• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)

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Method development and initial results of testing for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in waterproof sunscreens

  • Keawmanee, Sasipin;Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati;Boontanon, Narin
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2015
  • Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental pollutants, extremely stable, and possibly adversely affect human health. They are widely used in many industries and consumer goods, including sunscreen products. These substances are stable chemicals made of long carbon chains, having both lipid- and water-repellent qualities. The research objectives are (1) to find the most effective method for the preparation of semi-liquid samples by comparing solid phase extraction (SPE) and centrifugation after Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and (2) to determine the contamination levels of PFOS and PFOA in waterproof sunscreen samples. All sunscreen samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sunscreen samples were purchased from domestic and international brands sold in Thailand. Special chemical properties were considered for the selection of samples, e.g., those found in waterproof, sweat resistant, water resistant, and non-stick products. Considering the factors of physical properties, e.g., operation time, chemical consumption, and recovery percentage for selecting methods to develop, the centrifugation method using 2 mL of extracted sample with the conditions of 12,000 rpm and $5^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour after PLE was chosen. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were detected at 0.0671 ng/g and 21.0644 ng/g, respectively. Even though present concentrations are found at ng/g levels, the daily use of sunscreen products is normally several grams. Therefore, a risk assessment of PFOS and PFOA contamination in sunscreen products is an important concern, and more attention needs to be paid to the long-term effects on human health.

Review on the Analytical Methods and Ambient Concentrations of Organic Nitrogenous Compounds in the Atmosphere (대기 유기질소화합물의 분석방법 및 농도)

  • Choi, Na Rae;Kim, Yong Pyo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.120-143
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    • 2018
  • The analytical methods and their ambient levels of organic nitrogenous compounds such as nitrosamines, nitramines (nitroamines), imines, amides and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in the atmosphere are summarized and discussed. Sampling for the analysis of organic nitrogenous compounds was mostly conducted using high volume air sampler. The direct liquid extraction (DLE) using sonification and the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) have been frequently employed for the extraction of organic nitrogenous compounds in the atmospheric samples. After extraction, clean-up via filtration and the solid phase extraction (SPE) and concentrations using nitrogen and rotary evaporator have been generally conducted but in some studies the clean-up and concentration steps have been omitted to prevent the loss of analyte and improve the recovery rate of the analytical procedure. Instrumental analysis was mainly carried out using gas chromatography (GC) or the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with the single quadrupole mass spectrometer or tandem mass spectrometer in the electron ionization (EI), positive chemical ionization (PCI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode and analysis sensitivity of nitrosamines and nitramines were higher in NCI mode. Desirable sampling and analysis methods for analyzing particulate organic nitrogenous compounds are suggested.

Screening of Antioxidants and Cosmeceuticals from Natural Plant Resources in Jeju Island (제주 자생식물로부터 항산화 및 화장품 기능성 소재 탐색)

  • Hyun, Sun-Hee;Jung, Sung-Keun;Jwa, Mi-Kyung;Song, Chang-Khil;Kim, Ji-Hun;Lim, Sang-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2007
  • Fifty-four natural plants from Jeju Island, Korea were extracted by 70% methanol. The extracts containing the highest total phenolic contents (TPC) (>250 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry sample) were obtained from Ostrya japonica, Geranium thunbergii, Malus sieboldii, Ardisia japonica, and Agrimonia pilosa. DPPH inhibition activity was greatest in Ardisia crenata at 94.1%. A high correlation was observed between DPPH inhibition activity and TPC ($R^2=0.87$). Tyrosinase inhibition activities of more than 85% were obtained from the extracts of Persicaria filiformis, Rhus javanica, Alnus firma, and Myrica rubra. On the other hand, the P. filiformis and M. rubra extracts each showed more than 90% XOD inhibition activity. The five natural plants with the highest biological activities were also extracted by pressurized liquid (PLE, 100% methanol, 13.6 MPa, $40^{\circ}C$). The DPPH and tyrosinase inhibition activities were almost the same in both the 70% methanol and PLE extracts. The $IC_{50}$ for tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities in PLE were 802 and 88 ppm in A. japonica, and 959 and 66 ppm in M. rubra, respectively.