• Title, Summary, Keyword: Protected Fat

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Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows

  • Chen, Kuen-Jaw;Jan, Der-Fang;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Yang, Der-Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.821-827
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat and heat-extruded soybean meal on the lactation performance of Holstein cows. Twenty-four cows, consisting of 20 lactating cows and 4 rumen-fistulated dry cows, were randomly allocated into four groups with 5 lactating cows and 1 fistulated cow in each group. A replicated 4${\times}$4 Latin square design with four 21 day periods, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 collection days within each period was employed. The experiment was a 2${\times}$2 arrangement, with or without heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat inclusion. The dietary treatments consisted of supplements of (a) soybean meal (the control), (b) heat-extruded soybean meal, (c) protected fat, and (d) heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed intake, milk yield, milk protein content, milk lactose content and body weight change between the dietary treatments. However, cows supplemented with protected fat showed a significantly increased (p<0.05) milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM and total solid yield. The increase in undegradable intake protein (UIP) via heat extruded soybean meal supplement significantly decreased the urea nitrogen concentration in the blood (p<0.05). Dietary fat inclusion significantly increased the blood cholesterol concentration (p<0.01) and decreased the ruminal pH value (p<0.01). Increased dietary UIP significantly decreased the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen (p<0.01), but did not significantly influence the pH and VFA molar percentage in the rumen. It appears that dietary protected fat inclusion could improve milk fat and solid content. Increased dietary undegradable intake protein through heat extruded soybean meal did not improve milk yield. But it could alleviate the adverse effect of decreased milk protein due to dietary fat supplementation. Increased UIP could also decrease the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen and plasma urea nitrogen concentration in the blood.

Effects of Automatic Milking Systems on Raw Milk Quality and Milk Fat Properties with or without Feeding Protected Fat (자동착유시스템(AMS) 착유 및 보호지방 첨가 급여가 원유의 품질 및 유지방 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon, Ju Yeon;Chang, Kyeong-Man;Nam, In-Sik;Park, Seong-Min;Oh, Nam Su;Son, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2014
  • Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been increasingly introduced to Korean dairy farms. However, in comparison with conventional milking systems (CMS), some negative changes in milk quality are being observed. The use of AMS leads to an increase in milking frequency, which in turn might result in higher physical stress on the milk, possibly causing changes in the milk fat globule (MFG) membrane. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the different milking systems on the milk quality, with a focus on milk fat properties. At the same time, we studied the effect of feeding the dairy cows with protected fat. Raw milk samples were taken monthly from individual cows as well as from bulk tanks at four AMS and four CMS dairy farms. We measured quality-related parameters such as MFG size distribution, free fatty acid content and composition, and acid values. Although most results showed no significant differences with regard to the milking system, we found a relatively high positive correlation between MFG size and milk fat content. Moreover, larger MFG size was observed in the milk when cows had been fed protected fat. The significantly higher (P< 0.05) free fatty acid content of milk observed under this experimental condition could be attributed to higher milking frequency as a result of using AMS.

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Development and Evaluation of Protected Fat in Wheat Straw Based Total Mixed Ration

  • Sirohi, S.K.;Malik, Raman;Walli, T.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1405-1408
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    • 2001
  • Ca salt of soybean oil (PSO) and that of mustard oil plus mahua oil (PMOMO) (50:50) were prepared using double decomposition method, and further tested for their fatty acid composition and degree of saponification. Furthermore, the different levels of protected fat of PSO and PMOMO were evaluated in wheat straw based total mixed ration (TMR) in vitro. Results indicated that capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, steric, oleic, linoleic, leinolenic acids were traces, traces, traces, 10.00, 2.00, 25.00, 58.50, 5.0% in PSO while the corresponding values in PMOMO were 1.08, 0.28, 0.45, 16.9, 12.95, 44.38, 17.46 and 6.50%, respectively. The degree of saponification of both protected fat supplements was more than 80%. Six treatment combinations were tested I.e., blank without feed and fat supplement (T1); control diet with out fat supplement (T2); control diet plus bypass fat supplement (PSO) so that diet contain 5% fat (T3); control diet plus bypass fat supplement (PSO) so that diet contain 7.5% fat (T4); two more diets viz. T5 and T6 were formulated using bypass fat supplement from PMOMO containing 5 and 7.5% fat respectively. TMR was prepared using 50% concentrate mixture and 50% wheat straw. Result indicated that TVFA, $NH_3-N$,TCA-N, total-N and total gas production were increased in treatment diets at 7.5% level of supplementation, however, fermentation pattern remain similar at 5.0% level of supplementation with respect to control diet. Nevertheless, IVDMD and IVOMD values remained unchanged, rather non-significant at both fat levels and with the both fat sources. On the basis of results it was concluded that Ca-salt of Soybean oil or Mustard plus Mahua oil did not show any negative effect either on digestibility or on microbial protein synthesis in rumen, hence the dietary fat upto 7.5% level in total mixed ration based on wheat straw, could be safely used without any adverse effect on rumen fermentation.

