containing fat had increased percentage body DM and ether extract(EE), but percentage CP was not different, Chicks fed diets containing fat had increased efficiency of protein and energy deposition. Addition of fat ad either fallow or corn oil yielded similar results. Reducing the energy to protein ratio of the diet did not affect ADG or gain to feed, but tended to decrease average daily feed intake(p=0.80), as well as resulting in linear(p<0.05) reductions in body percentage DM., EE and also total EE. Increasing the energy to protein ratio did not affect percentage or total body Cp. Adding fat to poultry diets improved growth performance and the efficiency of growth chicks. Decreasing the energy to protein ratio did not affect growth performance, but reduced EE in the body of Chicks.

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The Effect of Lysine to Protein Ratio on Growth Performance and Efficiency of Nitrogen Utilization in Pigs

  • Li, Defa;Xi, Pengbin;Wang, Junxun;Wang, Jitan;Ren, Jiping;Kang, Yufan;Thacker, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.1282-1289
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    • 2001
  • One feeding trial and two metabolic trials were conducted to investigate the effects of lysine to protein ratio in practical swine diets on growth performance and efficiency of nitrogen retention and utilization in different growing phases. In Trial one (the feeding trial), 90 mixed sex pigs weighing $9.1{\pm}1.4kg$ (Duroc ${\times}$ Landrance ${\times}$ Beijing Black) were used to study the effects of concentrations of 5.2, 5.3, 5.8, 6.4 and 7.2 g lysine/100 g CP in diets containing 1.2% lysine on growth performance and serum urea nitrogen. The results showed that feed conversion efficiency and economic efficiency were best for pigs fed the diet containing the lysine concentration of 5.8 g /100 g crude protein. Serum urea nitrogen concentration decreased linearly (p=0.0009) and serum free lysine content increased linearly (p=0.0017) as the lysine to protein ratio in diets increased from 5.2 to 7.2 g/100 g. In Trials two and three (the metabolic trials), five growing barrows (Duroc ${\times}$ Landrance ${\times}$ Beijing black), with initial body weights of approximately $26{\pm}2.4kg$ and $56.3{\pm}3.5kg$, respectively, were allotted to five dietary treatments according to a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design. Trial two contained 5.2, 5.7, 6.1, 6.7 and 6.8 g lysine/100 g CP treatments. Trial three contained 4.6, 5.0, 5.6, 6.1 and 6.6 g lysine/100 g CP treatments. The results showed that nitrogen retention in growing pigs decreased linearly (p=0.0011 in Trial two; p=0.0099 in Trial three) as the lysine to protein ratio in diets increased. The ratio of lysine to protein in diets resulting in maximum nitrogen retention was 5.2 g/100 g and 5.0 g/100 g in Trial two and Trial three, respectively. In Trial two, apparent biological value and gross nitrogen efficiency increased linearly (p=0.0135 and p=0.0192, respectively) as the lysine to protein ratio increased from 5.2 to 6.8 g lysine/100 g CP. In summary, we concluded that the optimal Lysine to Protein Ratios for 8-20 kg and 20-80 kg pigs were 5.8 g/100 g and 5.0 to 5.2 g/100 g, respectively.

Effects of Dietary Lamb and Beef Meat on the Growth and Protein Utilization in Rats (양고기와 쇠고기의 식이가 흰쥐의 성장과 단백질 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 박선희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 1991
  • This study was carried out to compare the protein quality of lamb and beef meat. by feeding to growing rats. Sixty weanling rats, 30 males and 30 females, were blocked into 12 groups(6 gruops of males and 6 groups of females). They were fed casein. beef, or lamb as a protein source at two levels, 6 and 15%, for 5 weeks. The amount of food intake. food efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio. body weight gain. and the weights of skeletal muscles and liver were measured. Nitrogen retention, protein content in the liver and skeletal muscles, and the levels of protein and cholesterol in the serum were also assayed. Summarzing the results, there were no significant differences between lamb and beef on the growth and nitrogen utilization in the rats fed same percentage of protein diet. However. rats fed 15% protein diet showed significantly higher growth rate than those fed 6%. Therefore, it can be concluded that lamb is as good a protein food as beef in terms of protein quality.

