• Title, Summary, Keyword: Preoperative radiotherapy

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Treatment Results of Preoperative Radiotherapy Alone vs. Preoperative Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (국소진행된 직장암에서의 수술전 방사선치료 단독군과 방사선치료와 항암제 병용치료군의 치료성적)

  • Kim Jae Sung;Park Seoung Ho;Cho Moon June;Yoon Wan Hee;Bae Jin Sun;Jeong Hyun Yong;Song Kyu Sang
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 1995
  • Purpose : To assess the efficacy and toxicity of the preoperative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer Methods : Forty three patients (clinically diagnosed stages above or equal to Astler-Coiler stage B2 without distant metastasis) were assigned to preoperative radiotherapy alone arm (n=16) or combined preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy arm (n=27). Preoperative radiotherapy of 4500 cGy to whole pel-vis +/-540 cGy boost to primary site and concurrent chemotherapy of 2 cycles of 5-FU (500 mg/$m^2$) and leucovorin (20 mg/$m^2$) were used. Fifteen patients of preoperative radiotherapy alone arm and 19 of combined arm received surgical resection after preoperative treatment. Results : During the preoperative treatment, no significant complication was developed in both groups. Pathologic results were as follows; complete remission 1, Bl 1, B2 6, C1 2, C2, 5 in preoperative radiotherapy alone arm and complete remission 2, Bl 8, B2 4, C2 3, D 2 in combined arm. Postoperative complications were delayed perineal wound healing in three patients, intestinal obstruction in three patients (one managed by conservative medical treatment, two by surgical treatment). Conclusion : The combined preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy arm was more effective in pathological response and lymph node negativity rate than the preoperative radiotherapy alone arm. Both the preoperative radiotherapy alone arm and the combined arm were generally well tolerated and did not result in an increased postoperative morbidity.

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Outcomes of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Combined Chemotherapy with Radiotherapy Without Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

  • Supaadirek, Chunsri;Pesee, Montien;Thamronganantasakul, Komsan;Thalangsri, Pimsiree;Krusun, Srichai;Supakalin, Narudom
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3511-3514
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or combined chemotherapy together with radiotherapy (CMT-RT) without surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 84 patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma (stage II or III) between January $1^{st}$, 2003 and December $31^{st}$, 2013 were enrolled, 48 treated with preoperative CCRT (Gr.I) and 36 with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CMT-RT) without surgery (Gr.II). The chemotherapeutic agents used concurrent with radiotherapy were either 5-fluorouracil short infusion plus leucovorin and/or capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil infusion alone. All patients received pelvic irradiation. Results: There were 5 patients (10.4%) with a complete pathological response. The 3 year-overall survival rates were 83.2% in Gr.I and 24.8 % in Gr.II (p<0.01). The respective 5 year-overall survival rates were 70.3% and 0% (p<0.01). The 5 year-overall survival rates in Gr.I for patients who received surgery within 56 days after complete CCRT as compared to more than 56 days were 69.5% and 65.1% (p=0.91). Preoperative CCRT used for 12 of 30 patients in Gr.I (40%) with lower rectal cancer demonstrated that in preoperative CCRT a sphincter sparing procedure can be performed. Conclusions: The results of treatment with preoperative CCRT for locally advanced rectal cancer showed comparable rates of overall survival and sphincter sparing procedures as compared to previous studies.

Instrumentation Failure after Partial Corpectomy with Instrumentation of a Metastatic Spine

  • Park, Sung Bae;Kim, Ki Jeong;Han, Sanghyun;Oh, Sohee;Kim, Chi Heon;Chung, Chun Kee
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.61 no.3
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    • pp.415-423
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    • 2018
  • Objective : To identify the perioperative factors associated with instrument failure in patients undergoing a partial corpectomy with instrumentation (PCI) for spinal metastasis. Methods : We assessed the one hundred twenty-four patients with who underwent PCI for a metastatic spine from 1987 to 2011. Outcome measure was the risk factor related to implantation failure. The preoperative factors analyzed were age, sex, ambulation, American Spinal Injury Association grade, bone mineral density, use of steroid, primary tumor site, number of vertebrae with metastasis, extra-bone metastasis, preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and preoperative spinal radiotherapy. The intraoperative factors were the number of fixed vertebrae, fixation in osteolytic vertebrae, bone grafting, and type of surgical approach. The postoperative factors included postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and spinal radiotherapy. This study was supported by the National Research Foundation grant funded by government. There were no study-specific biases related to conflicts of interest. Results : There were 15 instrumentation failures (15/124, 12.1%). Preoperative ambulatory status and primary tumor site were not significantly related to the development of implant failure. There were no significant associations between insertion of a bone graft into the partial corpectomy site and instrumentation failure. The preoperative and operative factors analyzed were not significantly related to instrumentation failure. In univariable and multivariable analyses, postoperative spinal radiotherapy was the only significant variable related to instrumentation failure (p=0.049 and 0.050, respectively). Conclusion : When performing PCI in patients with spinal metastasis followed by postoperative spinal radiotherapy, the surgeon may consider the possibility of instrumentation failure and find other strategies for augmentation than the use of a bone graft for fusion.

