• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pressurized heavy water reactor

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DETERMINISTIC EVALUATION OF DELAYED HYDRIDE CRACKING BEHAVIORS IN PHWR PRESSURE TUBES

  • Oh, Young-Jin;Chang, Yoon-Suk
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.265-276
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    • 2013
  • Pressure tubes made of Zr-2.5 wt% Nb alloy are important components consisting reactor coolant pressure boundary of a pressurized heavy water reactor, in which unanticipated through-wall cracks and rupture may occur due to a delayed hydride cracking (DHC). The Canadian Standards Association has provided deterministic and probabilistic structural integrity evaluation procedures to protect pressure tubes against DHC. However, intuitive understanding and subsequent assessment of flaw behaviors are still insufficient due to complex degradation mechanisms and diverse influential parameters of DHC compared with those of stress corrosion cracking and fatigue crack growth phenomena. In the present study, a deterministic flaw assessment program was developed and applied for systematic integrity assessment of the pressure tubes. Based on the examination results dealing with effects of flaw shapes, pressure tube dimensional changes, hydrogen concentrations of pressure tubes and plant operation scenarios, a simple and rough method for effective cooldown operation was proposed to minimize DHC risks. The developed deterministic assessment program for pressure tubes can be used to derive further technical bases for probabilistic damage frequency assessment.

BACKUP AND ULTIMATE HEAT SINKS IN CANDU REACTORS FOR PROLONGED SBO ACCIDENTS

  • Nitheanandan, T.;Brown, M.J.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.589-596
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    • 2013
  • In a pressurized heavy water reactor, following loss of the primary coolant, severe core damage would begin with the depletion of the liquid moderator, exposing the top row of internally-voided fuel channels to steam cooling conditions on the inside and outside. The uncovered fuel channels would heat up, deform and disassemble into core debris. Large inventories of water passively reduce the rate of progression of the accident, prolonging the time for complete loss of engineered heat sinks. The efficacy of available backup and ultimate heat sinks, available in a CANDU 6 reactor, in mitigating the consequences of a prolonged station blackout scenario was analysed using the MAAP4-CANDU code. The analysis indicated that the steam generator secondary side water inventory is the most effective heat sink during the accident. Additional heat sinks such as the primary coolant, moderator, calandria vault water and end shield water are also able to remove decay heat; however, a gradually increasing mismatch between heat generation and heat removal occurs over the course of the postulated event. This mismatch is equivalent to an additional water inventory estimated to be 350,000 kg at the time of calandria vessel failure. In the Enhanced CANDU 6 reactor ~2,040,000 kg of water in the reserve water tank is available for prolonged emergencies requiring heat sinks.

PROPOSAL FOR DUAL PRESSURIZED LIGHT WATER REACTOR UNIT PRODUCING 2000 MWE

  • Kang, Kyoung-Min;Noh, Sang-Woo;Suh, Kune-Yull
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.1005-1014
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    • 2009
  • The Dual Unit Optimizer 2000 MWe (DUO2000) is put forward as a new design concept for large power nuclear plants to cope with economic and safety challenges facing the $21^{st}$ century green and sustainable energy industry. DUO2000 is home to two nuclear steam supply systems (NSSSs) of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000)-like pressurized water reactor (PWR) in single containment so as to double the capacity of the plant. The idea behind DUO may as well be extended to combining any number of NSSSs of PWRs or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), or even boiling water reactors (BWRs). Once proven in water reactors, the technology may even be expanded to gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors. With its in-vessel retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) as severe accident management strategy, DUO can not only put the single most querulous PWR safety issue to an end, but also pave the way to very promising large power capacity while dispensing with the huge redesigning cost for Generation III+ nuclear systems. Five prototypes are presented for the DUO2000, and their respective advantages and drawbacks are considered. The strengths include, but are not necessarily limited to, reducing the cost of construction by decreasing the number of containment buildings from two to one, minimizing the cost of NSSS and control systems by sharing between the dual units, and lessening the maintenance cost by uniting the NSSS, just to name the few. The latent threats are discussed as well.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STATION BLACKOUT ACCIDENT PROGRESSION IN TYPICAL PWR, BWR, AND PHWR

  • Park, Soo-Yong;Ahn, Kwang-Il
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 2012
  • Since the crisis at the Fukushima plants, severe accident progression during a station blackout accident in nuclear power plants is recognized as a very important area for accident management and emergency planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative characteristics of anticipated severe accident progression among the three typical types of nuclear reactors. A station blackout scenario, where all off-site power is lost and the diesel generators fail, is simulated as an initiating event of a severe accident sequence. In this study a comparative analysis was performed for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The study includes the summarization of design differences that would impact severe accident progressions, thermal hydraulic/severe accident phenomenological analysis during a station blackout initiated-severe accident; and an investigation of the core damage process, both within the reactor vessel before it fails and in the containment afterwards, and the resultant impact on the containment.

