• Title, Summary, Keyword: Problem Behaviors

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The current child and adolescent health screening system: an assessment and proposal for an early and periodic check-up program (현행 영유아 및 소아청소년 건강검진제도의 평가 및 대안)

  • Eun, Baik-Lin;Moon, Jin Soo;Eun, So-Hee;Lee, Hea Kyoung;Shin, Son Moon;Seong, In Kyung;Chung, Hee Jung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.300-306
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : Recent changes in the population structure of Korea, such as rapid decline in birth rate and exponential increase in old-aged people, prompted us to prepare a new health improvement program in children and adolescents. Methods : We reviewed current health screenings applied for children and adolescents in Korea and other developed countries. We collected and reviewed population-based data focused on mortality and morbidity, and other health-related statistical data. We generated problem lists in current systems and developed new principles. Results : Current health screening programs for children and adolescents were usually based on laboratory tests, such as blood tests, urinalysis, and radiologic tests. Almost all of these programs lacked evidence based on population data or controlled studies. In most developed countries, laboratory tests are used only very selectively, and they usually focus on primary prevention of diseases and health improvement using anticipatory guidance. In Korea, statistics on mortality and morbidity reveal that diseases related to lifestyle, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, are increasing in all generations. Conclusion : We recommend a periodic health screening program with anticipatory guidance, which is focused on growth and developmental surveillance in infants and children. We no longer recommend old programs that are based on laboratory and radiologic examinations. School health screening programs should also be changed to meet current health issues, such as developing a healthier lifestyle to minimize risk behaviors—or example, good mental health, balanced nutrition, and more exercise.

Evaluation of the Movement Pattern of Squaliobarbus curriculus Inhabiting in the Mid-lower Part of Geum River Using Acoustic Telemetry (수중 음향 측정방식을 이용한 금강 중.하류의 눈불개 이동성 평가)

  • Yoon, Ju-Duk;Kim, Jeong-Hui;In, Dong-Su;Hwang, Eun-Ji;Yoon, Johee;Lee, Young-Joon;Chang, Kwang-Hyeon;Jang, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.482-489
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    • 2012
  • Visual monitoring is hard to apply on fish because they are living in a water system. To overcome this problem, acoustic telemetry, which is effective for underwater monitoring, is often used for studying fish behaviors, such as movement distance, route and patterns. In this study, in order to monitor the movement pattern of Squaliobarbus curriculus (family Cyprinidae), we used acoustic telemetry and identified the home range and movement distances. A total of nine individuals were released at two different locations: one is at the estuary barrage (Sc1~3) and the other is at the lower part of Baekjae Weir (Sc4~9), located in Geum River. Approximately, a 70 km section from the estuary barrage was investigated. Fish, which were released at the estuary barrage, utilized up to 12.7 km upstream as home range from the release site. At the lower part of Baekjae Weir, most of the fish moved and stayed within a 7.2 km downstream area, except for Sc6, which moved 53.4 km (linear maximum distance from release site) downstream from the release site. Relatively small sized fish (Sc7~9) did not show any movement. Accumulated movement distance significantly correlated with the standard length of S. curriculus ($r_s$=0.715, p=0.03). Moreover, the standard length of moving fish was significantly larger than that of not moving fish (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.024). Therefore, the movement distance of S. curriculus has been correlated with fish size; movement distance was increased with the standard fish length. Although the sample size of monitored fish was small, various meaningful data were collected by acoustic telemetry. Consequently, this technique could be a method available for effectively monitoring the behavior and ecology of native Korean and endemic species.

Problems Analysis Related to Nutrition and the Development of Nutrition Education Programs for High School Students(II) - A Study Centered on the Development of Nutrition Education Programs for High School Students - (고등학생의 영양 관련 문제점 분석 및 영양 교육 프로그램 개발 ( II ) - 고등학생 대상 영양 교육 프로그램 개발 -)

  • Lee, Eun-Ju;Soh, Hye-Kyung;Choi, Bong-Soon
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.351-363
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    • 2007
  • Previously, we analyzed for nutrition knowledge and the use of nutrition knowledge in the everyday lives of students in order to develop nutrition education programs that focus on desirable behavior change. From this, we found that female students desired to participate in nutrition education more than male students, and regarding their concerns for nutrition education, 73.2% of the females and 50.0% of the males displayed interest in 'obesity and the regulation of body weight'. Therefore, this study showed female students give more attention to the obesity and the regulation of body weight than male students(p=.000<.001). In addition, female students had higher interests($8.63{\pm}1.67$) than male students ($7.45{\pm}2.03$) in nutrition knowledge(p=.000<.001). By investigating the use of nutrition knowledge in everyday life, our research indicated that the actual use of nutrition knowledge was less. To encourage students to persue dietary lives addressing the concerns confirmed above, the following needed to occur. 1) Provide them nutrition information for the main processed foodstuffs encountered when dining out(breads, cakes, cookies, and carbonated beverage). 2) Teach them to read food nutrition labels. 3) Help them find a lifestyle connection through lasting self-management methods and the generation of social support. Accordingly, this required developing effective and practical nutrition education programs that considered regional characteristics and gender differences. The most important factors considered during nutrition education program development were the need for motivation and ongoing education by stage of change, rather than temporal education through specific problem analysis, in order that those being educated may bring about a change of behavior by themselves. Therefore, from this study, we have suggested the use of multilateral operating strategies for successful nutrition education. In addition the phase model of behavior change should be applied. Our programs were aimed at self owned nutritional management so that students could master their own methods for acquiring skills and enjoying dietary life. The research may be summed up as follows. First, the purpose of education at the recognition stage of change was to attempt motivation for nutrition improvement, by analyzing the problems such as food buying habit and the main purchasing viewpoints when dining out. Second, the purpose of education at the action stage of change was to help students acquire of concrete methods for behavior modification by linking the program to their home as well as to teachers with various activities that suited the situation at school. This was done by analyzing the processes and decisions pertaining to dining out the main processed foodstuffs and principal components, etc. through data and experimental practice. Third, the purpose of education for changing of habits and values, or the maintenance stage, was to investigate the various reasons that undesirable behaviors were induced, and then determine a lasting self-management method as well as how to generate social support. If the nutrition education program developed in this study is utilized on site, someone in the primary role as the nutrition educator and trained specifically in nutrition, can help induce the health promotion in the community as well as lasting dietary management, by executing a link with families in parallel with educating teaching staff and students' parents. In addition, this program can playa role in the government policies related to the health promotion for our youth who are the foundation of our nation and who can enhance our national competitive power.

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A User Optimer Traffic Assignment Model Reflecting Route Perceived Cost (경로인지비용을 반영한 사용자최적통행배정모형)

  • Lee, Mi-Yeong;Baek, Nam-Cheol;Mun, Byeong-Seop;Gang, Won-Ui
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.117-130
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    • 2005
  • In both deteministic user Optimal Traffic Assignment Model (UOTAM) and stochastic UOTAM, travel time, which is a major ccriterion for traffic loading over transportation network, is defined by the sum of link travel time and turn delay at intersections. In this assignment method, drivers actual route perception processes and choice behaviors, which can become main explanatory factors, are not sufficiently considered: therefore may result in biased traffic loading. Even though there have been some efforts in Stochastic UOTAM for reflecting drivers' route perception cost by assuming cumulative distribution function of link travel time, it has not been fundamental fruitions, but some trials based on the unreasonable assumptions of Probit model of truncated travel time distribution function and Logit model of independency of inter-link congestion. The critical reason why deterministic UOTAM have not been able to reflect route perception cost is that the route perception cost has each different value according to each origin, destination, and path connection the origin and destination. Therefore in order to find the optimum route between OD pair, route enumeration problem that all routes connecting an OD pair must be compared is encountered, and it is the critical reason causing computational failure because uncountable number of path may be enumerated as the scale of transportation network become bigger. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to enable UOTAM to reflect route perception cost without route enumeration between an O-D pair. For this purpose, this study defines a link as a least definition of path. Thus since each link can be treated as a path, in two links searching process of the link label based optimum path algorithm, the route enumeration between OD pair can be reduced the scale of finding optimum path to all links. The computational burden of this method is no more than link label based optimum path algorithm. Each different perception cost is embedded as a quantitative value generated by comparing the sub-path from the origin to the searching link and the searched link.

Association between Quality of Life and Eveningness as well as Sleep Quality among Medical Students (의대의학전문대학원 학생들의 삶의 질과 일주기 리듬 및 수면의 질과의 연관성)

  • Chang, Hong-Kyeung;Lee, So-Jin;Park, Chul-Soo;Kim, Bong-Jo;Lee, Cheol-Soon;Cha, Boseok;Lee, Dongyun;Seo, Ji-Yeong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: We investigated whether sleep behaviors, severity of insomnia and circadian typology are associated with quality of life among Gyeongsang National University (GNU) medical students. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 46 fourth-year students of GNU Medical School. The hospital anxiety-depression scale, insomnia severity index (ISI), morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ) and WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were used. Results: Quality of life in terms of physical health was associated with age, weekday total sleep time (TST), weekend TST, catch up sleep, depression, ISI score, and MEQ score. Quality of life in terms of psychological health was correlated to weekday and weekend TST, anxiety, ISI score and MEQ score. Sex, weekday TST, depression, and ISI score were revealed to influence the social aspect of quality of life, and weekday and weekend TST, and ISI score were associated with quality of life in terms of environment. Multiple regression analysis showed that better sleep quality predicted to a higher quality of life in terms of physical, psychological and environmental health, and eveningness was associated with a better quality of life in terms of physical and psychological health. Conclusion: It is concluded that physical, psychological, and environmental aspects of quality of life were associated with quality of sleep and that physical and psychological aspects of quality of life were related to eveningness in GNU medical students. Therefore, it is equally important to treat emotional problem as well as improve sleep quality.

Differences of Perceptions between Pre-service and In-service Elementary School Teachers on the Prevention and Intervention of School Violence (학교폭력의 예방 및 대책에 관한 교대생과 초등교사의 인식 비교)

  • Song, Jae-Hong;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Park, Sung-Hee;Ahn, Ie-Hwan;Oh, Ik-Soo;Eun, Hyuk-Gi;Jeong, Jong-Jin;Cho, Bung-Hwan;Hong, Jong-Kwan;Hwang, Mae-Hyang
    • The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.485-504
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of study was to analyze the differences of perceptions between pre-service and in-service elementary school teachers on the prevention and intervention of school violence. For this purpose, 459 student teachers and 289 in-service teachers has responded a questionnaire consisted of 12 core questions and 8 supplementary questions about the prevention and intervention of school violence. The findings of this study was as follows: First, in-service elementary school teachers perceived the problem of school violence more seriously than student teachers. Second, in-service elementary school teachers and student teachers perceived the lack of parents' concern of their children and the disturbed friendship as major causes to arouse school violence, and insisted to improve students' emotional self-control and social skills in order to prevent school violence. Third, in coping with students' violent behaviors they took the need to interview the student' parents and to invite them to meet each other halfway. Fourth, With government's comprehensive countermeasures against school violence they acknowledged the importance of policy alternatives but made doubt of their effectiveness. Finally, both in-service elementary school teachers and student teachers approved of a plan to assign the required subject of 'Prevention and Intervention of School Violence' to the student teachers, particularly student teachers approved more positively than in-service elementary school teachers.

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Comparative Analysis on the Perceptions for Food Additives Between Elementary School Teachers and Nutrition Teachers (식품첨가물에 대한 초등교사와 영양교사의 인식 비교)

  • Kim, Jeong-Weon;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.74-84
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    • 2016
  • Literacy on food additives of elementary school teachers (ET) and nutrition teachers (NT) could be influential factor on safe dietary education for school children. Therefore, the perceptions and information needs on food additives were surveyed from 351 elementary school teachers and nutrition teachers in metropolitan area of Korea, and the basic data for the promotion of risk communication on food additives among them were obtained. Compared to ET who consider 'taste' (39.1%) as the most important factor while purchasing food, NT considered 'safety' (68.1%) first (p < 0.001). Among the food labelling items, the level of understanding on food additives was the lowest both in ET (3.53) and NT (4.17), and NT showed better levels of understanding overall on food labels. Both ET and NT regarded hazardous factors of food as environmental pollutants, foodborne pathogens, and food additives in order, and tended to select 'no additives' or 'no artificial color' products while purchasing processed food. Although NT answered that they know all food additives had been passed the evaluation of safety and effectiveness tests (100%) and have standards of use (81.9%), majority of them (87.5%) believed the consumption of food additives are harmful on human health. ET (75.2%) also regarded food additives as dangerous materials. Above results suggested the necessity of proper and enough risk communication for both ET and NT. Both ET and NT wanted to have information on the safety or hazard of food additives. Most preferred media to get the information on food additives was TV (3.80) among ET and lecture (3.65) among NT. ET and NT trusted hospital, research institution/universities or the personnels working in these institutions as the provider of information on food additives. The result that the trust levels of ET and NT on government were relative low suggested the weakness of risk communication in Korean government. Although ET and NT answered that they do not trust mass media, their behaviors were affected by them such as reading food labels in ET (39.4%) and reducing the consumption of food additives in NT (50%). They also indicated mass media's problem of sensitive approach on food additives and asked the urgent reaction of government by providing sound information through experts on food additives. Above results revealed that ET and NT have different perceptions and information needs on food additives, therefore, proper risk communication should be provided for them to serve as dietary educators for elementary school children.