Neoadjuvant Treatment with Preoperative Radiotherapy for Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Long-Term Results from a Single Institution in Turkey

  • Dincbas, Fazilet Oner;Oksuz, Didem Colpan;Yetmen, Ozlem;Hiz, Murat;Dervisoglu, Sergulen;Turna, Hande;Kantarci, Fatih;Mandel, Nil Molinas;Koca, Sedat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1775-1781
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    • 2014
  • Background: To assess the long term clinical outcome of preoperative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy followed by limb sparing surgery in patients with non-metastatic soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the extremities. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with locally advanced STS were retrospectively analyzed. The median tumor diameter was 12 cm. All patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy delivered with two different fractionation schedules (35Gy/10fr or 46-50Gy/23-25fr). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was added to 44 patients with large and/or high grade tumors. Surgery was performed 2-6 weeks after radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was completed up to 6 courses after surgery in patients who had good responses. Results: Median follow-up time was 67 months (8-268 months). All of the patients had limb sparing surgery. The 5-year local control (LC), disease free (DFS) and overall survival (OSS) rates for all of the patients were 81%, 48.1% and 68.3% respectively. 5-year LC, DFS and cause specific survival (CSS) were 81.7%, 47%, 69.8%, and 80%, 60%, 60% in the chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy groups, respectively. On univariate analysis, patients who were treated with hypofractionation experienced significantly superior LC, DFS and CSS rates with similar rates of late toxicity when compared with patients who were treated with conventional fractionation and statistical significance was retained on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Treatment results are consistent with the literature. As neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy provides effective LC and CSS with acceptable morbidity, it should be preferred for patients with large and borderline resectable STS.

Preoperative Long Course Chemoirradiation in a Developing Country for Rectal Carcinoma: Kuala Lumpur Hospital Experience

  • Lee, Wei Ching;Yusof, Mastura Md.;Lau, Fen Nee;Ee Phua, Vincent Chee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3941-3944
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    • 2013
  • Background: The use of preoperative chemoirradiation is the commonest treatment strategy employed in Malaysia for locally advanced rectal cancer. We need to determine the local control and survival rates for comparison with established rates in the literature. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study analyzed all newly diagnosed patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent long course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) between $1^{st}$ January 2004 and $31^{st}$ December 2010. The aim of the study was to determine the radiological response post radiotherapy, pathological response including circumferential resection margin (CRM) status, 3 years local control, 3 years overall survival (OS) and 3 years disease free survival (DFS). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis were used to determine survival outcomes. Results: A total of 507 patients with rectal cancer underwent RT at HKL. Sixty seven who underwent long course preoperative RT were eligible for this study. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years old with a range of 26-78 years. The median tumour location was 6 cm from the anal verge. Most patients had suspicion of mesorectum involvement (95.5%) while 28.4% of patients had enlarged pelvic nodes on staging CT scan. All patients underwent preoperative chemo-irradiation except for five who had preoperative RT alone. Only 38 patients underwent definitive surgery (56.7%). Five patients were deemed to be inoperable radiologically and 3 patients were found to have unresectable disease intraoperatively. The remaining 21 patients defaulted surgery (31.3%). The median time from completion of RT to surgery was 8 weeks (range 5.6 to 29.4 weeks). Fifteen patients (39.5%) had surgery more than 8 weeks after completion of RT. Complete pathological response was noted in 4 patients (10.5%). The pathological CRM positive rate after RT was 18.4%. With a median follow-up of 38.8 months, the 3 year local control rate was 67%. The 3 years rate for CRM positive (<2 mm), CRM clear (>2 mm) and pCR groups were 0%, 88.1% and 100% respectively (p-value of 0.007). The 3 year OS and DFS were 57.3% and 44.8% respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, the approach of long course preoperative chemoirradiation for rectal cancer needs to be re-examined in our local setting. The high rate of local recurrence is worrying and is mainly due to patient defaulting post-preoperative chemoirradiation or delayed definitive surgery.

FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer

  • Loftas, Per;Arbman, Gunnar;Sun, Xiao-Feng;Edler, David;Syk, Erik;Hallbook, Olof
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81). Results: Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without. Conclusion: Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence.

