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Understanding User Motivations and Behavioral Process in Creating Video UGC: Focus on Theory of Implementation Intentions (Video UGC 제작 동기와 행위 과정에 관한 이해: 구현의도이론 (Theory of Implementation Intentions)의 적용을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Hyung-Jin;Song, Se-Min;Lee, Ho-Geun
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.125-148
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    • 2009
  • UGC(User Generated Contents) is emerging as the center of e-business in the web 2.0 era. The trend reflects changing roles of users in production and consumption of contents on websites and helps us to understand new strategies of websites such as web portals and social network websites. Nowadays, we consume contents created by other non-professional users for both utilitarian (e.g., knowledge) and hedonic values (e.g., fun). Also, contents produced by ourselves (e.g., photo, video) are posted on websites so that our friends, family, and even the public can consume those contents. This means that non-professionals, who used to be passive audience in the past, are now creating contents and share their UGCs with others in the Web. Accessible media, tools, and applications have also reduced difficulty and complexity in the process of creating contents. Realizing that users create plenty of materials which are very interesting to other people, media companies (i.e., web portals and social networking websites) are adjusting their strategies and business models accordingly. Increased demand of UGC may lead to website visits which are the source of benefits from advertising. Therefore, they put more efforts into making their websites open platforms where UGCs can be created and shared among users without technical and methodological difficulties. Many websites have increasingly adopted new technologies such as RSS and openAPI. Some have even changed the structure of web pages so that UGC can be seen several times to more visitors. This mainstream of UGCs on websites indicates that acquiring more UGCs and supporting participating users have become important things to media companies. Although those companies need to understand why general users have shown increasing interest in creating and posting contents and what is important to them in the process of productions, few research results exist in this area to address these issues. Also, behavioral process in creating video UGCs has not been explored enough for the public to fully understand it. With a solid theoretical background (i.e., theory of implementation intentions), parts of our proposed research model mirror the process of user behaviors in creating video contents, which consist of intention to upload, intention to edit, edit, and upload. In addition, in order to explain how those behavioral intentions are developed, we investigated influences of antecedents from three motivational perspectives (i.e., intrinsic, editing software-oriented, and website's network effect-oriented). First, from the intrinsic motivation perspective, we studied the roles of self-expression, enjoyment, and social attention in forming intention to edit with preferred editing software or in forming intention to upload video contents to preferred websites. Second, we explored the roles of editing software for non-professionals to edit video contents, in terms of how it makes production process easier and how it is useful in the process. Finally, from the website characteristic-oriented perspective, we investigated the role of a website's network externality as an antecedent of users' intention to upload to preferred websites. The rationale is that posting UGCs on websites are basically social-oriented behaviors; thus, users prefer a website with the high level of network externality for contents uploading. This study adopted a longitudinal research design; we emailed recipients twice with different questionnaires. Guided by invitation email including a link to web survey page, respondents answered most of questions except edit and upload at the first survey. They were asked to provide information about UGC editing software they mainly used and preferred website to upload edited contents, and then asked to answer related questions. For example, before answering questions regarding network externality, they individually had to declare the name of the website to which they would be willing to upload. At the end of the first survey, we asked if they agreed to participate in the corresponding survey in a month. During twenty days, 333 complete responses were gathered in the first survey. One month later, we emailed those recipients to ask for participation in the second survey. 185 of the 333 recipients (about 56 percentages) answered in the second survey. Personalized questionnaires were provided for them to remind the names of editing software and website that they reported in the first survey. They answered the degree of editing with the software and the degree of uploading video contents to the website for the past one month. To all recipients of the two surveys, exchange tickets for books (about 5,000~10,000 Korean Won) were provided according to the frequency of participations. PLS analysis shows that user behaviors in creating video contents are well explained by the theory of implementation intentions. In fact, intention to upload significantly influences intention to edit in the process of accomplishing the goal behavior, upload. These relationships show the behavioral process that has been unclear in users' creating video contents for uploading and also highlight important roles of editing in the process. Regarding the intrinsic motivations, the results illustrated that users are likely to edit their own video contents in order to express their own intrinsic traits such as thoughts and feelings. Also, their intention to upload contents in preferred website is formed because they want to attract much attention from others through contents reflecting themselves. This result well corresponds to the roles of the website characteristic, namely, network externality. Based on the PLS results, the network effect of a website has significant influence on users' intention to upload to the preferred website. This indicates that users with social attention motivations are likely to upload their video UGCs to a website whose network size is big enough to realize their motivations easily. Finally, regarding editing software characteristic-oriented motivations, making exclusively-provided editing software more user-friendly (i.e., easy of use, usefulness) plays an important role in leading to users' intention to edit. Our research contributes to both academic scholars and professionals. For researchers, our results show that the theory of implementation intentions is well applied to the video UGC context and very useful to explain the relationship between implementation intentions and goal behaviors. With the theory, this study theoretically and empirically confirmed that editing is a different and important behavior from uploading behavior, and we tested the behavioral process of ordinary users in creating video UGCs, focusing on significant motivational factors in each step. In addition, parts of our research model are also rooted in the solid theoretical background such as the technology acceptance model and the theory of network externality to explain the effects of UGC-related motivations. For practitioners, our results suggest that media companies need to restructure their websites so that users' needs for social interaction through UGC (e.g., self-expression, social attention) are well met. Also, we emphasize strategic importance of the network size of websites in leading non-professionals to upload video contents to the websites. Those websites need to find a way to utilize the network effects for acquiring more UGCs. Finally, we suggest that some ways to improve editing software be considered as a way to increase edit behavior which is a very important process leading to UGC uploading.