Effects of Rumen Protected Oleic Acid in the Diet on Animal Performances, Carcass Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Hanwoo Steers

  • Lee, H-J.;Lee, S.C.;Oh, Y.G.;Kim, K.H.;Kim, H.B.;Park, Y.H.;Chae, H.S.;Chung, I.B
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1003-1010
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    • 2003
  • The effects of different rumen protected forms, oleamide, Ca oleate, of dietary oleic acid on the carcass quality and fatty acid composition in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat tissues of Hanwoo steer were examined. Sixty, 25 month old Hanwoo steers divided into three groups were fed no supplement (Control), 2% of oleamide (Oleamide) or Ca-oleate (Ca-Oleate) in their diet for 45 or 90 days. Disappearance rates of oleic acid supplements in digestive tracts (Rumen bypass, abomasal and intestinal disappearance rate) were 48.5, 68.4 for oleamide and Ca oleate, respectively. Both oleic acid supplements affected feed intake, growth rate, cold carcass weight and carcass fatness. Live weight gain, carcass weight, backfat thickness and marbling score were higher in the oleic acid supplemented steers compared with those from the control. Oleic acid supplements increased marbling score and ether extract in Hanwoo steer m. logissi thoracicmus. Rumen protected oleic acid increased not only the level of oleic acid but also polyunsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular and subcutaneous fat tissue. Total saturated fatty acid contents in both fat tissues were decreased whereas total unsaturated fatty acid content was increased compared with those from control. Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents were significantly higher in Ca oleate than any other steers. Lipid metabolites in blood were increased in rumen protected oleic acid treatments. HDL content in blood was increased in Ca-oleate supplemented steers whereas LDL was decreased compared with control. The changes of fatty acid compositions in the rumen protected oleic acid supplemented steers suggest that the oleic acid and unsaturated fatty acid were protected from rumen biohydrogenation and can be deposited in the fat tissues.

In vitro and Lactation Responses in Mid-lactating Dairy Cows Fed Protected Amino Acids and Fat

  • Nam, I.S.;Choi, J.H.;Seo, K.M.;Ahn, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1705-1711
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ruminally protected amino acids (RPAAs) and ruminally protected fat (RPF) supplementation on ruminal fermentation characteristics (in vitro) and milk yield and milk composition (in vivo). Fourteen mid-lactating Holstein dairy cows (mean weight $653{\pm}62.59kg$) were divided into two groups according to mean milk yield and number of days of postpartum. The cows were then fed a basal diet during adaptation (2 wk) and experimental diets during the treatment period (6 wk). Dietary treatments were i) a basal diet (control) and ii) basal diet containing 50 g of RPAAs (lysine and methionine, 3:1 ratio) and 50 g of RPF. In rumen fermentation trail (in vitro), RPAAs and RPF supplementation had no influence on the ruminal pH, dry matter digestibility, total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N concentration. In feeding trial (in vivo), milk yield (p<0.001), 4% fat corrected milk (p<0.05), milk fat (p<0.05), milk protein (p<0.001), and milk urea nitrogen (p<0.05) were greater in cows fed RPAAs and RPF than the corresponding values in the control group. With an index against as 0%, the rates of decrease in milk yield and milk protein were lower in RPAAs and RPF treated diet than those of basal diet group (p<0.05). In conclusion, diet supplemented with RPAAs and RPF can improve milk yield and milk composition without negatively affecting ruminal functions in Holstein dairy cows at mid-lactating.

