• Title, Summary, Keyword: Preferred orientation

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Study on the Orientation of Particles in Tablets (정제내부의 입자배열에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Young-Taek
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 1991
  • Using X-ray crystallography powder diffraction, the quantitative representation method of preferred orientation of particles ill tablets was developed. Selected faces of a tablet. the upper surface and faces cut parallel and normal to the upper surface, were presented to an X-ray beam and X-ray diffraction patterns for these faces were measured. The effects of particle size. tableting pressure, and particle form on the preferred orientation were also investigated. It was also recognized that the degree of anisotropy in terms of capping tendency was influenced by the preferred orientation of particles in tablets.

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A Study on the Deposition Characteristics of ZnO Piezoelectric Thin film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR 응용을 위한 ZnO 압전 박막의 증착 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 최승혁;김종성
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.716-722
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    • 2003
  • ZnO thin films were deposited on Al and Pt electrodes by an RF reactive sputtering system for the fabrication of FBAR (film bulk acoustic wave resonator), and the effect of thermal treatment temperature on their c-axis preferred orientation was investigated. SEM experiments show that columnar structure of ZnO thin films were grown with c-axis normal to electrode material, and XRD experiments show that both ZnO films were grown with (002) plane preferred orientation, but larger diffraction peak was observed with Pt electrode. The peak intensity increased with higher thermal treatment temperature, but c-axis preferred orientation was diminished. The surface roughness of Al thin film was higher than that of Pt, and these affect the surface roughness of ZnO film deposited on the electrode. Though the preferred orientation with respect to Pt(111) plane was improved with higher thermal treatment temperature, this could not improve the c-axis orientation of ZnO film.

The Characteristics of 〈112〉-preferred Orientation for Photocatalytic TiO2 Fabricated by CVD (CVD법에 의해 제작된 광촉매 TiO2 〈112〉 우선배향의 특성)

  • Kang, Kyoung-tae;Jhin, Jung-geun;Kang, Pil-kyu;Ro, Dae-ho;Byun, Dong-jin
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.436-441
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    • 2003
  • The characteristics of <112> orientation were studied for the $TiO_2$thin films, which were prepared on the glass by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) at various substrate temperatures. It was confirmed that $TiO_2$ films exhibited <112>-preferred orientation in a specific temperature range. Although $TiO_2$polycrystalline film grown deposited at relatively low temperature showed the growth of random directions, the <112>-preferred orientation was gradually developed with increasing deposition temperature. According to exhibit higher degree of <112>-preferred orientation, $TiO_2$thin film showed porous surface morphology, well-developed columnar structure, and deeper voids resulted from non-aggregation of columns were observed. In addition, transmittance was enhanced. Therefore, the growth of $TiO_2$with <112>-preferred orientation is suitable for glass coating because of predominance of photocatalytic efficiency and transmittance.

A Study on Personal Adornment Associated with Sexual Orientation and Psychological Characteristics

  • Lee, Eun-Sil;Lee, Myoung-Hee
    • The International Journal of Costume Culture
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.223-234
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    • 2000
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate hair style preferences, and use of cosmetics according to sexual orientation and demographic variables, to examine the relationship among hair style preferences, use of cosmetics, and anxiety and self-esteem. The subjects were 536 men (heterosexual : 353, gay : 183) of 20's and 30's living in metropolitan area of Seoul. Homosexuals preferred individualistic adornments and appearance, and the higher the ability anxieties and the miscellaneous anxieties they in both sexual orientation groups preferred unique individualistic hairstyles and used coloring cosmetics more. In the sales and service workers and students both sexual orientation groups preferred individualistic personal adornment while in the office workers they both preferred conservative appearance. In the same occupations, there were significant differences in the physical adornments according to sexual orientation in the sales and service workers and students groups. Homosexuals used individual adornments according to their sexual orientation. Both homosexuals and heterosexuals had low use of physical adornments.

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A Study on Shopping Orientation and Preferred Store Characteristics of Female Shoppers Aged between 45-64 (45-64세 여성의 쇼핑성향과 선호매장 속성에 관한 연구)

  • Ko, Mi-Kyoung;Choi, Kyung-A;Chung, Sung-Jee;Jeon, Yang-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.8
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    • pp.1202-1210
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to identify factors of shopping orientation and factors of preferred stores for female shoppers aged from 45 to 64. Also women's markets for these ages were segmented based on their shopping orientation, and consumer groups were compared in terms of demographics and preferred store characteristics. Data from 238 women aged between 45-64 were collected by survey method and used for statistical analyses. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, $X^2$ test, F test, Duncan test were done. The results were as follows. First, five shopping orientation factors, such as high involvement, fashion orientation, brand orientation, other people orientation, and economic orientation were found. Second, five factors of preferred store characteristics were identified. They were store environment, product characteristics, trend and brand, accessibility, and sales personnel factors. Four consumer groups of brand pursuing, fashion pursuing, other-dependent, and high-involvement were classified. Those consumer groups showed significant differences in terms of demographics and preferred store characteristics. In conclusion, Korean women aged 45-64 were shown to have some differences in their shopping orientation compared with young women and to differ in preferred store factors among their groups.

