• Title, Summary, Keyword: Prostatic neoplasms

Search Result 33, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Effectiveness of three different luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in the chemical castration of patients with prostate cancer: Goserelin versus triptorelin versus leuprolide

  • Shim, Myungsun;Bang, Woo Jin;Oh, Cheol Young;Lee, Yong Seong;Cho, Jin Seon
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.4
    • /
    • pp.244-250
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate the changes in testosterone levels and rates of chemical castration following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with goserelin, triptorelin, and leuprolide. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 125 patients with prostate cancer treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists between January 2009 and December 2015. Changes in testosterone concentration during 9 months of ADT with goserelin 11.34 mg, triptorelin 11.25 mg, and leuprolide 11.25 mg were analyzed using a mixed model. The number of patients with serum testosterone below castration levels defined as various values (<50 ng/dL, <20 ng/dL, or <10 ng/dL) at 3, 6, and 9 months were also evaluated. Results: Of the 125 patients, 59 received goserelin, 44 received triptorelin, and 22 received leuprolide, respectively. The lowest mean testosterone levels during 9 months of treatment were achieved in patients treated with triptorelin, followed by those treated with leuprolide, and then by those treated with goserelin (p=0.001). Significant differences in chemical castration levels were observed only at <10 ng/dL, with 54.2% of goserelin, 93.2% of triptorelin, and 86.4% of leuprolide treated patients (p<0.001). Conclusions: Three LHRH agonists showed comparable efficacy for achieving castration when the castration threshold was 50 or 20 ng/dL. However, triptorelin was the most potent LHRH agonist, achieving the lowest mean testosterone levels and the highest rate of chemical castration at <10 ng/dL testosterone.

Inflammation appears as high Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System scores on prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) leading to false positive MRI fusion biopsy

  • Rourke, Elizabeth;Sunnapwar, Abhijit;Mais, Daniel;Kukkar, Vishal;DiGiovanni, John;Kaushik, Dharam;Liss, Michael A.
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.5
    • /
    • pp.388-395
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate if inflammation as a potential cause of false-positive lesions from recent UroNav magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion prostate biopsy patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified 43 men with 61 MRI lesions noted on prostate MRI before MRI ultrasound-guided fusion prostate biopsy. Men underwent MRI with 3T Siemens TIM Trio MRI system (Siemens AG, Germany), and lesions were identified and marked in DynaCAD system (Invivo Corporation, USA) with subsequent biopsy with MRI fusion with UroNav. We obtained targeted and standard 12-core needle biopsies. We retrospectively reviewed pathology reports for inflammation. Results: We noted a total of 43 (70.5%) false-positive lesions with 28 having no cancer on any cores, and 15 lesions with cancer noted on systematic biopsy but not in the target region. Of the men with cancer, 6 of the false positive lesions had inflammation in the location of the targeted region of interest (40.0%, 6/15). However, when we examine the 21/28 lesions with an identified lesion on MRI with no cancer in all cores, 54.5% had inflammation on prostate biopsy pathology (12/22, p=0.024). We noted the highest proportion of inflammation. Conclusions: Inflammation can confound the interpretation of MRI by mimicking prostate cancer. We suggested focused efforts to differentiate inflammation and cancer on prostate MRI.

CRTC2 as a novel prognostic biomarker for worse pathologic outcomes and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate cancer