Influence of Ruminally Protected Fat and Urea Treated Corncobs Ensiled with or without Corn Steep Liquor on Nutrient Intake, Digestibility, Milk Yield and Its Composition in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

  • Sarwar, M.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Un-Nisa, Mahr
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2004
  • Sixteen early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, four animals in each group, were used in a Completely Randomized Design to evaluate the effect of varying levels of both ruminally protected fat and urea treated corncobs ensiled with or without corn steep liquor (CSL) on feed intake, digestibility and milk production and its composition. Four experimental diets were formulated. The control (C) diet was balanced to contain 0% fat and 35% urea treated corncobs ensiled with 0% CSL. The low fat (LF), medium fat (MF) and high fat (HF) diets had 45, 55 and 65% urea treated corncobs ensiled with 9% CSL and 2, 4 and 6% ruminally protected fat, respectively. Dry matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes by buffaloes remained similar across all treatments. However, DM and NDF as a percent of body weight and digestible DM intakes were higher in HF diet when compared to C, LF and MF diets. Digestible NDF intakes were also significantly higher in HF diet as compared to all other diets. The intakes of ADF and digestible ADF were higher in MF and HF than C and LF diets. The significant variation in digestible DM, ADF and NDF intakes may be attributed to the ammoniation of corncobs along with CSL that caused significant changes in the degradability and digestibility of the diets. Ether extract and digestible EE intakes differed significantly (p<0.05) among all treatments. Intakes of EE were the highest in animals fed HF diet, which was because of added fat. Apparent DM digestibility was the highest in animals C diet and was the lowest in those fed LF diet. Neutral detergent fiber and ADF digestibilities were higher in animals fed diets containing urea treated corncobs ensiled with 9% CSL when compared to those fed diets containing urea treated corncobs ensiled without CSL. Apparent digestibility of CP was noted highest (71.47%) in animals fed HF diet when compared to those fed MF (67.75%), LF (67.04%) and C (65.39%) diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was the higher in buffaloes fed HF, MF and LF diets than those fed C diet. These results indicated that increasing levels both of fat and urea treated corncobs ensiled with CSL elevated the negative effects of poor quality fibrous feed on milk production by buffaloes.

Lactation Performance of German Fawn Goat in Relation to Feeding Level and Dietary Protein Protection

  • Chowdhury, S.A.;Rexroth, H.;Kijora, C.;Peters, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.222-237
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    • 2002
  • Effects of high and low levels of feeding with or without protected protein on the performance of lactating goats were studied. Twenty four German Fawn goats either from 1st ($43.37{\pm}3.937$ kg and 2 year old) or 3rd $62.64{\pm}6.783$ kg and 4-5 year old) parity were used for the trial. Feeding levels were 7.2 (I) and 5.2 (II) MJ ME/litre of milk of 3.5% fat in addition to that of the maintenance allowance. At each feeding level, diet had either unprotected (U) or formaldehyde protected (P) soya-meal. Thus, four diets were IU, IP, IIU and IIP, having six animals in each. The diets were composed of hay and pellet (10:4:1 of beet pulp : barley : soya-meal). Effect of feeding level, protein protection, parity, health status and kid number on intake, milk yield, milk composition, growth rate of goats were recorded across the 21 weeks of study. High feeding level resulted increase (p<0.001) in estimated metabolizable energy (ME) and metabolizable protein (MP) availability. Dietary inclusion of protected soya-meal increased (p<0.001) the estimated MP but not the ME availability. Animals in 1st parity ate more (p<0.001) DM (111 vs. 102 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d) than those in 3rd parity. Animals with twin kids (110 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d) had higher (p<0.001) DM intake than those with single kid (102 g/kg $W^{0.75}$/d). Fat (4%) corrected milk (FCM) yield was not effected by high (1,924 g/d) or low (1,927 g/d) feeding level but increased (p<0.001) with protected (2,166 g/d) compared with unprotected (1,703 g/d) soya-meal. FCM yield for four dietary combinations were 1,806, 2,078, 1,600 and 2,254 g/d for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively. For unit increase (g) in estimated MP availability relative to ME (MJ) intake, FCM yield increased ($1,418{\pm}275.6$) g daily ($r^2$=0.58; p<0.001). Milk fat (3.14 vs. 3.54%; p<0.001) and protein (2.94 vs. 3.04% p<0.05) contents were lower at high than the low feeding level. Protected protein increased (p<0.001) the fat, lactose and net energy (NE) content of milk. Milk urea concentration of 175, 183, 192 and 204 mg/l for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively indicated lower RDP content of these diets. The RDP contents were 6.97, 6.70, 7.30 and 6.83 g/MJ of ME for diets IU, IP, IIU and IIP, respectively. Live weight change over the experimental period were 41, 6, 17 and 19 g/d. Absence of any positive response of high feeding was probably due to inefficient rumen fermentation resulting from inadequate RDP supply. Protected protein improved production performance apparently by increasing MP:ME ratio in the absorbed nutrient.