A Study on the Application of CRUDTRAN Code in Primary Systems of Domestic Pressurized Heavy-Water Reactors for Prediction of Radiation Source Term

  • Song, Jong Soon;Cho, Hoon Jo;Jung, Min Young;Lee, Sang Heon
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.638-644
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    • 2017
  • The importance of developing a source-term assessment technology has been emphasized owing to the decommissioning of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 and the increase of deteriorated NPPs. We analyzed the behavioral mechanism of corrosion products in the primary system of a pressurized heavy-water reactor-type NPP. In addition, to check the possibility of applying the CRUDTRAN code to a Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU)-type NPP, the type was assessed using collected domestic onsite data. With the assessment results, it was possible to predict trends according to operating cycles. Values estimated using the code were similar to the measured values. The results of this study are expected to be used to manage the radiation exposures of operators in high-radiation areas and to predict decommissioning processes in the primary system.

Review on the Management for Radioactive Effluent and Methodology for Setting of Derived Release Limits at Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors in Korea (중수로원전 방사성유출물 관리와 유도배출한계 설정방법에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.172-177
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    • 2010
  • The radioactive effluents from pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) are relatively larger than those from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Futhermore, radioactive effluents from PHWRs are released continuously. Thus, the discharge of radioactive effluents is strictly controlled. To do this, radiation detectors are installed at stacks of reactor buildings to monitor the concentration of radioactive effluents in real-time. Derived release limits (DRLs) of annual discharge are also set up for each radionuclide and effluents are rigidly controlled not to exceed those limits. In this paper, the discharge process of radioactive effluents, the standard for establishment of DRL and its methodology, and currents status for PHWRs were reviewed.

Mechanical Strength and Ultransonic Testing of End Cap Welds in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor Fuel (중수로핵연료 봉단마개 용접부의 기계적 특성과 초음파 시험)

  • 이정원;최명선;정성훈;고진현
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 1991
  • The weld quality of end cap welds in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) Fuel is extremely important for the fuel performance in the nuclear reactor. The quality of resistance upset welds is currently evaluated mainly by the metallographic examination although it reveals only two weld cross-sections in a circumference welds. This investigation was, firstly, carried out to determine whether the ultrasonic examination would be applied to detect weld defects in the end cap welds and, secondly, to measure the mechanical strength of upset butt welds as a function of phase shift percentage. The major results obtained in this study are as follows: 1. The weld current and amount of upset shrinkage linearly increased with increasing the phase shift percentage. 2. Above the phase shift 55%, the defects in the welds were completely eliminated with increasing the phase of sound weld was over the thickness of cladding tube. 3. The ultrasonic testing well detected such defects in the end cap welds as upset external crack, upset split, corner crack and irregular weld flash comparing with the results of metallography. 4. The micro-fissure in the corner of the end cap welds was reliably detected by ultrasonic testing. 5. The mechanical strength in the welds increased with increasing phase shift percentage but the fracture did't occur in the welds above 55%.

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OVERVIEW OF HEALTH PHYSICS STUDIES ON TRITIUM BETA RADIATION (삼중수소 베타방사선에 관한 보건물리 연구의 적용)

  • Hwang, Sun-Tae;Hah, Suk-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 1994
  • As we enter the 2000s, there are four nuclear power units of the pressurized heavy water reactor-type in the commercial operation at the Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) site where a larger amount of tritium ($\^$3/H) is released inevitably to the site environment. This radioctive nuclide is easily distributed throghout our environment because of its ubiquitous form as tritiated water (HTO) and its persistence in the environment. Tritum has certain characterisitics that present unique challenges for beta radiation dosimety and health risk assesment. In this paper, therefore, a variety of matters on tritium are considered and reviewed in terms of its characteristics and sources, metabolism and dosimetry, microdosimetry, radiobiology, risk assessment, and transport and cycling in the environment, etc.

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