The characteristics of Colombian liberalistic reformation and federalism in the 19th century (라틴아메리카의 자유주의와 보수주의: 19세기 콜롬비아의 자유주의 개혁의 특징과 연방제)

  • Cha, Kyung Mi
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.27
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    • pp.31-57
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    • 2012
  • The 19th century could not relatively receive attention from local researchers because it was treated as the past cut off from the present as the formative period of modern states of Latin America. According to the characteristics of area studies which focus on changes of politics and society, studies on past affairs could not have been the main focus of attention. But as new liberalism has appeared in Latin America, is throwing the spotlight on liberalism. In addition, the studies on the 19th century have been activated and gradually expanded. And interpretation about the 19th century's history has been variously arranged. Especially, discussion on liberalism and conservatism was established as the key words which can understand and reconsider Latin America in the 19th century. Colombian liberalism which could not overcome heritage of the colonial period in the 19th century and did appear advocating reformation was another form of authoritarianism. Reformation promoted by liberalism was utilized to keep privilege of the ruling class, not to remove the social and economic structure derived from the colonial period. New reformist forces which advocated mercantilism after the middle of the 19th century but they were formed based on the existing system. Colombian Liberal Party was developed as "Another name of conservatization" by reflecting understanding of the conservatives. Colombian liberalists preferred federalism to cut off from repressive characteristics of Spanish colonial rule and secure autonomy of local control through reformation based on economic understanding. Therefore, discussion on the form of government which focused on federalism and centralism acted as the causes of conflict between Colombian liberalism and conservatism. Based on this point, this study tries to analyze liberalism reforms which is the main issue in the Colombian history in the 19th century and consider history of Colombian political conflicts focusing on federalism. The origin of Violencia which is the political violence and Colombian history in the 19th century which has been a series of rebellion can be considered through this procedure.