Effect of protected Methionine and Lysine on Milk yield and Composition in Holstein Dairy Cow under Different Dietary Crude Protein Levels : Meta-analysis (사료 내 수준별 조단백질 조건에서 보호메티오닌과 보호라이신의 사료첨가 급여가 착유우유생산성 및 유성분에 미치는 영향 : 메타분석)

  • Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.957-967
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate effect of dietary protected amino acid on milk yield and composition in dairy cow using meta-analysis. Total 21 research papers were employed in analysis, and mixed model was used for the analysis of effects. Effect of protected methionine (PM) and combination of protected methionine and lysine (PML) were investigated under two different levels of dietary crude protein (CP, <18% and >18%). For performance of dairy cow, milk yield, milk composition including milk fat and protein content and yield and 4% FCM (fat corrected milk) production were used for analysis. In case of milk yield, a trend of increment was found at PM supplementation at low CP (P=0.055). However, the effect of PM at high CP was detected as not significant (P>0.05). In case of milk protein, inclusion of PM at low CP showed significant decrement (P<0.05). However, there was no significant effect of MP on milk protein at high CP (P>0.05). Supplementation of MP at high CP level showed significant increment of milk fat (P<0.05). MP supplementation represented significant increment of 4% FCM production (P<0.05) regardless of dietary CP levels. Effects of PML on milk yield and composition at both of low and high dietary CP were not significant in this study. However, it seem to be that there was a possible positive effect of MPL application at high dietary CP on performance of dairy cow.

Effects of Soybean Oil or Rumen Protected Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Accumulation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Dairy Cows' Milk

  • Suksombat, Wisitiporn;Chullanandana, Khukbuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1271-1277
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    • 2008
  • The effects of feeding soybean oil (SBO) or rumen protected conjugated linoleic acid (RP-CLA) on CLA accumulation in milk, and performance of lactating dairy cows were studied. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging $126{\pm}45days$ in milk, $15.6{\pm}2.43kg$ of milk and $452{\pm}51kg$ body weight were stratified randomly and assigned in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to three treatments of 8 cows each. The treatments were control, 150 g of SBO and 150 g of RP-CLA supplementation. Performance parameters showed that DM intake, NELP intake and body weight change were similar across treatments, while CP intake was decreased by SBO and RP-CLA supplementation. Milk yield and milk composition were not significantly different among treatments, except for milk fat percentage and fat yield which were significantly decreased by 27% (p<0.05) and by 28% (p<0.01), respectively, by RP-CLA supplements compared with control treatment. Feeding RP-CLA reduced 3.5% FCM compared with the other treatments (p<0.003). Both SBO and RP-CLA supplementation reduced ${\geq}C18:0$ and CLA concentration in milk fat.

Effects of the Milking System and Supplemental Fat Feeding on Milk and Milk Fat Characteristics (착유방식 및 지방 보충급여가 원유 및 지방특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Moon, Ju Yeon;Lee, Jin-Sung;Chang, Kyeong-Man;Park, Seong-Min;Park, Seung-Yong;Jung, Mun Yhung;Son, Yong-Suk
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different milking systems (AMS, automatic milking system and CMS, conventional milking system) and of supplemental fat feeding on milk composition and milk fat characteristics. The composition, MFG (milk fat globule) size, fatty acids (FAs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) of the milk from 4 AMS and 4 CMS dairy farms were analyzed on the basis of the milking system and feeding of protected fat. The milking system did not affect milk composition, MFG size, and milk FAs, but FFA content of AMS milk were significantly higher than that of CMS milk. Feeding of protected fat resulted in the production of milk much higher in LCFAs (long chain FAs); however, the milk composition was not affected by fat supplementation. Cows administered protected fat supplements produced milk containing MFGs with a large average diameter.

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