  • Lee, Hakmin;Lee, Minseung;Hong, Sung Kyu
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.2
    • /
    • pp.84-90
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: To identify the association between tumor metabolism and prostate cancer (PCa), we investigated the relationship between expression of metabolism-related genes and clinicopathologic outcomes in patients with localized PCa. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected periprostatic adipose tissue from 40 PCa patients and extracted the RNA of each sample. After cDNA was synthesized from the extracted RNA, we analyzed the expression of 18 metabolism-related genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction. We divided the subjects according to the pathologic Gleason score (pGS) and compared the expression of each gene. Subsequently, the clinicopathologic outcomes were also compared according to the expression of each gene. Results: When we compared the expression of 18 metabolism-related genes between the high (≥4+3) and low pGS groups (3+4), there were significant differences in the expression of six genes (SREBP, SCD, FASN, ACLY, ECHS, and CRTC2; p<0.05). Among them, the subjects with low expression for CRTC2 showed significantly worse pathologic outcomes in terms of high pGS (≥4+3) (p=0.020) and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion (p=0.017). The low CRTC2 group also showed significantly inferior biochemical recurrence-free survival than the high CRTC2 group (p=0.048). Conclusions: We found that high pGS patients showed significant differences in expression of several metabolism-related genes compared with low pGS patients. Among those genes, CRTC2 showed the strongest association with pathologic outcome, as well as postoperative survival.

Use of docetaxel plus androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer in Korean patients: A retrospective study

  • Kwon, Whi-An;Joung, Jae Young;Lee, Jung Eun;Choi, Se Young;Kim, Sung Han;Seo, Ho Kyung;Lee, Kang Hyun;Kim, Choung-Soo
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.195-201
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of docetaxel plus androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) in Korean patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively. In total, 61 Korean patients with mHSPC who used docetaxel plus ADT were identified from medical records. Patients received docetaxel plus ADT at a dose of 75 mg/㎡ every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. We evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, PSA progression, progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), clinical progression, and adverse events. Results: Most of the patients had high volume disease (98.3%) and 83.6% had a Gleason score of 8 or higher. The median PSA level at the start of ADT was 131.4 ng/mL. The percentage of patients whose PSA levels decreased to less than 0.2 ng/mL at 3, 6, and 12 months were 28.3%, 41.0%, and 45.0%, respectively. During a median of 12.0 months after treatment, PSA progression occurred in 13.3% of patients. Clinical progression and progression to CRPC were observed in 15.1% and 14.8%, respectively. Neutropenia grade ≥3 and febrile neutropenia occurred in 63.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing our findings with those of the prior chemohormonal therapy versus androgen ablation randomized trial for extensive disease in prostate cancer (CHAARTED) study, in Korean patients, the use of docetaxel plus ADT for mHSPC showed similar results for early oncologic outcomes including PSA response and time to clinical progression. However, we observed a higher rate of adverse events, which should be considered seriously.

The clinical utility of transperineal template-guided saturation prostate biopsy for risk stratification after transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy

  • Song, Wan;Kang, Minyong;Jeong, Byong Chang;Seo, Seong Il;Jeon, Seong Soo;Lee, Hyun Moo;Jeon, Hwang Gyun
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.6
    • /
    • pp.454-462
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: To investigate the clinical utility of transperineal template-guided saturation prostate biopsy (TPB) for risk stratification after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 155 patients who underwent TPB after previously negative results on TRUS-guided biopsy (n=58) or who were candidates for active surveillance (n=97) fulfilling the PRIAS criteria between May 2017 and November 2018. The patients' clinicopathologic data were reviewed, and the detection of clinically significant cancer (CSC) and upgrading of Gleason grade were identified. Results: The patients' median age and pre-TPB prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value were 65.0 years and 5.74 ng/mL, respectively. A median of 36 biopsy cores was obtained in each patient, with a median TPB core density of 0.88 cores/㎤. Of the 58 males with a previous negative result on TRUS-guided biopsy, prostate cancer (PCa) was detected in 17 males (29.3%), including 8 with CSC. Of the 97 patient candidates for active surveillance, upgrading of the Gleason grade was identified in 31 males (32.0%), 20 with a Gleason grade of 7 (3+4), 6 with a Gleason grade of 7 (4+3), and 5 with a Gleason grade of 8 (4+4). The overall complication rate was 14.8% (23/155), and there were no Clavien-Dindo grade 3 to 5 complications. Conclusions: TPB helps to stratify the risk of PCa that was previously missed or underdiagnosed by TRUS-guided biopsy. TPB might be used as a diagnostic tool to determine risk classification and to help counsel patients with regard to treatment decisions.

