• Title, Summary, Keyword: Preferential oxidation

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Enhancement of Catalytic Activity of Pt/Alumina by a Novel Pretreatment Method for the CO Oxidation for Fuel Cell Applications (연료전지용 CO의 산화를 위한 백금/알루미나 촉매의 성능향상에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Myung-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.1307-1314
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    • 2008
  • Hydrogen gas is used as a fuel for the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Trace amount of carbon monoxide present in the reformate $H_2$ gas can poison the anode of the PEMFC. Therefore, preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO is essential for reducing the concentration of CO from a hydrogen-rich reformate gas. In this study, conventional Pt/$Al_2O_3$ catalyst was prepared for the preferential oxidation of CO. The effects of catalyst preparation method, additive, and hydrogen on the performances of PROX reaction of CO were investigated. Water treatment and addition of Ce enhanced catalytic activity of the Pt/$Al_2O_3$ catalyst at low temperature below $100^{\circ}C$.

PEMFC Operation Connected with Methanol Reformer System

  • Lee, Jung-Hyun;Park, Sang-Sun;Shul, Yong-Gun;Park, Jong-Man;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Ha-Suck;Yoo, Seung-Eul
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.303-307
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    • 2008
  • The studies on integrated operation of fuel cell with fuel processor are very essential prior to its commercialization. In this study, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) was operated with a fuel processor, which is mainly composed of two parts, methanol steam reforming reaction and preferential oxidation (PROX). In fuel processor, ICI 33-5 (CuO 50%, ZnO 33%, $Al_2O_3$ 8%, BET surface area: $66\;m^2g^{-1}$) catalyst and CuO-$CeO_2$ catalyst were used for methanol steam reforming, preferential oxidation (PROX) respectively. PEMFC was operated by hydrogen fuel generated from fuel processor. The resulting gas from PROX reactor is used to operate PEMFC equipped with our prepared anode and cathode catalyst. PtRu/C catalyst gives more tolerance to CO.

Performance of Ru-based Preferential Oxidation Catalyst and Natural Gas Fuel Processing System for 1 kW Class PEMFCs System (Ru계 촉매의 CO 선택적 산화 반응 및 1 kW급 천연가스 연료처리 시스템의 성능 연구)

  • Seo, Yu-Taek;Seo, Dong-Joo;Seo, Young-Seog;Roh, Hyun-Seog;Jeong, Jin-Hyeok;Yoon, Wang-Lai
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2006
  • KIER has been developing a Ru-based preferential oxidation catalysts and a novel fuel processing system to provide hydrogen rich gas to residential PEMFCs system. The catalytic activity of Ru-based catalysts was investigated at different Ru loading amount and different support structure. The obtained result indicated that 2 wt% loaded Ru-based catalyst supported on ${\alpha}-Al_2O_3$ showed high activity in low temperature range and suppressed the methanation reaction. The developed prototype fuel processor showed thermal efficiency of 78% as a HHV basis with methane conversion of 92%. CO concentration below 10 ppm in the produced gas is achieved with separate preferential oxidation unit under the condition of $[O_2]/[CO]=2.0$. The partial load operation have been carried out to test the performance of fuel processor from 40% to 80% load, showing stable methane conversion and CO concentration below 10 ppm. The durability test for the daily start-stop and 8 h operation procedure is under investigation and shows no deterioration of its performance after 50 start-stop cycles. In addition to the system design and development.

Characterization of Enhanced CO Oxidation Activity by Alumina Supported Platinum Catalyst

  • Jo, Myung-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1071-1077
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    • 2009
  • A novel pretreatment technique was applied to the conventional Pt/alumina catalyst to prepare for the highly efficient catalyst for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich condition. Their performance was investigated by selective CO oxidation reaction. CO conversion with the oxygen-treated Pt/Alumina catalyst increased remarkably especially at the low temperature below $100^{\circ}C$. This result is promising for the normal operation of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) without CO poisoning of the anode catalyst. XRD analysis results showed that metallic Pt peaks were not observed for the oxygen-treated catalyst. This implies that well dispersed small Pt particles exist on the catalyst. This result was continued by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. Consequently, it can be concluded that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles could be prepared by the novel pretreatment technique and thus, CO conversion could be increased considerably especially at the low temperatures below $100^{\circ}C$.

Preferential Oxidation of CO over Cu/Ti-SBA-15 Catalysts (Cu 담지 Ti-SBA-15 촉매의 선택적 CO 산화 반응)

  • Kim, Joon-Woo;Park, Jae-Woo;Lee, Jong-Soo;Choi, Han-Seul;Choung, Suk-Jin
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 2013
  • The CO preferential oxidation reaction (PROX) has been done using Cu catalytic active species supported on some of mesoporous silica materials which can facilitate the diffusion of the reactants in order to prevent the poisoning of anode active materials by CO molecules during driving polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC) in this study. As a result when SBA-15 with large pore used as a support showed excellent CO oxidation activity, especially the activity increased in proportion to the amount of supported Cu. Ti components which was inserted to increase the degree of dispersion of Cu, contributed to improving the performance for CO oxidation at low-temperature. The degree of dispersion of Cu ingredients was the best in the catalyst inserted 20 mol-% Ti into the framework of SBA-15, and CO oxidation activity was also improved.

