Yoo, Ki-Bong;Noh, Jin-Won;Kwon, Young Dae;Cho, Kyoung Hee;Choi, Young;Kim, Jae-Hyun
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: As coverage of public insurance is not sufficient to cover diagnosis or treatment of cancer, having private health insurance is important to prepare for unexpected expenses of cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with having private cancer insurance, considering gender among the socio-demographic factors and health behavior. Materials and Methods: We used data from the 2011 Korea Health Panel, which included 10,871 participants aged 20 years and older. Socio-demographics, health behavior, and perceived cancer risk were the independent variables and having private cancer insurance was the dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with having private cancer insurance. Results: The variables relating to middle age, higher education, higher household income, married men, and the perceived cancer risk groups of 1-10% and 11-30% were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance. Additionally, females who had private non-cancer health insurance were positively associated with the dependent variables (OR=1.36; 95% CI=1.17-1.57). Education, smoking status, exercise, and perceived cancer risk possibility were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance only among women. The men lowered the overall percentages of those having private cancer insurance (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.45-0.63). Conclusions: We found that there were significant differences between men and women who had private cancer insurance. Women with private cancer insurance are more likely to follow precautionary health behavior than men. This could be interpreted as resulting from masculine ideologies. It is important to make males recognize the seriousness of the cancer risk. In general, household income was highly associated with private cancer insurance. These results reveal an inequity among the buyers of private cancer insurance in terms of economic status level, education level, and health condition.
Objectives : To identify the effects of supplemental private health insurance on health care utilization and expenditure under the mandatory National Health Insurance(NHI) system in Korea. Methods : The data were collected by the National Cancer Center in Korea. Cancer patients who were newly diagnosed with stomach (ICD code, C16), lung(C33-C34), liver (C22), colorectal cancer(C18-C20) or breast(C50) cancer were included as study subjects. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire from face-to-face interviews, the hospital Order Communication System (OCS) and medical records. Clinical, socio-demographic and private health insurance related factors were also gathered. The differences of health care utilization and expenditure were compared between those who have private health insurance and those who do not using t-test and multivariable regression analysis. Results : Individuals with private health insurance spent larger inpatient costs than those without, but no differences were found in utilization in other service such as hospital admissions, hospital days and physician visits. Conclusions : We found that private health insurance exerts a significant effect on the health care expenditure in inpatient service. These study results can provide a rational basis to plan a national health policy regarding private health insurance. Further studies are needed to investigate the impacts of private health insurance on cancer patients' outcomes and survival rates.
Objectives : The aim of this study is to identify factors determining the purchase of private health insurance under the mandatory National Health Insurance(NHI) system in Korea. Methods : The data were collected by the National Cancer Center in Korea. It includes cancer patients who were newly diagnosed with stomach (ICD code, C16), lung(C33-C34), liver (C22), colorectal cancer(C18-C20) or breast(C50) cancer. Data were gathered from the hospital Order Communication System (OCS), medical records, and face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire. Clinical, socio-demographic and private health insurance related factors were also gathered. Results : Overall, 43.9% of patients had purchased one or more private health insurance schemes related to cancer, with an average monthly premium of \65,311 and an average benefit amount of \19million. Females, younger aged, high income earners, national health insurers and metropolitan citizens were more likely to purchase private health insurance than their counterparts. Conclusions : About half of Korean people have supple-mentary private health insurance and their benefits are sufficient to cover the out-of-pocket fees required for cancer treatment, but inequality remains in the purchase of private health insurance. Further studies are needed to investigate the impacts of private health insurance on NHI, and the relationship between cancer patients' burden and benefits.