The impact of plasma zinc status on the severity of prostate cancer disease

  • Wakwe, Victor C.;Odum, Ehimen. P.;Amadi, Collins
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.162-168
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: The severity of prostate cancer (PCa), which determines the disease progression, is theorized to be a function of zinc status. Hence, this study was structured to determine the impact of zinc status on the severity and progression of PCa disease. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 220 histologically-confirmed PCa patients and 220 age-matched controls, conducted prospectively in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Plasma zinc, prostate-specific antigen, creatinine, fasting glucose, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were determined for both study groups. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grades and the American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical staging were employed as indices for PCa severity (grade) and progression (stage) respectively. Results: The PCa patients had markedly reduced plasma zinc status compared to controls (cases: 9.42±3.02 µmol/L versus controls: 15.23±4.47 µmol/L; p<0.001). Low zinc status was more pronounced within the severe grade and advanced PCa disease subgroups (p<0.001). Inverse relationships existed between zinc status and ISUP grades among the entire PCa patient (p<0.001) and the categorized PCa grade and stage subgroups (p<0.001). Low zinc status had significant impact of predicting severe (crude=odds ratio [OR], 8.714; p<0.001; age-adjusted=OR, 11.152; p<0.001) and advanced (crude=OR, 17.160; p<0.001; age-adjusted=OR, 18.927; p<0.001) PCa disease. Conclusions: This study suggests that low plasma zinc status is associated with severe grade and advanced PCa disease. However, further well-designed studies with large sample sizes are warranted to confirm these associations.

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion biopsies increase the rate of cancer detection in populations with a low incidence of prostate cancer

  • Kaushal, Rohit;Das, Chandan J.;Singh, Prabhjot;Dogra, Prem Nath;Kumar, Rajeev
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.3
    • /
    • pp.156-161
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic yield of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-fusion, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies for detection of prostate cancer in an Asian population with a low incidence of prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 131 males with suspected prostate cancer were recruited to undergo fusion biopsy with the Artemis prostate fusion biopsy device (Eigen, Grass Valley, CA, USA). All patients underwent standard 12-core systematic biopsies in addition to biopsies targeted at the mpMRI-identified abnormal regions. Yield from the standard cores was compared with that from the targeted cores. Gleason scores of 4+3 or higher were considered significant. Results: The mean age of the patients was 63.54±7.96 years and the mean prostate-specific antigen value was 9.75±5.35 ng/mL. A total of 36 patients had cancer, of which 3 (8.3%) were detected only on standard cores and 3 (8.3%) only on targeted cores. Of the clinically significant cancers (n=30), targeted biopsy detected a higher number (28/30, 93.3%) than standard biopsy (21/30, 70.0%). A total of 6 of 8 cancers (75.0%) that were insignificant on standard biopsy were upgraded to significant cancer on targeted cores. Conclusions: Eight percent of cancers were detected only on MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted biopsies, whereas the method upgraded more than two-thirds of insignificant cancers to significant cancers. Fusion biopsies thus provide incremental information over standard TRUS biopsies in the diagnosis of significant prostate cancer in populations with a low incidence of prostate cancer.

Three-dimensional dose reconstruction-based pretreatment dosimetric verification in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

  • Jeong, Yuri;Oh, Jeong Geun;Kang, Jeong Ku;Moon, Sun Rock;Lee, Kang Kyoo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.60-67
    • /
    • 2020
  • Purpose: We performed three-dimensional (3D) dose reconstruction-based pretreatment verification to evaluate gamma analysis acceptance criteria in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment verification for 28 VMAT plans for prostate cancer was performed using the COMPASS system with a dolphin detector. The 3D reconstructed dose distribution of the treatment planning system calculation (TC) was compared with that of COMPASS independent calculation (CC) and COMPASS reconstruction from the dolphin detector measurement (CR). Gamma results (gamma failure rate and average gamma value [GFR and γAvg]) and dose-volume histogram (DVH) deviations, 98%, 2% and mean dose-volume difference (DD98%, DD2% and DDmean), were evaluated. Gamma analyses were performed with two acceptance criteria, 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm. Results: The GFR in 2%/2 mm criteria were less than 8%, and those in 3%/3 mm criteria were less than 1% for all structures in comparisons between TC, CC, and CR. In the comparison between TC and CR, GFR and γAvg in 2%/2 mm criteria were significantly higher than those in 3%/3 mm criteria. The DVH deviations were within 2%, except for DDmean (%) for rectum and bladder. Conclusions: The 3%/3 mm criteria were not strict enough to identify any discrepancies between planned and measured doses, and DVH deviations were less than 2% in most parameters. Therefore, gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm and DVH related parameters could be a useful tool for pretreatment verification for VMAT in prostate cancer.

