• Title, Summary, Keyword: Probiotics

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Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases

  • Kim, Ha-Jung;Kim, Hyung Young;Lee, So-Yeon;Seo, Ju-Hee;Lee, Eun;Hong, Soo-Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.56 no.9
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2013
  • A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors partially contributes to the development of allergic diseases by affecting development during prenatal and early life. To explain the dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, the hygiene hypothesis proposed that early exposure to infection prevented allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has changed to the microbial hypothesis, in which exposure to microbes is closely linked to the development of the early immune system and allergic diseases. The intestinal flora may contribute to allergic disease through its substantial effect on mucosal immunity. Based on findings that exposure to microbial flora early in life can change the Th1/Th2 balance, thus favoring a Th1 cell response, probiotics may be beneficial in preventing allergic diseases. However, evidence from clinical and basic research to prove the efficacy of probiotics in preventing allergy is lacking. To date, studies have yielded inconsistent findings on the usefulness of probiotics in allergic diseases. It is difficult to demonstrate an exact effect of probiotics on asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy because of study limitations, such as different first supplementation period, duration, different strains, short follow-up period, and host factors. However, many studies have demonstrated a significant clinical improvement in atopic dermatitis with the use of probiotics. An accurate understanding of the development of human immunity, intestinal barrier function, intestinal microbiota, and systemic immunity is required to comprehend the effects of probiotics on allergic diseases.

Probiotics Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-8 Secretion from Intestinal Epithelial Cells

  • Oh, Hyun-Wook;Jeun, Gi-Hoon;Lee, Jin;Chun, Tae-Hoon;Kim, Sae-Hun
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.434-440
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    • 2012
  • It has been suggested that probiotics could be useful for the prevention of symptomatic relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Interleukin (IL)-8 has been well recognized as one of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that could trigger inflammation and epithelial barrier dysfunction. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of probiotics were investigated using a human epithelial cell line (HT-29). Probiotics from infant feces and kimchi were tested for their cytotoxicity and effects on adhesion to epithelial cells. The present results show that seven strains could form 70 % adhesion on HT-29. The probiotics used in this study did not affect HT-29 cell viability. To screen anti-inflammatory lactic acid bacteria, HT-29 cells were pretreated with live and heat-killed probiotics, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ($1{\mu}g/mL$) was then added to stimulate the cells. The cell culture supernatant was then used to measure IL-8 secretion by ELISA, and the cell pellet was used to determine IL-8 and toll-like receptor (TLR-4) mRNA expression levels by RT-PCR. Some probiotics (KJP421, KDK411, SRK414, E4191, KY21, and KY210) exhibited anti-inflammatory effects through the repression of IL-8 secretion from HT-29 cells. In particular, Lactobacillus salivarius E4191, originating from Egyptian infant feces, not only decreased IL-8 mRNA expression, but also decreased TLR-4 expression. These results indicate that Lactobacillus salivarius E4191 may have a protective effect in intestinal epithelial cells.

Effects of Prebiotics and Probiotics on Swine Intestinal Microflora and Fermentation Products In Vitro Fermentation (In vitro 발효에서 Prebiotics와 Probiotics가 돼지 장내미생물과 발효산물에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Woon;Chae, Su-Jin;Kim, Young-Hwa;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sung-Dae;Park, Jun-Cheol;Cho, Kyu-Ho;Sa, Soo-Jin;Kim, In-Cheul;Kim, In-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, the effects of prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics on intestinal microflora and fermentation products were evaluated in a pig in vitro fermentation model. The substrates used in this study were iso-malto oligosaccharide (IMO), partially digested chicory-inulin (CI), raffinose (RA), and cyclodextrin (CD) as prebiotics and Lactobacillus reiteri as probiotics. For a pig in vitro fermentation, the experimental diet for growing pigs was predigested using digestive enzymes secreted by small intestine and this hydrolyzed diet was mixed with a buffer solution containing 5% fresh swine feces. The mixture was then incubated with either prebiotics or prebiotics+probiotics for 24 h. Samples were taken at 24 h, and viable counts of microflora, gas, pH, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) were analyzed. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in all treatments containing prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics when compared to the control. However, the number of lactic acid bacteria increased in the prebiotics and prebiotics+probiotics treatment. The pH values in the fermentation fluid decreased in all treatments when compared to the control, and their effects were greater in the prebiotics+probiotics group than prebiotics group. Fermentation with prebiotics resulted in a reduction in malodorous compounds such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and skatole when compared to the prebiotics+probiotics group. Short-chain fatty acid production was also higher for treatment with prebiotics+probiotics than treatment with prebiotics. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that fermentation with prebiotics was effective in reducing the formation of malodorous compounds and prebiotics+probiotics was effective in increasing lactic acid bacteria and SCFA and reducing the pH. Moreover, further studies will be needed to determine whether the results observed in the in vitro model would occur in pigs that ingest these prebiotics or probiotics.

Probiotics and Intestinal Health (유산균 Probiotics와 장내 건강)

  • Bang, Miseon;Lee, Sang Dae;Oh, Sejong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2012
  • For human including newborn baby, the intestinal microbiota can play an important role in the development of the intestinal mucosa and in maintaining the balance of the immune cells. Important functions of the intestinal microbiota include the inhibition of the colonization of the intestine by potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the research of probiotics have been focused on the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including pathogen infection, traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and constipation. Probiotics have also been suggested as therapeutic agents against irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases. An increasing amount of evidence from clinical studies suggests that they are effective in the prevention of atopic allergies and may have potential anti-carcinogenic effects. Until recent years many scientific research for this use has been based on empirical observations. Therefore, probiotics in the form of fermented milk products have been long part of attempts to maintain good health in world wide.