This study explores the feasibility of activating private health insurance in Korea. The rationale for expanding private supplementary health insurance can be found in many cases of health care reforms in the European countries. Private health insurance can not only relieve the financial distress of the government health insurance programs but also offer the medical institutions incentives to improve the quality of medical care. In Korea there is no supplementary health insurance that reimburses for various kinds of diseases based on a well designed fee schedule. Recently, the cancer insurance is the best seller in the health related insurance market. As observed in the U. S. case, the cancer insurance which pays the predetermined amount (indemnity coverage) regardless of the medical charges incurred to the patient is limited in its coverage for the insured. To provide better protection against catastrophic diseases, the government should give insurance companies incentives to develop health insurance products that cover multiple diseases rather than a single disease. Consumers can hardly understand and compare complex insurance products. To resolve the information asymmetries, the government should publish a consumer report that compare various health insurance products in a user friendly way. In the long run, insurance companies will plan to sell health insurance products that charge risk related premium only when insurers accumulate the underwriting know-hows, the government shares data on various health statistics including claims and demographics, and risk pool for high risk patients is well established and subsidized by the government.
The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the current status of cancer screening among subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle and to analyze the factors affecting the cancer screening of subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle. Methods: This study used the 'National Health and Nutrition Survey 7th Year (2017)' surveyed nationwide as the main data. The subjects are lung cancer screening projects, the dependent variable is early cancer screening, the independent variables are gender, age, marital status, household income level, education level, national health insurance type, private health insurance, The number of chronic diseases, general health examination, smoking status, drinking status, moderate intensity physical activity, stress perception rate, and weight control efforts were determined. Results: The results of this study showed that factors affecting early cancer screening of lung cancer screening subjects were gender, age, marital status, education level, national health insurance, smoking status, drinking status, moderate physical activity, and weight. Irrespective of the control effort, it was found that the private medical insurance, the number of chronic diseases, the medical examination, and the stress perception rate were affected. Conclusion: If the lung cancer screening subjects recognize the importance of early cancer screening themselves and create a social environment to increase their participation rate, lung cancer screening patients and their families will help them to live a healthy life.
This research is aimed at analyzing and understanding the perception and attitudes of inpatients in a general hospital in Seoul towards the activation of private health insurance. Survey was conducted against 231 inpatients, results of which were analyzed in the methods of frequency analysis, chi square test, and logistic regression. The results are summarized as follows; First, better-educated population who finished college education at least, higher-income population, and people who had more knowledge about private health insurance showed more perception about activation of private health insurance. Second, better-educated population who finished college education at least, higher-income population, those who are insured in existing private insurance, oncological patients, and people who had more knowledge about private health insurance showed more positive attitude towards private health insurance paying for actual damages, long-term care insurance, and income security insurance. Third, age and education were the factors affecting perception about activation of private health insurance. The older the age is, perception was 1.035 times positive towards activation of private health insurance, and those who finished college education or above showed 3.148 times positive perception towards the same. Forth, surgical patients showed 1.087 times more positive attitude towards private health insurance paying for actual damages than internal medicine patients, while oncological patients showed 2.314 times more positive attitude than internal medicine patients. Further, understanding on the activation of private health insurance was 6.014 times higher in the higher understanding group than in the lower understanding group. Intention to use long-term care insurance was 2.692 times stronger in the male group than in the female group, and 3.616 times stronger in the oncological patients group than in internal medicine patients group. Further, understanding on the activation of private health insurance was 3.881 times deeper in the higher understanding group than in the lower understanding group. Intention to use income security insurance was 3.185 times stronger in those who have academic background of under the high school than those over the college, and 4.175 times higher in the group those whose monthly average income is over 4 million won than those under 4 million won. Also, intention to use income security insurance was 4.323 times higher in the group those who are insured by existing private insurances than those who are not insured by those insurances and it was 5.234 times higher in the group of oncological patients than in the group of internal medicine patients. Further, intention to use income security insurance was 3.559 times higher in the group those who thought that out-of-pocket money of the National Health Insurance is too much to bear than those it is quite endurable. Understanding on the activation of private health insurance was 4.875 times deeper in the higher understanding group than in the lower understanding group. There were some suggestions could be made based on the results of this research. First, reinforced publicity and education is needed for the low-educated or low-income group, as there are gaps in the understanding on the activation of private health insurance depending on the degree of education and income. Second, government should prepare administrative complementary measures to solve the problem of adverse selection by the consumer which is foreseen when private health insurances are activated. Third, government should suggest the desirable course of development of private health insurance items to ensure efficient use of enormous fund of private insurance market for health security of the people. Further, institutional complementary measures are needed to convert existing cancer insurances or specific disease insurances to private health insurances paying for actual damages guaranteeing against every kind of disease. Forth, it judged that, not only private health insurances paying for actual damages, but also long-term care insurances and income security insurances are prospective as fields to create fresh demand for insurance industry.
