• Title/Summary/Keyword: Production Traits

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Polymorphisms of LEP, LGB and PRLR in water buffalo

  • Seong, Jiyeon;Kong, Hong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.577-581
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    • 2012
  • The polymorphisms of several genes including Leptin (LEP), beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) and Prolactin receptor (PRLR) have been shown to affect milk composition traits in dairy cattle. But, the effects of these polymorphisms on the milk traits of Philippine water buffalo are still unclear. In the Philippines, buffalo are the major milk producers most of which are the Philippine carabao (PC), the American Murrah Buffalo (AMB) and Bulgarian Murrah Buffalo (BMB). The LEP, LGB and PRLR genes are considered to be associated with milk production traits. The objective of the present study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LEP, LGB and PRLR genes of PC, AMB and BMB and to investigate the effect of the SNPs on milk production traits in these buffalo. Genetic polymorphisms were screened by DNA sequencing and 12 SNPs were detected in BMB; 5 SNPs were in LEP exon3 region (G14227A, G14343A, T14502C, C14526T, G14603A); 5 SNPs were in LGB exon 2 region (G1861C, A1900G, G1901T, T1948C, G1949A); 2 SNPs were in PRLR exon 6 (T59047C, T59109C). Also, 12 polymorphism sites between cattle and buffalo were identified. Our analysis of the association between SNPs and milk production traits should be useful in future studies of buffalo breeding to improve lactation performance.

Effect of Alpha-lactalbumin Gene Polymorphism on Milk Production Traits in Water Buffalo

  • Dayal, S.;Bhattacharya, T.K.;Vohra, V.;Kumar, P.;Sharma, Arjava
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2006
  • A genetic study was conducted to elucidate the effect of alpha-Lactalbumin (${\alpha}$-LA) gene polymorphism on milk production traits involving total milk yield and daily milk yield during first lactation in two breeds of water buffaloes namely, Murrah and Bhadawari. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was carried out to explore genetic polymorphism present at this locus. For this study, exon 1 region of ${\alpha}$-LA was analyzed. Finally, polymorphism data was associated with milk production traits by employing least square analysis. In Murrah buffalo, five genotypes such as AB, BB, BC, CC and CD and four alleles A, B, C and D were detected whereas in Bhadawari buffalo two genotypes namely, AB and BC and three alleles namely, A, B and C were found. Genotypes showed significant effects ($p{\leq}0.05$) on total milk yield and daily milk yield in Bhadawari buffalo but had non-significant effects on these traits in Murrah buffalo.

Plasma Metabolites Concentrations in Calves until 90 Days of Age for Estimating Genetic Ability for Milk Production Traits

  • Sasaki, O.;Yamamoto, N.;Togashi, K.;Minezawa, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.1813-1821
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    • 2002
  • The aim of this study was to identify useful secondary traits for estimating genetic ability of milk production traits. We investigated the value of using plasma metabolites concentrations. Two hundred and nineteen cattle out of 271 had only milk production traits records (G1), 33 had only metabolites records (G2), and 19 had both milk production traits and metabolites records (G3). Fifty two calves with metabolites records (G2 and G3) were born from 1992 to 1997. Forty three calves (29 females, 14 males) were used from 10 to 90 d of age and the others (3 females, 6 males) from 10 to 60 d of age. A total of 566 records of milk yield, fat yield and protein yield for 240 to 305 d on 238 heads (G1 and G2) were collected The collected blood samples were divided into three age groups: AG1, 10 to 30 d; AG2, 40 to 60 d; and AG3, 70 to 90 d. Heritabilities of milk yield, fat yield and protein yield were $0.45{\pm}0.04$, $0.50{\pm}0.04$ and $0.38{\pm}0.04$, respectively. Heritability of plasma glucose concentration at AG1 was $0.45{\pm}0.08$. Genetic correlations between plasma glucose concentration and milk yield, fat yield and protein yield were -$0.35{\pm}0.28$, $0.64{\pm}0.24$ and $0.36{\pm}0.35$, respectively. When the plasma glucose concentration at AG1 was used to estimate genetic ability of these milk production traits, reliability of milk yield of animals without milk record increased 8.2%, fat yield increased 24.2% and protein yield increased 9.5%. Heritability of plasma total cholesterol concentration at AG3 was $0.83{\pm}0.04$. Genetic correlation between plasma total cholesterol concentration and milk yield, fat yield and protein yield were $0.58{\pm}0.21$, $0.42{\pm}0.20$ and $0.45{\pm}0.22$, respectively. When the plasma total cholesterol concentration at AG3 was using to estimate genetic ability of these milk production traits, reliability of milk yield of animals without milk record increased 19.0%, fat yield increased 9.6%, and protein yield increased 13.5%. The annual genetic gain is in proportion to the reliability of selection. These results show that the plasma metabolite concentrations would be useful for improvement of genetic ability for milk production traits in the genetic improvement in herd of cows, where half of the animals selected are from a herd without its own milk record.