Adipofascial Anterolateral Thigh Flap Safety: Applications and Complications

  • Agostini, Tommaso;Lo Russo, Giulia;Zhang, Yi Xin;Spinelli, Giuseppe;Lazzeri, Davide
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2013
  • Background A thinned anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is often harvested to achieve optimal skin resurfacing. Several techniques have been described to thin an ALT flap including an adipocutaneous flap, an adipofascial flap and delayed debulking. Methods By systematically reviewing all of the available literature in English and French, the present manuscript attempts to identify the common surgical indications, complications and donor site morbidity of the adipofascial variant of the ALT flap. The studies were identified by performing a systematic search on Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Current Contents, PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Results The study selection process was adapted from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, and 15 articles were identified using the study inclusion criteria. These articles were then reviewed for author name(s), year of publication, flap dimensions and thickness following defatting, perforator type, type of transfer, complications, thinning technique, number of cases with a particular area of application and donor site morbidity. Conclusions The adipofascial variant of the ALT flap provides tissue to fill large defects and improve pliability. Its strong and safe blood supply permits adequate immediate or delayed debulking without vascular complications. The presence of the deep fascia makes it possible to prevent sagging by suspending and fixing the flap for functional reconstructive purposes (e.g., the intraoral cavity). Donor site morbidity is minimal, and thigh deformities can be reduced through immediate direct closure or liposuction and direct closure. A safe blood supply was confirmed by the rate of secondary flap debulking.

A Study on the Names of Korean Old Movable Types (한국 고활자명에 대한 연구 - 임진왜란 이후의 목활자를 중심으로 (II) -)

  • 윤상기
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.61-85
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    • 2002
  • This study is to examine the several basic wooden movable types molded in after the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592. The description begins with summarizing each basic history of movable types. The parts that have not been clearly defined are relatively dealt with in detail. Subsequently the existing movable types are examined as many as possible and arranged one by one. And through analyzing the elements used in these movable type names, it is examined which elements were preferred by the existing movable type names. This preference could be helpful for naming the newly found types or renaming the existing types. Next each standard name of movable types has been selected in total 10 movable types with applying writer's own selection standard. Those are as follows: 'Moongyepak mokwhalja(文繼朴木活字)', 'Naju mokwhalja(羅州木活字)', 'Chunki kyosoekwan pilseocheja(前期校書館筆書體字)', Injosillokja(仁祖實錄字)', 'Hyojongsilokja(孝宗實錄字)', 'Huki kyosoekwan pilseocheja(後期校書館業書體字)', 'Koansanggam seomyeong daeja(觀象監 書名大字)', 'Kyeongsejeongeumja(經書正音字)', 'Panghongmujeongwon daeja(倣洪武正韻大字)', 'Seomgaemuninlok daeja(剡溪門人錄大宇)'.

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A Study on the Actual State of High School Girls' Clothing in Everyday Life -Especially on Spring and Summer Wear- (여자 중.고등학생의 의복생활 실태에 관한 조사연구 -봄.여름 의복을 중심으로-)

  • 남상우
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 1988
  • The aim of this study is to grasp the actual state of high school girls' clothing after liberalization of their uniform and to provide the reasonable guidance materials in clothing for both schools and homes. These are the results of the study 1. In the aspect of the favor of clothing and the interest in about clothes. a. They were fond of wearing "T" shirts, blue jeans in summer and pants and jackets in spring as their school wear. That implies that they enjoy wearing active and practical clothes. b. In the aspect of color, majority of them favored blue or similar colors, Also they had the tendency to love soft, simple clothe and more students preferred cloth without pattern. c. In their choice of them, they seldom paid attention to the informative-label are not their chief interest. d. More than half of girls prepare one or two suits in advance in a season, and they would prepare them deliberately This implies that their everyday life inclothing is based on the economic motive. 2. In the aspect of the purchasing clothes, a. Most of the girls bought them at the market and some of them at the direct-sales stall. b. when they purchased clothes, most girls were accompanied by their/mother and senior girls more often by their friends. c. The price and kinds of their favorite clothes such as "T" shirts and blouse was 5,000 won or so, and skirts, pants, one-piece and jackets are from the range of 5,000 won to below 10,000 won mostly. d. In regard to so-called brand-name items by popular designers, half of the girls responded that they wear some of such kinds of items because of superiority of sewing and longterm wearing, and the other half tend not to wear them due to high price.