This study examines the effects of supplemental insurance on health care utilization and expenditures among cancer patients, who were hospitalized in a general hospital in Korea 2003. We find that those who purchase the supplemental insurance in addition to the social health insurance use more health care services and pay more than those who do not, suggesting insurance effects. This paper, however, cannot distinguish the moral effects of the health insurance from the selection effects due to adverse selection.
Purpose: This study was to investigate the cancer screening rates and influence factors in island residents. Methods: The participants were 1,223 Shinan gun island residents. Data were collected using structured questionnaires from June 23th to September 8th, 2007 and analyzed using the SAS win 12.0 program. Results: The cancer screening rate was 49.9%. There were significant differences for sex, age, living with family, economic level, smoking, exercise, private health insurance, familial history, health concern. The highest practice rate was of stomach cancer (55.9%), which is gastric endoscopic exam. The most common motivation of getting a screening test was the concern of health (40.8%), and many had no recommender of the screening test (30.0%). 58.4% of the subjects were satisfied with the screeing tests and the most frequent reason of the satisfaction was 'rapid result report' (33.1%). The msot common reason of unsatisfaction was 'long waiting time' (25.7%). Most participants agreed with the necessity of cancer screening (74.9%). More than half participants said they would participate in another cancer screening tests in the future (51.9%). Private health insurance, exercise, health concern and smoking showed significant predictors (20.6%) of obtaining cancer screening. Conclusion: The results suggest that health care professionals should give more attention to help the residents obtain cancer screening tests. A further study is necessary to develop any effective intervention for people who do not practice cancer screening tests.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of private health insurance subscribers and non-subscribers as they relate to severely ill patients, and to identify the factors of participation. The study was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2015, and data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 23.0. The subjects were 417 patients with severe disease (cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease) over 19 years of age. Crossover analysis was employed to identify differences between the state of private health insurance participation, while binary logistic regression analysis was used to confirm the factors affecting private health insurance subscription. Analysis of the effects of the subjects on the private health insurance participation rate revealed that the social and demographic characteristics were higher in younger individuals regardless of sex, residence, or marital status. Moreover, higher household income, regardless of the education level, was associated with a higher participation rate of health insurance target individuals compared to medical benefit target individuals. The private health insurance participation rate was low and the explaining power was 51.7%, regardless of subjective health awareness and walking practice. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve the living environment and support local governmental programs for the elderly, low income households, socially vulnerable groups with limited activities and groups with limited health behavior. It is also necessary to consider various health policies, such as providing government health education or programs to prevent severe illness.
This study firstly examined the socioeconomic and health factors associated with infiltration of private health insurance. Secondly, we compared health behavior, outpatient and inpatient use of private health insured with uninsured. The method of this study is that secondary analysis of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey was conducted for 7178 respondents aged 19 over. We use the logistic regression and t-test for data analysis. The first dependent variable was dichotomy which is divided to private health insured or uninsured and the second dependent variable was the presence and frequency of outpatient and inpatient use. The descriptive variables was gender, age, marital status, income, education, occupation, type of national health insurance, residential area, self confidence of health, prevalence rate of common disease, activity limitation, drinking and smoking status. The result of the major findings are as follows. First, 59 under aged person, married person, people in the higher brackets of income, national employee insured were more likely to infiltrate private health insurance. The poor self confidence of health, activity limitation, person with hypertension or allergic rhinitis and smoker were negatively related in infiltrating private health insurance. Second, private health insured did more preventive behavior such as self-paid health examination, cancer screening, regular exercise than uninsured. Third, private health insured was positively related with the presence of outpatient use and frequency of inpatient use
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