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Mechanisms of Action of Probiotics (Probiotics의 작용기전)

  • Ko, Jae-Sung
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.691-695
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    • 2005
  • There is scientific evidence that administration of probiotics is effective in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in children and the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and nosocomial/community acquired diarrhea. Probiotics prevent relapse of recurrent pouchitis and decrease the initial onset of pouchitis in ulcerative colitis. Probiotic organisms suppress growth of pathogens as well as their epithelial attachment and/or invasion either directly by secreting antimicrobial substances or by stimulating host expression of protective molecules. Additionally, probiotics enhance mucosal barrier function and can stimulate host production of immunosuppressive molecules that downregulate inflammatory responses or allergic immune response. Mechanisms of action explain therapeutic effects and randomized controlled trials are warranted before recommendations for therapeutic or preventive use can be given.

Effect of Spirulina platensis and Probiotics as Feed Additives on Growth of Shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

  • Kim Choong-Jae;Yoon Sook-Kyung;Kim Hong-Ik;Park Yong-Ha;Oh Hee-Mock
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1248-1254
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    • 2006
  • The effect of Spirulina platens is and probiotics as feed additives on the growth of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was investigated in comparison with a control. The shrimp were cultured in rearing tanks in a seawater pond for 35 days from September 1, 2004. As regards the water quality, the probiotic treatment (T2, commercial diet and 3% probiotics) produced a lower TDN (total dissolved nitrogen) and TDP (total dissolved phosphorus), making it effective in water quality improvement. Nonetheless, the phytoplankton flora succeeded from diatoms to cyanobacteria, regardless of the feed additives. Treatment T3, including 3% S. platensis, produced the highest mean body weight, which was 39% higher than that for all the other treatments (P<0.05). Accordingly, it was found that the use of Spirulina and probiotics as feed additives increased the shrimp body weight and improved the water quality, respectively.

Effect of Probiotics on Water Quality in the Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) Ponds (대하 (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) 양식장 사육수에 미치는 Probiotics의 효과)

  • LIM Hyun Jeong;PARK Joong Hyun;JANG In Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2004
  • Applications of probiotics to shrimp ponds were carried out to determine their effects on water quality. Fermented solutions consisting of Bacillus spp. and Nitrosomonas spp. were applied to a 4 ha shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) pond from July to September, 2000. In the pond treated with probiotics, daily variations of DO and pH, and concentrations of DIN and DIP were lower than those in the ponds without probiotic treatment. Concentration of phytoplankton was less variable and the number of species was more variable in the probiotic-treated pond than those in the control pond. Variation of bacterial numbers and the number of Vibrio spp. were lower in the treated pond than those in the control pond. It is confirmed that the probiotics can be used to improve water quality of the shrimp ponds.

Trends in studies on probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics (프로바이오틱스, 프리바이오틱스 및 신바이오틱스 연구동향)

  • Moon, Gi-Seong
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2019
  • Probiotics are very closely related to gut microbiome and recognized as beneficial microorganisms for our health. They have various biological effects such as inhibition of pathogenic bacteria, activation of beneficial bacteria, prevention of diarrhea and constipation, enhanced immune activity etc. Prebiotics, non-digestible carbohydrates such as galactooligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide, are utilized by beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, resulting in production of short chain fatty acids which inhibit pathogenic bacteria in the gut and function for human health. Synbiotics are introduced for synergistic effects when probiotics are combined with prebiotics and now commercially available. At the moment many functional ingredients are developed and commercialized. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics might be hot items in the functional food market and the values will increase according to the results of human gut microbiome researches. To meet the situation, systematic and scientific studies as well as marketing effects should be accompanied.

Antibiotics and Probiotics Prophylaxis for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Children

  • Lee, Jung Won
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2016
  • Since many years, continuous low dose antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) has been used for children at a risk for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), especially those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). The incidence of recurrent UTI has been shown to be higher in children with VUR with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) than in those with VUR without BBD. Therefore, CAP has been recommended for children with BBD and VUR because of the increased risk of UTI. However, the use of CAP has become highly controversial because of bacterial resistance developed due to antibiotic over-usage. The preventive effects of probiotics have been proved in various adult urogenital infections, and the antimicrobial activities of lactobacilli against uropathogens have been demonstrated in previous in vitro studies. However, a critical assessment of their efficacy in children with UTI is lacking. The importance of the use of urogenital probiotics is that it is a natural approach that replenishes the depleted normal flora to create a better environment to fight off uropathogens. Probiotics have a great potential, particularly today with the increasing threat of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.

Prevention of Alcoholic Liver Disease by Using Probiotics (프로바이오틱스 섭취를 통한 알코올성 간 질환의 완화)

  • Lee, In Ok;Kim, Sae Hun
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Probiotics have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on human health. In particular, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains have gained considerable attention as major groups of probiotic bacteria that improve gastrointestinal health. However, emerging evidence suggests that probiotics offer benefits beyond those observed in the gut recent studies suggest that probiotics and/or their components exert favorable effects on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) pathogenesis such as decreasing intestinal permeability, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria growth, increasing the activity of alcohol metabolism enzymes, modulating the adaptive immune system, and suppressing fatty acid synthesis genes. In this review, we discuss the results of in vivo and in vitro studies that have examined the use of probiotics to prevent ALD, primarily focusing on those that explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the activities of promising probiotic strains. The evidence presented in this review could help in screening for probiotic strains that have protective effects in ALD patients and in further elucidating the mechanisms of their actions.

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