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Research on Principles to Transcribe Geographical Names in English for English Version Electronic Map Service (영문판 전자지도서비스를 위한 지명 영문표기의 세부기준과 원칙에 관한 연구)

  • Yi, Mi Sook;Ahn, Jong Wook
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2013
  • This study has a research objective to suggest detailed rules and principles to transcribe geographical names in English for English version electronic map service. For this, guidelines which are used in English transcription of local geographical names in Korea and English transcription situations of Korea geographical names in foreign electronic map service were examined. Examining results of current situations showed the English transcription method of home and abroad geographical names caused the chaos because it is not homogenized. In order to identify easy and preferred transcription method for foreigners among English transcription methods about the geographical names which are used together like this, the preference of English transcription methods of the geographical names was examined targeting foreigners. Survey results showed that foreigners prefer to transcribe in Roman character (Romanization) with its semantic word together than just to transcribe the Roman character. Reflecting this preference research results, our country's geographical names were classified as Natural features, Cultural features and man-made structures, and Administrative units and the detailed English transcription rules and principles of each geographical names were suggested.

A fundamental study on the Color Perference and the Recognition of Color Names among College Students (대학생의 색기호와 색명 인지도에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • 이정옥;진현선
    • The Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 1997
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the color preference and the recognition of color names among college students. The study revealed the following: 1) The most favorite colors included blue, purple, white and green in that order; and the least favorite colors included achromatic colors, ocher and red in that order. 2) Brown was the favorite color in furniture while red was the disliked color; In colthing, white was preferred while red was disliked; Red was appropriate for accent colors, and bright colors were for product packages. 3) In regards with seasonal image, yellow, blue, brown and white were associated with spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively; Blue represented self-image most. 4) Black, grey, red and green in that order showed the higest recognitions in color names while indigo, crimson, deep carmine and havy blue showed the lowesR ; Color name recognitions showed the order of achomatic, neutial, warm and cool colors.

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User Experience(UX) Qualitative Evaluation of Dialogue e-learning contents (대화형 이러닝 콘텐츠에 관한 사용자 경험(UX) 질적 평가)

  • Lee, Youngju
    • Journal of The Korean Association of Information Education
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.623-631
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    • 2020
  • In the era of COVID-19 global pandemic, e-learning has become new standards and daily life in the name of 'new normal'. This study developed dialogue e-learning contents as opposed to monologue e-learning which is unidirectional and instructor centered and conducted qualitative user experience evaluation of dialogue e-learning contents. A total number of 20 adult students participated and were individually interviewed. Qualitative data analysis was performed. The findings include students' positive perceptions of dialogue e-learning contents such as empathy for various ideas and new format. With regard to personal preference, 55% of participants preferred dialogue e-learning contents because it enables them to focus and share real experiences. Meanwhile, in terms of learning effects, 60% participants selected monologue e-learning contents and mentioned adequate explanations of concepts and explicit information delivery. Based on the results, suggestions on the design and development of dialogue e-learning contents were presented.

A Comparative Study on the Transition of Purlin Coupling Method of Korean and Chinese Ancient Wooden Constructions (한중 목조건축 도리 결합방식 변천(變遷)에 관한 비교연구)