A Study on Preferential CO Oxidation over Supported Pt Catalysts to Produce High Purity Hydrogen (고순도 수소 생산을 위한 CO 선택적 산화 반응용 Pt 촉매 연구)

  • Jeon, Kyung-Won;Jeong, Dae-Woon;Jang, Won-Jun;Na, Hyun-Suk;Roh, Hyun-Seog
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 2013
  • To develop preferential CO oxidation reaction (PROX) catalyst for small scale hydrogen generation system, supported Pt catalysts have been applied for the target reaction. The supports were systematically changed to optimize supported Pt catalysts. $Pt/Al_2O_3$ catalyst showed the highest CO conversion among the catalysts tested in this study. This is due to easier reducibility, the highest dispersion, and smallest particle diameter of $Pt/Al_2O_3$. It has been found that the catalytic performance of supported Pt catalysts for PROX depends strongly on the reduction property and depends partly on the Pt dispersion of supported Pt catalysts. Thus, $Pt/Al_2O_3$ can be a promising catalyst for PROX for small scale hydrogen generation system.

Preferential CO Oxidation over Ce-Promoted Pt/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst (Ce가 첨가된 Pt/γ-Al2O3 촉매의 선택적 CO 산화반응 특성)

  • Kim, Kihyeok;Koo, Keeyoung;Jung, Unho;Yoon, Wanglai
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.640-646
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    • 2012
  • The effect of Ce promotion over 1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalysts on the CO conversion and $CO_2$ selectivity was investigated in preferential CO oxidation (PrOx) to reduce the CO concentration less than 10 ppm in excess $H_2$ stream for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Ce-promoted 1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and the loading amount of Pt was fixed at 1wt%. The content of Ce promoter which has excellent oxygen storage and transfer capability due to the redox property was adjusted from 0 to 1.5wt%. Ce-promoted 1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalysts exhibit high CO conversion and $CO_2$ selectivity at low temperatures below $150^{\circ}C$ due to the improvement of reducibility of surface PtOx species compared with the 1wt% $Pt/{\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ catalyst without Ce addition. When Ce content was more than 1wt%, the catalytic activity was decreased at over $160^{\circ}C$ in PrOx because of competitive $H_2$ oxidation. As a result, 0.5wt% Ce is optimal content not only to achieve high catalytic activity and good stability at low temperatures below $150^{\circ}C$ in the presence of $CO_2$ and $H_2O$ but also to minimize the $H_2$ oxidation at high temperatures.

Oxidation Rates of TiAlLaN Thin Films Deposited by Ion Plating (이온플레이팅법으로 제조된 TiAlLaN계 박막의 산화속도)

  • Seo Sung Man;Lee Kee Sun;Lee Kee-Ahn
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2004
  • TiAl(La)N thin films were oxidized in vacuum of about 7 Pa to reduce the oxidation of WC-Co as a substrate. The oxidation rate constants of the thin films were quantified by an assumption of parabolic oxidation. Increasing AI content significantly decreased the parabolic oxidation rate constant. A simultaneous addition of AI and La was more effective to reduce the oxidation rate. The parabolic oxidation rate constant of $Ti_{0.66}$ $Al_{0.32}$ $La_{ 0.02}$N thin film at 1273 K showed about ten times lower than that of TiN. The addition of a small amount of La with Al induced the preferential formation of dense $\alpha$ $-Al_2$$O_3$ film in oxide film, leading to the abrupt reduction of oxidation rate.

Preparation of Highly Dispersed Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ Catalyst for Preferential CO Oxidation (선택적 CO 산화 반응을 위한 Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ 촉매 고분산 제조 방법에 관한 연구)

  • Eom, Hyun-Ji;Koo, Kee-Young;Jung, Un-Ho;Rhee, Young-Woo;Yoon, Wang-Lai
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2010
  • 0.5wt% Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ catalysts are prepared by deposition-precipitation method for the preferential CO oxidation In order to investigate the effect of pH on the Ru dispersion and particle size, the pH of precursor solution is adjusted to between 5.5 and 9.5. 0.5wt% Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ catalyst prepared at the pH of 6.5 has high Ru dispersion of 17.9% and small particle size of 7.7nm. In addition, 0.5wt% Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ catalyst prepared at the pH 6.5 is easily reduced at low temperatures below $150^{\circ}C$ due to high dispersion of $RuO_2$ particle and shows high CO conversion over 90% in the wide temperature range between $100^{\circ}C$ and $160^{\circ}C$. Moreover, the deposition-precipitation is a feasible method to improve the Ru dispersion as compared to the impregnation method. The 0.5wt% Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ catalyst prepared by deposition-precipitation exhibits higher CO conversion than 0.5wt% Ru/$\alpha-Al_2O_3$ catalysts prepared by impregnation due to higher metal dispersion and better reducibility at low temperature.

Preferential Oxidation of CO over Alumina Supported Pt Catalysts in Hydrogen-rich Fuels (수소연료에서 알루미나 담지 백금 촉매상에서의 일산화탄소 선택적 산화 반응)

  • Choi, Jin-Soon;Suh, Dong-Jin
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2006
  • The catalytic performances for CO preferential oxidation in hydrogen-rich fuels were investigated by varying the types of alumina supports, additives excluding platinum, and synthetic methods of impregnation and sol-gel synthesis. The reactions were conducted in the range of $25{\sim}300^{\circ}C$ over Pt, Co, and/or Na impregnated catalysts supported on commercial gamma-alumina, pseudoboehmite, or sol-gel derived xerogels. Catalytic activities were enhanced by cobalt addition due to strong Pt-Co interactions in the bimetallic phase. Additional sodium promoted not only the formation of the Pt-Co bimetallic interphase but also oxygen adsorption capability, giving rise to increase in the CO oxidation rate at lower temperatures. Moreover, chemical interaction between Pt and Co was considerably enhanced by sol-gel synthesis.