Interfraction variation and dosimetric changes during image-guided radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients

  • Fuchs, Frederik;Habl, Gregor;Devecka, Michal;Kampfer, Severin;Combs, Stephanie E.;Kessel, Kerstin A.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.37 no.2
    • /
    • pp.127-133
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify volume changes and dose variations of rectum and bladder during radiation therapy in prostate cancer (PC) patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 20 patients with PC treated with helical tomotherapy. Daily image guidance was performed. We re-contoured the entire bladder and rectum including its contents as well as the organ walls on megavoltage computed tomography once a week. Dose variations were analyzed by means of Dmedian, Dmean, Dmax, V10 to V75, as well as the organs at risk (OAR) volume. Further, we investigated the correlation between volume changes and changes in Dmean of OAR. Results: During treatment, the rectal volume ranged from 62% to 223% of its initial volume, the bladder volume from 22% to 375%. The average Dmean ranged from 87% to 118% for the rectum and 58% to 160% for the bladder. The Pearson correlation coefficients between volume changes and corresponding changes in Dmean were -0.82 for the bladder and 0.52 for the rectum. The comparison of the dose wall histogram (DWH) and the dose volume histogram (DVH) showed that the DVH underestimates the percentage of the rectal and bladder volume exposed to the high dose region. Conclusion: Relevant variations in the volume of OAR and corresponding dose variations can be observed. For the bladder, an increase in the volume generally leads to lower doses; for the rectum, the correlation is weaker. Having demonstrated remarkable differences in the dose distribution of the DWH and the DVH, the use of DWHs should be considered.

Characterization of human infiltrating and circulating gamma-delta T cells in prostate cancer

  • Vella, Marco;Coniglio, Daniela;Abrate, Alberto;Gesolfo, Cristina Scalici;Presti, Elena Lo;Meraviglia, Serena;Serretta, Vincenzo;Simonato, Alchiede
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
    • /
    • v.60 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-98
    • /
    • 2019
  • Purpose: The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the distribution of gamma-delta (γδ)1 and γδ2 T cells and their phenotypes in peripheral blood and prostate samples of patients diagnosed with or without prostate cancer (PCa) at prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 43 outpatients underwent trans-rectal echo-guided prostate biopsy for suspected PCa. Flow cytometry analysis was used to identify and characterize the γδ T cells populations in peripheral blood and tissue samples. Patients were stratified according to the presence or not of PCa, and its International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade (1 vs. ≥2). Results: The distribution of γδ T cells in peripheral blood and prostate tissue showed wide variability and non-significant differences. A slightly higher percentage of δ2 T cells and a slightly lower percentage of δ1 T cells were found in peripheral blood of cancer patients. A non-significantly higher percentage of both Vδ1 and Vδ2 was expressed in cancer tissues, but a trend for lower distribution of δ1 and δ2 T cells was observed in ISUP grade ≥2. The "central memory" and "effector memory" were the most expressed T cells phenotype in peripheral blood and tissue samples. However no substantial differences in T cells subtypes distribution between cancer and healthy tissue were observed. Conclusions: No substantially different percentages of γδ T cells were found in peripheral blood and biopsy samples of healthy and PCa patients. However a non-significant trend for lower infiltrate in higher ISUP grade cancer tissue was observed, suggesting a possible role for the immunosurveillance of PCa.