Effects of Preoperative Radiotherapy for $T_2,\;T_3$ Distal Rectal Cancer ($T_2,\;T_3$ 하부직장암의 수술 전 방사선치료 효과)

  • Kang Ki Mun;Choi Byung Ock;Jang Hong Seok;Kang Young Nam;Chai Gyu Young;Choi Ihl Bohng
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Preoperative radiotherapy has been used to induce tumor regression and allow complete resection of rectal cancer with a sphincter preservation surgery. This study was performed to determine the effectiveness of preoperative radiotherapy for $T_2,\;T_3$ distal rectal carcinoma. Materials and Methods : From November 1995 to June 1997, fifteen patients with invasive distal rectal cancer were treated with preoperative radiotherapy followed by sphincter preservation surgery. Classification by preoperative T stage consisted of 7 $T_2$ and 8 $T_3$ tumors. Radiation therapy was delivered with 6 MV and 15 MV linear accelerator, at 1.8 Gy fractions for 5 days per week. Total radiation doses were 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy (median : 50.4 Gy). Sphincter preservation surgery was peformed $4\~6$ weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months (range : $16\~37\;months$). Results : One patient $(6.7\%)$ had a complete pathologic response. Comparing the stage at the diagnostic workup with the pathologic stage, tumor downstaging of T stages occurred in 11 of 15 patients $(73.3\%)$ and $N_1$ stages occurred in 2 of 5 patients $(40\%)$. No patient developed progressive disease undergoing treatment. Two patients suffered local recurrence at 7 and 20 months, and one a distant metastasis at 30 months. No grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed. Conclusion : Our experience suggests that preoperative radiotherapy followed by sphincter preservation surgery is well tolerated, and can significantly reduce the tumor burden for $T_2\;T_3$ distal rectal cancer.

Short-course Versus Long-course Preoperative Radiotherapy plus Delayed Surgery in the Treatment of Rectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis

  • Liu, Shi-Xin;Zhou, Zhi-Rui;Chen, Ling-Xiao;Yang, Yong-Jing;Hu, Zhi-De;Zhang, Tian-Song
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5755-5762
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    • 2015
  • Background: Short-course preoperative radiation (SCRT) with delayed surgery was found to increase pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in several trials. However, there was no clear answer on whether SCRT or long-course chemo-radiotherapy (LCRT) is more effective. Therefore we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of SCRT versus LCRT, both with delayed surgery, for treatment of rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The literature was searched from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials.gov up to November, 2014. Quality of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated according to the Cochrane's risk of bias tool of RCT. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to rate the level of evidence. Review Manager 5.3 was employed for statistical analysis. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Three RCTs, with a total of 357 rectal cancer patients, were included in this systematic review. Metaanalysis results demonstrated there were no significantly differences in sphincter preservation rate, local recurrence rate, grade 3~4 acute toxicity, R0 resection rate and downstaging rate. Compared with SCRT, LCRT was associated with significant increase in the pCR rate [RR=0.49, 95%CI (0.31, 0.78), P=0.003]. Conclusions: In terms of sphincter preservation rate, local recurrence rate, grade 3~4 acute toxicity, R0 resection rate and downstaging rate, SCRT with delayed surgery is as effective as LCRT with delayed surgery for management of rectal cancer. LCRT significantly increased pCR rate compared with SCRT. Due to risk of bias and imprecision, further multi-center large sample RCTs were needed to confirm this conclusion.

Simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

  • Bae, Bong Kyung;Kang, Min Kyu;Kim, Jae-Chul;Kim, Mi Young;Choi, Gyu-Seog;Kim, Jong Gwang;Kang, Byung Woog;Kim, Hye Jin;Park, Soo Yeun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.208-216
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), by comparing with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Materials and Methods: Patients who were treated with PCRT for LARC from 2015 January to 2016 December were retrospectively enrolled. Total doses of 45 Gy to 50.4 Gy with 3D-CRT or SIB-IMRT were administered concomitantly with 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin or capecitabine. Surgery was performed 8 weeks after PCRT. Between PCRT and surgery, one cycle of additional chemotherapy was administered. Pathologic tumor responses were compared between SIB-IMRT and 3D-CRT groups. Acute gastrointestinal, genitourinary, hematologic, and skin toxicities were compared between the two groups based on the RTOG toxicity criteria. Results: SIB-IMRT was used in 53 patients, and 3D-CRT in 41 patients. After PCRT, no significant differences were noted in tumor responses, pathologic complete response (9% vs. 7%; p = 1.000), pathologic tumor regression Grade 3 or higher (85% vs. 71%; p = 0.096), and R0 resection (87% vs. 85%; p = 0.843). Grade 2 genitourinary toxicities were significantly lesser in the SIB-IMRT group (8% vs. 24%; p = 0.023), but gastrointestinal toxicities were not different across the two groups. Conclusion: SIB-IMRT showed lower GU toxicity and similar tumor responses when compared with 3D-CRT in PCRT for LARC.

Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

  • Kim, Yeon Joo;Kim, Jong Hoon;Yu, Chang Sik;Kim, Tae Won;Jang, Se Jin;Choi, Eun Kyung;Kim, Jin Cheon;Choi, Wonsik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1-2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals ($1,650mg/m^2/day$). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). Results: The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Conclusions: Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.