Association of Candidate Genes with Production Traits in Korean Dairy Proven and Young Bulls

  • Jang, G.W.;Cho, K.H.;Kim, T.H.;Oh, S.J.;Cheong, I.C.;Lee, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to offer effective basic data for selection and improvement of Korean dairy cattle through identifying distributional properties among candidate genes (bovine butyrophilin, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a, and prolactin hormone). In this study, polymorphisms of candidate genes were identified and the relationships between loci and production traits of each gene were analyzed using frozen semen of Holstein bulls (19 proven and 77 candidates). In butyrophilin (BTN) locus, polymorphisms information contents (PIC) value of BTN2 (0.372) was higher than those of others (BTN1; 0.155, BTN3; 0.254, BTN4; 0.169). As a result of analysis of genotyping STAT5a, using single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method and microsatellite locus, PIC values were 0.189 and 0.457, respectively. And PIC value of prolactin hormone gene was 0.176. In the relationships between genotypes and production traits, BTN3 was associated with 305-day production traits (p<0.05). PTAs for B allele were such as 110.43, 88.28 and 75.25 in BTN1, 3, 4 and these values were higher than those of A allele, but in the case of BTN2, A allele with 154.19 was higher than that of B allele. The results obtained from using candidate genes may be used as an useful index for the genetic improvement of dairy cattle population in Korea, and further studies are needed.

Replacement and Lifetime Production Traits: Effect of Non-genetic Factors and Sire Evaluation

  • Singh, S.;Khanna, A.S.;Singh, R.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2002
  • The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of non-genetic factors and association among replacement and lifetime production traits. The data on 542 Holstein Friesian cows maintained during 1975-98 at State Cattle Breeding Project, Sector III, Hisar, were utilized. The average sex-ratio, abnormal births, mortality, culling and replacement rates on total calf born and total female calf born basis were 51.62, 8.50, 17.52, 31.05, 22.78 and 51.41 per cent, respectively. The study revealed that a minimum of 4 to 5 progenies are required per cow over its lifetime to replace itself. It indicated that each cow should produce a minimum of 2 female calves during its life so as to replace herself before being lost. The least-squares means for productive herd life, longevity and lifetime production were $1439.32{\pm}87.64$ and $2419.18{\pm}8.25$ days and $11317.95{\pm}913.15kg$, respectively. The heritability estimates for all replacement traits were very low indicating that sire selection may bring no desirable change in these traits. Heritability estimates were $0.178{\pm}0.157$, $0.288{\pm}0.184$ and $0.096{\pm}0.195$ for corresponding lifetime production traits. Breeding values and ranking of sires were generated for replacement and lifetime production traits to estimate the rank correlations between these traits. Moderate desirable rank correlations were obtained between replacement rate and lifetime production traits indicating that sires proven on the basis of milk production are also expected to have better replacement rate.

Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

  • Campos, Rafael Viegas;Cobuci, Jaime Araujo;Kern, Elisandra Lurdes;Costa, Claudio Napolis;McManus, Concepta Margaret
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.476-484
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

Recent Advances in Sheep Genome Mapping

  • Crawford, A.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1129-1134
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    • 1999
  • The rapid development of the sheep genetic linkage map over the last five years has given us the ability to follow the inheritance of chromosomal regions. Initially this powerful resource was used to find markers linked to monogenic traits but there is now increasing interest in using the genetic linkage map to define the complex of genes that control multigenic production traits. Of particular interest are those production traits that are difficult to measure and select for using classical quantitative genetic approaches. These include resistance to disease where a disease challenge (necessary for selection) poses too much risk to valuable stud animals and meat and carcass qualities which can be measured only after the animal has been slaughtered. The goal for the new millennium will be to fully characterise the genetic basis of multigenic production traits. The genetic linkage map is a vital tool required to achieve this.

Relation of Production Traits and Reproduction Traits in Swine (돼지에서 산육형질과 번식형질간의 관계)

  • Do, C.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2007
  • In order to investigate the relation of production traits and reproduction traits the data from Gyungnam heugdon(Berkshire) were analyzed. Pearson correlation coefficients of the reproductive traits including days to first farrowing, days to first breeding and no. of breeding for first litter with back fat thickness were ranged -.24 to -.26. Estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for the reproductive traits including days to first farrowing, days to first breeding and no. of breeding for first litter showed frequent and wide fluctuation due to lack of reproductive records. Pearson correlation coefficients of back fat with litter traits were low, but genetic correlation coefficients were relatively high. Genetic correlation coefficients of back fat with total litter size, pigs born alive, litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning were .21, .24, .11 and .07 respectively. It suggests that thin back fat thickness deteriorates performance of litter traits. Genetic correlation coefficients of days to 90kg with total litter size, pigs born alive, litter weight at birth and litter weight at weaning were .14, .17, .09 and .00 respectively. This result imply that genetic improvement on the production traits reduce the litter trait performance.

Maternal and Direct Genetic Parameters for Production Traits and Maternal Correlations among Production and Feed Efficiency Traits in Duroc Pigs

  • Hoque, M.A.;Kadowaki, H.;Shibata, T.;Suzuki, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.961-966
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    • 2008
  • Direct and maternal genetic parameters for production traits in 1,642 pigs and maternal genetic correlations among production (1,642 pigs) and feed efficiency (380 boars) traits were estimated in 7 generations of a Duroc population. Traits studied were daily gain (DG), intramuscular fat (IMF), loineye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), daily feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). The RFI was calculated as the difference between actual and predicted feed intake. The predicted feed intake was estimated by adjusting the initial test weight, DG and BF. Data for production traits were analyzed using four alternative animal models (including direct, direct+maternal permanent environmental, or direct+maternal genetic+maternal permanent environmental effects). Direct heritability estimates from the model including direct and all maternal effects were $0.41{\pm}0.04$ for DG, $0.27{\pm}0.04$ for IMF, $0.52{\pm}0.06$ for LEA and $0.64{\pm}0.04$ for BF. Estimated maternal heritabilities ranged from $0.04{\pm}0.04$ to $0.15{\pm}0.05$ for production traits. Antagonistic relationships were observed between direct and maternal genetic effects ($r_{am}$) for LEA (-0.21). Maternal genetic correlations of feed efficiency traits with FI ($r_g$ of FI with FCR and RFI were $0.73{\pm}0.06$ and $0.90{\pm}0.05$, respectively) and LEA (rg of LEA with FCR and RFI were $-0.48{\pm}0.05$ to $-0.61{\pm}0.05$, respectively) were favorable. The estimated moderate genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for IMF and LEA indicated that maternal effects has an important role in these traits, and should be accounted for in the genetic evaluation system.

Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs

  • Cabling, M.M.;Kang, H.S.;Lopez, B.M.;Jang, M.;Kim, H.S.;Nam, K.C.;Choi, J.G.;Seo, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1061-1065
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    • 2015
  • Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness ($L^*$), redness ($a^*$), yellowness ($b^*$), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (-0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered.