• Title, Summary, Keyword: Predictive Control

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Pro12Ala Polymorphism Could be a Risk Factor for Gastric Cancer

  • Zhao, Jing;Zhi, Zheng;Song, Guangyao;Wang, Juan;Wang, Chao;Ma, Huijuan;Yu, Xian;Sui, Aixia;Zhang, Hongtao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2333-2340
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    • 2015
  • Background: Due to the strong inhibitory effects of $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene on the growth of cancer cells, the role of Pro12Ala polymorphism in $PPAR{\gamma}$ gene has been extensively investigated in cancer recently. However, the results were inconsistent according to cancer type. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Search strategies were conducted in Pubmed, Medline (Ovid), Chinese biomedical database (CBM), China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang database, covering all publications, with the last search up to November 01, 2014. The strength of association between $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism and gastric cancer risk was assessed by OR with 95%CI. Results: A total of 546 cases and 827 controls in 5 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the variant G allele carriers (CG+GG) had a 2.31 times higher risk for gastric cancer when compared with the homozygote CC (odds ratio (OR)=2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.67-3.21 for CG+GG vs. CC). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly elevated risks were both found in Asians (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.42-4.64) and Caucasians (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.48-3.25). Similarly, in the subgroup analysis by H. pylori status, a significantly increased risk was identified in H. pylori (+) populations (OR=3.68, 95%CI=2.07-6.52), but not in H. pylori(-) populations (OR=1.17, 95%CI=0.58-2.39). Conclusions: This pooled analysis suggested that the $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphism could be an independent predictive risk factor for gastric cancer especially in H. pylori infected populations in Asians and Caucasians. Nevertheless, prospectively designed cohort studies are needed to further investigate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to confirm the combined effects of $PPAR{\gamma}$ Pro12Ala polymorphisms and H. pylori infection on gastric cancer risk.

Surveillance Evaluation of the National Cancer Registry in Sabah, Malaysia

  • Jeffree, Saffree Mohammad;Mihat, Omar;Lukman, Khamisah Awang;Ibrahim, Mohd Yusof;Kamaludin, Fadzilah;Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat;Kaur, Nirmal;Myint, Than
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3123-3129
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in Sabah Malaysia with a reported age-standardized incidence rate was 104.9 per 100,000 in 2007. The incidence rate depends on non-mandatory notification in the registry. Under-reporting will provide the false picture of cancer control program effectiveness. The present study was to evaluate the performance of the cancer registry system in terms of representativeness, data quality, simplicity, acceptability and timeliness and provision of recommendations for improvement. Materials and Methods: The evaluation was conducted among key informants in the National Cancer Registry (NCR) and reporting facilities from Feb-May 2012 and was based on US CDC guidelines. Representativeness was assessed by matching cancer case in the Health Information System (HIS) and state pathology records with those in NCR. Data quality was measured through case finding and re-abstracting of medical records by independent auditors. The re-abstracting portion comprised 15 data items. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess simplicity and acceptability. Timeliness was measured from date of diagnosis to date of notification received and data dissemination. Results: Of 4613 cancer cases reported in HIS, 83.3% were matched with cancer registry. In the state pathology centre, 99.8% was notified to registry. Duplication of notification was 3%. Data completeness calculated for 104 samples was 63.4%. Registrars perceived simplicity in coding diagnosis as moderate. Notification process was moderately acceptable. Median duration of interval 1 was 5.7 months. Conclusions: The performances of registry's attributes are fairly positive in terms of simplicity, case reporting sensitivity, and predictive value positive. It is moderately acceptable, data completeness and inflexible. The usefulness of registry is the area of concern to achieve registry objectives. Timeliness of reporting is within international standard, whereas timeliness to data dissemination was longer up to 4 years. Integration between existing HIS and national registration department will improve data quality.

Development of Water Level Prediction Models Using Deep Neural Network in Mountain Wetlands (딥러닝을 활용한 산지습지 수위 예측 모형 개발)

  • Kim, Donghyun;Kim, Jungwook;Kwak, Jaewon;Necesito, Imee V.;Kim, Jongsung;Kim, Hung Soo
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 2020
  • Wetlands play an important function and role in hydrological, environmental, and ecological, aspects of the watershed. Water level in wetlands is essential for various analysis such as for the determination of wetland function and its effects on the environment. Since several wetlands are ungauged, research on wetland water level prediction are uncommon. Therefore, this study developed a water level prediction model using multiple regression analysis, principal component regression analysis, artificial neural network, and DNN to predict wetland water level. Geumjeong-Mountain Wetland located in Yangsan-city, Gyeongsangnam-do province was selected as the target area, and the water level measurement data from April 2017 to July 2018 was used as the dependent variable. On the other hand, hydrological and meteorological data were used as independent variables in the study. As a result of evaluating the predictive power, the water level prediction model using DNN was selected as the final model as it showed an RMSE value of 6.359 and an NRMSE value of 18.91%. This research study is believed to be useful especially as a basic data for the development of wetland maintenance and management techniques using the water level of the existing unmeasured points.

Optimum Radiotherapy Schedule for Uterine Cervical Cancer based-on the Detailed Information of Dose Fractionation and Radiotherapy Technique (처방선량 및 치료기법별 치료성적 분석 결과에 기반한 자궁경부암 환자의 최적 방사선치료 스케줄)

  • Cho, Jae-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Chang;Suh, Chang-Ok;Lee, Chang-Geol;Keum, Ki-Chang;Cho, Nam-Hoon;Lee, Ik-Jae;Shim, Su-Jung;Suh, Yang-Kwon;Seong, Jinsil;Kim, Gwi-Eon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.143-156
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    • 2005
  • Background: The best dose-fractionation regimen of the definitive radiotherapy for cervix cancer remains to be clearly determined. It seems to be partially attributed to the complexity of the affecting factors and the lack of detailed information on external and intra-cavitary fractionation. To find optimal practice guidelines, our experiences of the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) were reviewed with detailed information of the various treatment parameters obtained from a large cohort of women treated homogeneously at a single institute. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 743 cervical cancer patients (Stage IB 198, IIA 77, IIB 364, IIIA 7, IIIB 89 and IVA 8) treated by radiotherapy alone, between 1990 and 1996. A total external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose of $23.4\~59.4$ Gy (Median 45.0) was delivered to the whole pelvis. High-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-IBT) was also peformed using various fractionation schemes. A Midline block (MLB) was initiated after the delivery of $14.4\~43.2$ Gy (Median 36.0) of EBRT in 495 patients, while In the other 248 patients EBRT could not be used due to slow tumor regression or the huge initial bulk of tumor. The point A, actual bladder & rectal doses were individually assessed in all patients. The biologically effective dose (BED) to the tumor ($\alpha/\beta$=10) and late-responding tissues ($\alpha/\beta$=3) for both EBRT and HDR-ICBT were calculated. The total BED values to point A, the actual bladder and rectal reference points were the summation of the EBRT and HDR-ICBT. In addition to all the details on dose-fractionation, the other factors (i.e. the overall treatment time, physicians preference) that can affect the schedule of the definitive radiotherapy were also thoroughly analyzed. The association between MD-BED $Gy_3$ and the risk of complication was assessed using serial multiple logistic regression models. The associations between R-BED $Gy_3$ and rectal complications and between V-BED $Gy_3$ and bladder complications were assessed using multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for age, stage, tumor size and treatment duration. Serial Coxs proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of recurrence due to MD-BED $Gy_{10}$, and the treatment duration. Results: The overall complication rate for RTOG Grades $1\~4$ toxicities was $33.1\%$. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate for ail 743 patients was $83\%$. The midline cumulative BED dose, which is the sum of external midline BED and HDR-ICBT point A BED, ranged from 62.0 to 121.9 $Gy_{10}$ (median 93.0) for tumors and from 93.6 to 187.3 $Gy_3$ (median 137.6) for late responding tissues. The median cumulative values of actual rectal (R-BED $Gy_3$) and bladder Point BED (V-BED $Gy_3$) were 118.7 $Gy_3$ (range $48.8\~265.2$) and 126.1 $Gy_3$ (range: $54.9\~267.5$), respectively. MD-BED $Gy_3$ showed a good correlation with rectal (p=0.003), but not with bladder complications (p=0.095). R-BED $Gy_3$ had a very strong association (p=<0.0001), and was more predictive of rectal complications than A-BED $Gy_3$. B-BED $Gy_3$ also showed significance in the prediction of bladder complications in a trend test (p=0.0298). No statistically significant dose-response relationship for pelvic control was observed. The Sandwich and Continuous techniques, which differ according to when the ICR was inserted during the EBRT and due to the physicians preference, showed no differences in the local control and complication rates; there were also no differences in the 3 vs. 5 Gy fraction size of HDR-ICBT. Conclusion: The main reasons optimal dose-fractionation guidelines are not easily established is due to the absence of a dose-response relationship for tumor control as a result of the high-dose gradient of HDR-ICBT, individual differences In tumor responses to radiation therapy and the complexity of affecting factors. Therefore, in our opinion, there is a necessity for individualized tailored therapy, along with general guidelines, in the definitive radiation treatment for cervix cancer. This study also demonstrated the strong predictive value of actual rectal and bladder reference dosing therefore, vaginal gauze packing might be very Important. To maintain the BED dose to less than the threshold resulting in complication, early midline shielding, the HDR-ICBT total dose and fractional dose reduction should be considered.