  • Cha, Ju-hwan
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.22-47
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    • 2014
  • This study was to understand the basic principles of the East Asian wooden structure system research and analysis. The Korea and China ancient architecture internal structure research that the combination of girders and crossbeams position. The ancient wooden structures of eastern Asian countries, Korea and China are not much different from each other in the principles of the wooden architecture structure, combining pillars, purlins and crossbeams. However, it seems that age-division, local-division, national-division differs in detail techniques. China ancient wooden structures combination of purlin and crossbeam, and So-seul Timber(Chinese name: Chashou叉手, Tuojiao 托脚) seems to show differences according to the age of the fulcrum position, detailed approach is also different according to various historical dynasty. Before in the 15th century, Purlin and Crossbeam are coupled to each other, but since the 15th century, seems to have developed a technique combined with each other Girder and Crossbeam and to prevent buckling of the Crossbeam cross-sectional area increased dramatically. For Tuojiao in China Tang-Wudai dynasty(A.D. 618~979), can see that saw the top position Girder and Tuojiao no direct coupling, can be seen as maintaining the safety of the material than the material of the inner wooden structures prevent buckling of the purlin. Korea ancient wooden structures of Goryeo dynasty(A.D. 918~1391), So-seul Timber(Chinese name Tuojiao) why do not to use the fashion? To use Purlin Lower backing material techniques to prevent buckling is a popular trend to stable can be thought of as a preferred way to maintain. I think that with universality beyond the local-division, national-division and the two countries since the 15th century of Korea and China ancient wooden structures detailed mechanism for the purlin buckling. In middle-late Chosen dynasty, The effect of Deotgeolyi- techniques and fleeting beams reduce the purlin buckling that reduces the load transmitted from purlin and crossbeam of how to reduce the load on the roof portion of the architecture fleeting beams used, which of craftsmanship of the Chosen Dynasty building can be referred to as another technique for preventing buckling purlin. This Korea and China ancient architecture purlin beam structure and material So-seul Timber study. Seems to be able to provide a basic research study to restore and designed the old wooden architectures.

Analyzing Factors Influencing Purchasing Behavior of PB Eggs: Focusing on Eggs from Large Distribution Companies (계란식품PB 구매에 미치는 소비자 요인 분석:대형유통업체 계란상품을)

  • Kim, Jong-Jin;Shim, Kyu-Yeol;Kim, Mi-Song;Youn, Myoung-Kil
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2013
  • Purpose - Eggs are nutritionally complete and one of the most popular natural foods. Moreover, the poultry industry is one of the important food industries. However, early industrialization of the poultry industry on its own did not lead to further development compared to other livestock industries. In this study, we investigate what factors influence consumers' behavior and how consumers' understanding of retail business affects their propensity to consume. This study is different from other studies as it analyzes how the brand names of manufacturers and distribution companies affect the purchasing characteristics or actual purchase behavior of consumers in order to suggest how these manufacturers and distribution companies can increase their competitiveness. Research design, data, methodology - This study conducted a survey of 250 randomly selected egg purchasers in discount stores from January to April 2013. Consumers' purchase tendencies were calculated through frequency analysis. This result was then utilized using cluster analysis to draw a conclusion about which purchase tendency influenced consumers buying three different brands of eggs or whether this tendency really affected consumers. As a result, the outcomes of Hypotheses 2 and 3 were not clear so we drew a conclusion with our analysis of Hypothesis 1. Results - While the outcomes of Hypotheses 2 and 3 did not clearly indicate whether purchasing tendencies affected consumers when buying eggs, our analysis of Hypothesis 1 indicated that consumers were affected by the quality of the eggs rather than exterior factors such as the brand name. Thus, we concluded that it is important to promote the excellence of the quality of the eggs. Usually firms buy eggs from farms and repackage them in order to sell them. In this sense, if consumers were aware of this egg production process, and eggs were fairly distributed to retailers, large retail PB businesses would also be able to enhance their competitiveness. Conclusions - The brand, packaging, retail outlet, and other external features influenced the purchase of eggs to a certain degree, while shelf life, grade of the eggs, cleanliness, and other intrinsic characteristics had more influence. In particular, shelf life was the most important factor influencing purchase. Consumers were influenced not only by intrinsic characteristics of the eggs but also by large-scale producers' brands. Consumers relied upon the brand despite reduced competition because they found it difficult to identify shelf life and/or cleanliness. Small businesses and/or large-scale retailers can remain competitive by maintaining the freshness and cleanliness of the eggs. Further studies need to investigate areas in which consumers' cognition of the product is poor and/or the purchase inclination with regard to less developed industries such as eggs. In this study, the greatest problem was that consumers did not consume in accordance with the current situation as consumers have preferred fresh and clean eggs for a long time compared to purchase decisions based on external brands and/or packaging.