Effect of heat-treatment on the structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin films by the sol-gel method

  • Lee, Seung-Yup;Park, Byung-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.72-75
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    • 2008
  • Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by a sol-gel method. The structural and electrical properties were investigated by varying drying and annealing temperatures. The thin films were coated (250 nm) by spin-coating method on glass substrates. The optimum drying temperature of ZnO thin films was 300$^{\circ}C$ where the resistivity was the lowest and the preferred c-axis orientation was the highest. The annealing was carried out in air and inert atmospheric conditions. The degree of the preferred c-axis orientation was estimated. The highest preferred c-axis orientation was recorded at 600$^{\circ}C$. The preferred c-axis orientation and grain growth resulted in the mobility enhancement of the ZnO thin films, and the lowest resistivity was 0.62${\Omega}{\cdot}cm$ at 600$^{\circ}C$.

Effects of Substrate Temperature and Sputter Gas on the Physical Characteristics, Chemical Composition and Preferred Orientation of ZnO Thin Films (기판온도 및 스퍼터가스에 따른 ZnO 박막의 우선배향성, 화학조성, 물리적특성 변화)

  • 김병진;조남희
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.1227-1234
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    • 1997
  • ZnO thin films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputter at various conditions. Crystallinity, microstructure, chemical composition, and optical composition, and optical properties of the films were investigated as functions of substrate temperature (R. T.-50$0^{\circ}C$) an sputter gas (O2/Ar=0-50%). ZnO thin films grown at 50$0^{\circ}C$ with sputter gas of pure argon as well as at R. T. with sputter gas of a mixture of argon & oxygen(O2/Ar=2%) exhibit a strong tendency of (002) preferred orientation, compared with a considerable random orientation at the other conditions. The thin films with (002) preferred orientation has a chemical stoichiometry of Zn/O-1.01, a band gap of 3.3eV, and a packing density of 98% respectively.

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The effect of the spinning conditions on the structure of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers by Taguchi method

  • Jiang, Zhao;Ouyang, Ting;Yao, Xiangdong;Fei, Youqing
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.19
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2016
  • Taguchi’s experimental design was employed in the melt spinning of molten mesophase pitch to produce carbon fibers. The textures of the obtained carbon fibers were radial with varied crack angles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and polarized optical imaging. The diameter, crack angle, preferred orientation, and tensile modulus of the produced samples were examined to investigate the influence of four spinning variables. The relative importance of the variables has been emphasized for each characteristic. The results show that thicker carbon fiber can be obtained with a smaller entry angle, a higher spinning temperature, a reduced winding speed, and an increased extrusion pressure. The winding speed was found to be the most significant factor in relation to the fiber diameter. While it was observed that thicker carbon fiber generally shows improved preferred orientation, the most important variable affecting the preferred orientation was found to be the entry angle. As the entry angle decreased from 120° to 60°, the shear flow was enhanced to induce more ordered radial alignment of crystallite planes so as to obtain carbon fibers with a higher degree of preferred orientation. As a consequence, the crack angle was increased, and the tensile modulus was improved.

A theoretical approach to the preferred orientation formation of MgO protection layer using adatom diffusion

  • Yu, Hak-Ki;Lee, Jong-Lam
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.713-715
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    • 2009
  • Preferred orientation of MgO protection layer is controlled via adjusting diffusion of adatom between (111) plane with highest neighbor atoms and (200) plane with lowest neighbor atoms. The diffusion of adatom could be modulated by the factors such as substrate temperature, deposition rate, and extra energy applied on adatom like ion beam energy.

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The C-Axis Preferred Orientation Characteristic of AIN Thin Film as Sputtering parameter of Presputtering (Presputtering 공정변수에 따른 AIN 박막의 c축 배향특성)

  • 박영순;김덕규;소병문;박춘배
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.246-250
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    • 2000
  • Reactive radio frequency (RF)magnetron sputter has been used to deposit AlN thin film on a Si substrate. (002)Preferred orientation of AlN thin film has been obtained at low sputtering pressure and high $\textrm{N}_2$ concentration. Also it has been shown that properties of AlN thin film are affected by presputtering time. As presputtering time increased aluminum and nitride concentration of AlN thin film decreased. But oxygen concentration and grain size increased. The good preferred orientation was shown with the short presputtering time.

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