• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

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Fatigue crack growth characteristics of nitrogen-alloyed type 347 stainless steel under operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor

  • Min, Ki-Deuk;Hong, Seokmin;Kim, Dae-Whan;Lee, Bong-Sang;Kim, Seon-Jin
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.752-759
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    • 2017
  • The fatigue crack growth behavior of Type 347 (S347) and Type 347N (S347N) stainless steel was evaluated under the operating conditions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These two materials showed different fatigue crack growth rates (FCGRs) according to the changes in dissolved oxygen content and frequency. Under the simulated PWR conditions for normal operation, the FCGR of S347N was lower than that of S347 and insensitive to the changes in PWR water conditions. The higher yield strength and better corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-alloyed Type 347 stainless steel might be a main cause of slower FCGR and more stable properties against changes in environmental conditions.

PROPOSAL FOR DUAL PRESSURIZED LIGHT WATER REACTOR UNIT PRODUCING 2000 MWE

  • Kang, Kyoung-Min;Noh, Sang-Woo;Suh, Kune-Yull
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.41 no.8
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    • pp.1005-1014
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    • 2009
  • The Dual Unit Optimizer 2000 MWe (DUO2000) is put forward as a new design concept for large power nuclear plants to cope with economic and safety challenges facing the $21^{st}$ century green and sustainable energy industry. DUO2000 is home to two nuclear steam supply systems (NSSSs) of the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe (OPR1000)-like pressurized water reactor (PWR) in single containment so as to double the capacity of the plant. The idea behind DUO may as well be extended to combining any number of NSSSs of PWRs or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), or even boiling water reactors (BWRs). Once proven in water reactors, the technology may even be expanded to gas cooled, liquid metal cooled, and molten salt cooled reactors. With its in-vessel retention external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) as severe accident management strategy, DUO can not only put the single most querulous PWR safety issue to an end, but also pave the way to very promising large power capacity while dispensing with the huge redesigning cost for Generation III+ nuclear systems. Five prototypes are presented for the DUO2000, and their respective advantages and drawbacks are considered. The strengths include, but are not necessarily limited to, reducing the cost of construction by decreasing the number of containment buildings from two to one, minimizing the cost of NSSS and control systems by sharing between the dual units, and lessening the maintenance cost by uniting the NSSS, just to name the few. The latent threats are discussed as well.

State-Space Model Predictive Control Method for Core Power Control in Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Stations

  • Wang, Guoxu;Wu, Jie;Zeng, Bifan;Xu, Zhibin;Wu, Wanqiang;Ma, Xiaoqian
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.134-140
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    • 2017
  • A well-performed core power control to track load changes is crucial in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. It is challenging to keep the core power stable at the desired value within acceptable error bands for the safety demands of the PWR due to the sensitivity of nuclear reactors. In this paper, a state-space model predictive control (MPC) method was applied to the control of the core power. The model for core power control was based on mathematical models of the reactor core, the MPC model, and quadratic programming (QP). The mathematical models of the reactor core were based on neutron dynamic models, thermal hydraulic models, and reactivity models. The MPC model was presented in state-space model form, and QP was introduced for optimization solution under system constraints. Simulations of the proposed state-space MPC control system in PWR were designed for control performance analysis, and the simulation results manifest the effectiveness and the good performance of the proposed control method for core power control.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STATION BLACKOUT ACCIDENT PROGRESSION IN TYPICAL PWR, BWR, AND PHWR

  • Park, Soo-Yong;Ahn, Kwang-Il
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 2012
  • Since the crisis at the Fukushima plants, severe accident progression during a station blackout accident in nuclear power plants is recognized as a very important area for accident management and emergency planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative characteristics of anticipated severe accident progression among the three typical types of nuclear reactors. A station blackout scenario, where all off-site power is lost and the diesel generators fail, is simulated as an initiating event of a severe accident sequence. In this study a comparative analysis was performed for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The study includes the summarization of design differences that would impact severe accident progressions, thermal hydraulic/severe accident phenomenological analysis during a station blackout initiated-severe accident; and an investigation of the core damage process, both within the reactor vessel before it fails and in the containment afterwards, and the resultant impact on the containment.

EELS and electron diffraction studies on possible bonaccordite crystals in pressurized water reactor fuel CRUD and in oxide films of alloy 600 material

  • Chen, Jiaxin;Lindberg, Fredrik;Wells, Daniel;Bengtsson, Bernt
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.668-674
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    • 2017
  • Experimental verification of boron species in fuel CRUD (Chalk River Unidentified Deposit) would provide essential and important information about the root cause of CRUD-induced power shifts (CIPS). To date, only bonaccordite and elemental boron were reported to exist in fuel CRUD in CIPS-troubled pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores and lithium tetraborate to exist in simulated PWR fuel CRUD from some autoclave tests. We have reevaluated previous analysis of similar threadlike crystals along with examining some similar threadlike crystals from CRUD samples collected from a PWR cycle that had no indications of CIPS. These threadlike crystals have a typical [Ni]/[Fe] atomic ratio of ~2 and similar crystal morphology as the one (bonaccordite) reported previously. In addition to electron diffraction study, we have applied electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine boron content in such a crystal and found a good agreement with that of bonaccordite. Surprisingly, such crystals seem to appear also on corroded surfaces of Alloy 600 that was exposed to simulated PWR primary water with a dissolved hydrogen level of $5mL\;H_2/kg\;H_2O$, but absent when exposed under $75mL\;H_2/kg\;H_2O$ condition. It remains to be verified as to what extent and in which chemical environment this phase would be formed in PWR primary systems.