Revisiting the cause of unemployment problem in Korea's labor market: The job seeker's interests-based topic analysis (취업준비생 토픽 분석을 통한 취업난 원인의 재탐색)

  • Kim, Jung-Su;Lee, Suk-Jun
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.85-116
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    • 2016
  • The present study aims to explore the causes of employment difficulty on the basis of job applicant's interest from P-E (person-environment) fit perspective. Our approach relied on a textual analytic method to reveal insights from their situational interests in a job search during the change of labor market. Thus, to investigate the type of major interests and psychological responses, user-generated texts in a social community were collected for analysis between January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2015 by crawling the online-community in regard to job seeking and sharing information and opinions. The results of topic analysis indicated user's primary interests were divided into four types: perception of vocation expectation, employment pre-preparation behaviors, perception of labor market, and job-seeking stress. Specially, job applicants put mainly concerns of monetary reward and a form of employment, rather than their work values or career exploration, thus youth job applicants expressed their psychological responses using contextualized language (e.g., slang, vulgarisms) for projecting their unstable state under uncertainty in response to environmental changes. Additionally, they have perceived activities in the restricted preparation (e.g., certification, English exam) as determinant factors for success in employment and suffered form job-seeking stress. On the basis of these findings, current unemployment matters are totally attributed to the absence of pursing the value of vocation and job in individuals, organizations, and society. Concretely, job seekers are preoccupied with occupational prestige in social aspect and have undecided vocational value. On the other hand, most companies have no perception of the importance of human resources and have overlooked the needs for proper work environment development in respect of stimulating individual motivation. The attempt in this study to reinterpret the effect of environment as for classifying job applicant's interests in reference to linguistic and psychological theories not only helps conduct a more comprehensive meaning for understanding social matters, but guides new directions for future research on job applicant's psychological factors (e.g., attitudes, motivation) using topic analysis.

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A Study on the Guidelines on the Insertion of Metal Stiffeners in the Restoration of Stone Cultural Heritages (석조문화재 복원을 위한 금속보강재 매입방법 표준화 연구)

  • Lee, Dong-sik;Kim, Hyun-yong;Kim, Sa-dug;Hong, Seong-geol
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.212-228
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    • 2013
  • Stone cultural heritages are repaired by the use of metal stiffeners. The problem is that this type of repair has been based on the experience of workers without specific guidelines and has caused various problems. This is to suggest the structural reinforcement and behavioral characteristics of metal rods to minimize the secondary damage of materials and have the specimens tested and verified to establish the guidelines on how to insert metal stiffeners. When only epoxy resin is applied to the cut surface, only 70% of the properties of the parent material are regenerated and it is required to structurally reinforce the metal stiffener for the remaining 30%. The metal rod is under the structural behavior after the brittle failure of stone material and the structural behavior does not occur when the metal stiffener is below 0.251%. When it accounts for over 0.5%, it achieves structural reinforcement, but causes secondary damage of parent materials. The appropriate ratio of metal stiffener for the stone material with the strength of $1,500kgf/cm^2$, therefore, should be between 0.283% and 0.377% of the cross section of attached surface to achieve reversible fracture and ductility behavior. In addition, it is more effective to position the stiffeners at close intervals to achieve the peak stress of metal rod against bending load and inserting the stiffener into the upper secions is not structurally supportive, but would rather cause damage of the parent material. Thus, most stiffeners should be inserted into the lower part and some into the central part to work as a stable tensile material under the load stress. The dispersion effect of metal rods was influenced by the area of reinforcing rods and unrelated to their diameter. However, it ensures stability under the load stress to increase the number of stiffeners considering the cross section adhered when working on large-scale structures. The development length is engineered based upon the diameter of stiffener using the following formula: $l_d=\frac{a_tf_y}{u{\Sigma}_0}$. Also, helically-threaded reinforcing rods should be used to perform the behaviors as a structural material.

Study for practical philosophical counseling (실천적인 철학상담을 위한 연구)

  • Jung, Suk-hyun
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.130
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    • pp.305-335
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    • 2014
  • Counseling is conducted through dialogue in relation to counselor and client. Therefore the philosophical counseling first must consider the circumstances, prescribe the main concepts and proceed to the specific methodology in order to be the practical study. The philosophical counseling includes the six necessary concepts-subjects, time, place, object, method, and purpose-because of its behavioral concepts. The subjects are counsellor and client, the place is where public institutions authorize officially for counseling, the time is when the two parties are meeting face to face, the object is the client's facing problems right now, the method is the philosophical assistance, and the purpose is to dissolve the client's problems. The client's facing problems here are the developmental tasks according to the developmental stages and the maladaptive behaviors related to the cognitive distortions appearing in the process. And the philosophical assistance methods are the types to make the facilitating environment and dispute the wrong thoughts and the irrational beliefs. However, the client's problems in counseling often appear in the causes combined between the cognitive elements and the emotive elements which are treated mainly in the psychological counseling. In that case, the way to solve the problems in the philosophical counseling should be applied to with the psychological methods in parallel or in regular succession. Therefore the six necessary concepts of the philosophical counseling are not the absolute meanings but the meanings in general. If so, the concept of the philosophical counseling can be defined as the process in which counselor and client meet face to face and dissolve the client's facing problems through mainly the philosophical methods with the counselor's assistance. If the main concepts of the philosophical counseling can be prescribed as mentioned above, post study needs to proceed to the specific methodology.