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Evaluation of the Optimum Dietary Protein to Energy Ratio in Juvenile River Puffer Takifugu obscurus (치어기 황복(Takifugu obscurus) 사료 내 에너지에 대한 적정 단백질 비 평가)

  • Yoo, Gwangyeol;Bai, Sungchul C.
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.868-876
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary protein to energy (P/E) ratio in juvenile river puffer. Nine experimental diets were formulated with three energy levels and three protein levels at each energy levels. Three energy levels of 3000, 3750 and 4500 kcal diets were included at 45, 50 and 55% crude protein (CP) levels, respectively (45P3000, 45P3750, 45P4500, 50P3000, 50P3750, 50P4500, 55P3000, 55P3750 and 55P4500). Fish averaging $3.43{\pm}0.02$ g randomly were fed the experimental diets in triplicate groups for 8 weeks. Weight gain of fish fed the 50P4500 diet were significantly higher than that of fish fed the 45P3000, 45P3750, 45P4500, 50P3000 and 50P3750 diets (P<0.05), but there was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 50P4500, 55P3750 and 55P4500 diets. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 50P4500 diet were significantly higher than that of fish fed the 45P3000, 45P3750, 45P4500, 50P3000 and 50P3750 diets (P<0.05), but there was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 50P4500, 55P3000, 55P3750 and 55P4500 diets. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 45P3000 and 45P3750 diets was higher than that of fish fed 50P4500 and 55P4500, but there was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 45P3000, 45P3750, 45P4500, 50P3000, 50P3750, 55P3000 and 55P3750 diets. Based on weight gain, feed efficiency and specific growth rate, diets containing energy levels 4500 kcal/kg diet had an optimum P/E ratio of approximately 111 mg protein/kcal (50% crude protein) in juvenile river puffer.

Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri

  • Sankian, Zohreh;Khosravi, Sanaz;Kim, Yi-Oh;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.7.1-7.6
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    • 2017
  • A feeding trial was designed to assess the effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth, feed utilization efficiency, and muscle proximate composition of juvenile mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri. Six experimental diets were formulated with a combination of three protein (35, 45, and 55%) and two dietary lipid levels (7 and 14%). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish ($8.3{\pm}0.1g$) to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary protein level from 35 to 55% at the same dietary lipid level. At the same dietary lipid content, WG and SGR obtained with diets containing 55% protein was significantly higher than those obtained with diets containing 45 and 35% protein. No significant effect on growth rate was found when the dietary level of lipid was increased from 7 to 14%. While the levels of protein and lipid in the diets had no significant effect on feed intake, other nutrient utilization efficiency parameters including daily protein intake (DPI), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar trend to that of growth rates, with the highest values obtained with diets containing 55% protein. Muscle chemical composition was not significantly affected by the different dietary treatments for each dietary lipid or protein level tested. These findings may suggest that a practical diet containing 55% protein and 7% lipid provides sufficient nutrient and energy to support the acceptable growth rates and nutrient utilization of mandarin fish juveniles.

Effects of Replacement of Fish Meal with Poultry By-product Meals on Apparent Digestibility, Body Composition and Protein Efficiency Ratio in a Practical Diets for Rainbow Trout, Onchorynchus mykiss

  • Erturk, M.Mustafa;Sevgili, Huseyin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1355-1359
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    • 2003
  • This study examined the replacement of the fish meal (FM) with commercial poultry by-product meal (PBM) in practical diets for rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets containing levels 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% of PBM as a replacement for FM were fed to three replicate groups of rainbow trout with a initial weight $34.50{\pm}0.43g$ (mean${\pm}$SE). Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of diets containing PBM up to 20% were similar to the control while significantly lower values were obtained from the groups receiving higher levels of PBM (p<0.05). Apparent protein digestibility coefficients (ADCs) were significantly lower than that of the control group when PBM was included at level of 20% or more. Similarly, significantly lower values were observed with diets containing 30 and 40% PBM in terms of dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ash and energy digestibility (p<0.05). Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the body composition of the fish in terms of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash. In conclusion, PBM in a proportion of 20% may replace about 40 % of FM in rainbow trout diet without significant impairment grow.

Dietary Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Yellowtail Flounder Pleuronectes ferrugineus

  • Kim, Jeong-Dae;Lall, Santosh P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1777-1781
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    • 2003
  • The lysine requirements of juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus) having 19.5 g initial body weight were estimated by feeding six practical-type diets containing graded levels of lysine (1.21 to 2.69% of dry diet). Dietary amino acid profile simulated that of whole body of yellowtail flounder. Most of amino acids in the diets were provided by corn gluten meal, herring meal and gelatin. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved significantly until lysine level increased up to 2.1% (4.3% of protein). Same trend was observed in feed:gain ratio (FGR) which maintained constant in fish groups fed diets containing lysine above 2.1%. The highest nitrogen gain (0.34 g/fish) in whole body was found in fish fed 2.1% lysine, though the value was not different from those of fish fed above the level of lysine. Fish fed 2.1% lysine also showed the best nitrogen retention efficiency of 24.6%. The broken-line analysis of protein efficiency ratio and body nitrogen gain against dietary lysine level yielded an estimated lysine requirement of 2.2% (4.5% of protein) and 2.3% (4.7% of protein), respectively.