Disturbance observer based adaptive sliding mode control for power tracking of PWRs

  • Hui, Jiuwu;Yuan, Jingqi
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.11
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    • pp.2522-2534
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    • 2020
  • It is well known that the model of nuclear reactors features natural nonlinearity, and variable parameters during power tracking operation. In this paper, a disturbance observer-based adaptive sliding mode control (DOB-ASMC) strategy is proposed for power tracking of the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) in the presence of lumped disturbances. The nuclear reactor model is firstly established based on point-reactor kinetics equations with six delayed neutron groups. Then, a new sliding mode disturbance observer is designed to estimate the lumped disturbance, and its stability is discussed. On the basis of the developed DOB, an adaptive sliding mode control scheme is proposed, which is a combination of backstepping technique and integral sliding mode control approach. In addition, an adaptive law is introduced to enhance the robustness of a PWR with disturbances. The asymptotic stability of the overall control system is verified by Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed DOB-ASMC strategy has better power tracking performance than conventional sliding mode controller and PID control method as well as conventional backstepping controller.

소듐냉각고속로의 고유 계통 특성

  • Lee, Jae-Han
    • Journal of the KSME
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    • v.51 no.12
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    • pp.51-54
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    • 2011
  • 이 글에서는 제4세대 원자로로 다시 부각되고 있는 소듐냉각고속로(SFR: Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)의 활용성, 계통설계 구성 및 공학적 안전설비에 대하여 가압경수로(PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor)와의 차이점을 위주로 소개한다.

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Welding Parts and Integrity Test in a PWR Fuel Assembly (경수로용 원전연료집합체에서의 용접부위 및 건전성 시험)

  • 송기남;윤경호;강흥석
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.55-57
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    • 2003
  • The fuel assemblies as the nuclear fuel for the pressurized water reactor(PWR) are loaded in the reactor core throughout the residence time of three to five years. The fuel assembly is manufactured using special welding processes and under strict quality assurance and control systems. In this paper welding parts, welding methods, and welding tests for the integrity of the PWR fuel assemblies are introduced.

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Calculation of Low-Energy Reactor Neutrino Spectra for Reactor Neutrino Experiments

  • Riyana, Eka Sapta;Suda, Shoya;Ishibashi, Kenji;Matsuura, Hideaki;Katakura, Jun-ichi
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2016
  • Background: Nuclear reactors produce a great number of antielectron neutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may take part in special weak interactions. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectrum from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor core. Materials and Methods: To calculate neutrino spectra, we need information about all generated nuclides that emit neutrinos. They are mainly fission fragments, reaction products and trans-uranium nuclides that undergo negative beta decay. Information in relation to trans-uranium nuclide compositions and its evolution in time (burn-up process) were provided by a reactor code MVP-BURN. We used typical PWR parameter input for MVP-BURN code and assumed the reactor to be operated continuously for 1 year (12 months) in a steady thermal power (3.4 GWth). The PWR has three fuel compositions of 2.0, 3.5 and 4.1 wt% $^{235}U$ contents. For preliminary calculation we adopted a standard burn-up chain model provided by MVP-BURN. The chain model treated 21 heavy nuclides and 50 fission products. The MVB-BURN code utilized JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. Results and Discussion: We confirm that the antielectron neutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel. The antielectron-neutrino spectrum in low energy region is influenced by beta emitter nuclides with low Q value in beta decay (e.g. $^{241}Pu$) which is influenced by burp-up level: Low energy antielectron-neutrino spectra or emission rates increase when beta emitters with low Q value in beta decay accumulate Conclusion: Our result shows the flux of low energy reactor neutrinos increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel.

Technology Selection for Offshore Underwater Small Modular Reactors

  • Shirvan, Koroush;Ballinger, Ronald;Buongiorno, Jacopo;Forsberg, Charles;Kazimi, Mujid;Todreas, Neil
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.1303-1314
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    • 2016
  • This work examines the most viable nuclear technology options for future underwater designs that would meet high safety standards as well as good economic potential, for construction in the 2030-2040 timeframe. The top five concepts selected from a survey of 13 nuclear technologies were compared to a small modular pressurized water reactor (PWR) designed with a conventional layout. In order of smallest to largest primary system size where the reactor and all safety systems are contained, the top five designs were: (1) a lead-bismuth fast reactor based on the Russian SVBR-100; (2) a novel organic cooled reactor; (3) an innovative superheated water reactor; (4) a boiling water reactor based on Toshiba's LSBWR; and (5) an integral PWR featuring compact steam generators. A similar study on potential attractive power cycles was also performed. A condensing and recompression supercritical $CO_2$ cycle and a compact steam Rankine cycle were designed. It was found that the hull size required by the reactor, safety systems and power cycle can be significantly reduced (50-80%) with the top five designs compared to the conventional PWR. Based on the qualitative economic consideration, the organic cooled reactor and boiling water reactor designs are expected to be the most cost effective options.