Dietary Effect of Tangle-supplementation on the Albino Rats - Specially Nutritional Physiology of Various Levels of Tangle-addition Supplementation - (미역첨가식이(添加食餌)에 관한 영양생리학적(營養生理學的) 연구(硏究) - 특(特)히 미역농도별(濃度別) 첨가식이(添加食餌)가 백서생육(白鼠生育)에 미치는 영향(影響)에 관하여 -)

  • Yang, I.S.;Lee, K.Y.
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 1975
  • In the classic point of view, it has well known that the tangle is the mineral source, especially iodide. However, there are few reports that the tangle can be used the high-protein source. With the consideration whether the tangle can be used as a protein source as well as one of the foodstuff or not, this studies is done by animal experiment. The Albino rats to be examined were fed on the basal diet (Table 1) and the others including the polished tangle by weight 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, as experimental diets, for 4 weeks, respectively. The weight gain(Fig. 1), total amount of diet intake (Fig. 2), total water intake(Fig. 3), feed efficiency ratio (Fig. 4) and protein efficiency ratio (Fig. 5) was measured by each week, respectively. In addition, organ weight (Fig. 6) and blood study (Fig. 7, Fig. 8) was also analyzed at the end of the experiment. As the results of this study, growth rate, that is, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio in all experimental groups increased more than those of the control group. Moreover, it was also found that weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio by feeding on the 2 percent tangle group was higher than the corresponding values of all experimental groups. However, feed intake and total water gain were the most by feeding on the 5% tangle group. This result may be interpreted to show that the total content of sodium includes more than enough in the feed intakes. To obtain further information concerning the effect of the tangle-dietary conditions on the growth rate of Albino rats, it was measured the organ weight. In the adrenal and spleen, the total weight by feeding on the all experimental groups were decreased more than that in the case of the control group. In the other hand, in the liver the weight by feeding on the high concentration groups (4%, 5% tangle diets) were not higher than the control group, while in the case of the low concentration groups (2%, 3% tangle diets) were higher than that of the control group. When it was observed the blood components, total protein, hemoglobin, sodium, potassium, white blood cell and red blood cell of rats, the content of white blood cell by feeding on all experimental groups were lower than that by feeding on the control group, but it was also clear that in the other components except white blood cell in blood the contents by feeding on all experimental groups were similar to that in the case of the control groups. However, in the 5% tangle group, the content of sodium was the lowest of all experimental groups, where as the content of potassium was the highest of all experimental groups.

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Effect of Protein Concentration on Foam Separation in a Seawater Aquarium (해수활어수조의 포말분리시 단백질 농도의 영향)

  • SUH Kuen-Hack;SHIN Jeong-Sik;LEE Chang-Kuen;LEE Seok-Hee;CHEON Jae-Kee;JO Jae-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2004
  • Effect of initial protein concentration on the protein removal rate was assessed for seawater aquarium using a foam separator. Protein removal rate was increased and removal efficiency was decreased with the increase of initial protein concentration. Enrichment ratio was decreased and foam generation rate was increased with the increase of initial protein concentration. Total suspended solids (TSS) removal rate was increased with the increase of initial protein concentration, and TSS removal efficiency was decreased with the increase of initial protein concentration. Turbidity removal rate and removal efficiency were increased with the increase of initial protein concentration.

Effect of Godulbaegi(Ixeris sonchifolia H.) Powder on Growth, Protein and Lipid Concentration in Rats (고들빼기가 흰쥐의 성장률, 단백질 및 지질농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 고진복;오세원;김재영
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.525-530
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    • 1998
  • The effects of godulbaegi(Ixeris sonchifolia H.) powder on body weight gain, lipid and protein concentrations, and enzyme activities were studied in growing male rats for 4 and 8 week. The fats (Sprague-Dawley) were fed diets containing 5% godulbaegi or without. The body weght gain, food efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit value of rats fed godulbaegi diet were similar to the control diet. The ratio of spleen weight to body weight in godulbaegi group for 8 weeks was greater than in that of control group, but they were similar both feeding groups in liver and kidney. The concentrations of the total lipid and triglyceride in serum were increased in rats fed godulbaegi diet for 4 week than in those fed control diet, but those were decreased in rats fed godulbaegi diet for 8 week than in those fed the control diet. The concentrations of the phospholipid, total cholestrol and HDL-cholestrol in serum were decreased in rats fed godulbaegi diet for 8 week than in those fed control diet. The HDL-cholestrol/total cholestrol ratio and athergenic index were similar to both diet groups. There were no differences in growth, serum total protein, albumin concentrations, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities between rats fed godulbaegi diet and those fed the control diet.

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