Prediction of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity in Greenhouse via a Multilayer Perceptron Using Environmental Factors (환경요인을 이용한 다층 퍼셉트론 기반 온실 내 기온 및 상대습도 예측)

  • Choi, Hayoung;Moon, Taewon;Jung, Dae Ho;Son, Jung Eek
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2019
  • Temperature and relative humidity are important factors in crop cultivation and should be properly controlled for improving crop yield and quality. In order to control the environment accurately, we need to predict how the environment will change in the future. The objective of this study was to predict air temperature and relative humidity at a future time by using a multilayer perceptron (MLP). The data required to train MLP was collected every 10 min from Oct. 1, 2016 to Feb. 28, 2018 in an eight-span greenhouse ($1,032m^2$) cultivating mango (Mangifera indica cv. Irwin). The inputs for the MLP were greenhouse inside and outside environment data, and set-up and operating values of environment control devices. By using these data, the MLP was trained to predict the air temperature and relative humidity at a future time of 10 to 120 min. Considering typical four seasons in Korea, three-day data of the each season were compared as test data. The MLP was optimized with four hidden layers and 128 nodes for air temperature ($R^2=0.988$) and with four hidden layers and 64 nodes for relative humidity ($R^2=0.990$). Due to the characteristics of MLP, the accuracy decreased as the prediction time became longer. However, air temperature and relative humidity were properly predicted regardless of the environmental changes varied from season to season. For specific data such as spray irrigation, however, the numbers of trained data were too small, resulting in poor predictive accuracy. In this study, air temperature and relative humidity were appropriately predicted through optimization of MLP, but were limited to the experimental greenhouse. Therefore, it is necessary to collect more data from greenhouses at various places and modify the structure of neural network for generalization.

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research -A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2000 and 2001- (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2000년 및 2001년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 -)

  • 강신형;한화택;조금남;이승복;조형희;김민수
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1102-1139
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    • 2002
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2000 and 2001 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) Most of papers related with heat transfer analysis and heat exchanger shows dealt with convection, evaporation, and channel flow for the design application of heat exchanger. The numerical heat transfer simulation studies have been peformed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics. Experimental as well as numerical studies on heat exchanger were reported, while not many papers are available for the system analysis including heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies on heat pump system shows that performance analysis and control of heat pump have been peformed by various simulations and experiments. The research papers on multi-type heat pump system increased significantly. The studies on heat pipe have been examined experimently for change of working characteristics and strut lure. Research on the phase change has been carried out steadily and operation strategies of encapsulated ice storage tank are reported experimentally in several papers. (4) A review of recent studies on refrigeration/air conditioning system have focused on the system performance and efficiency for new alternative refrigerants. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer characteristics are investigated for tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants. Studies on components of refrigeration/air conditioning system are carried to examine efficiency for various compressors and performance of new expansion devices. In addition to thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out, however research works on two-phase flow seemed to be insufficient. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption cooling system indicates that heat and mass transfer phenomena have been investigated to improve absorber performance. Various experimental data have been presented and several simulation models have been proposed. A review of the recent studies on duct and ventilation shows that ventilation indices have been proposed to quantify the ventilation performance in buildings and tunnels. Main efforts have been focused on the applications of ventilation effectiveness in practice, either numerically using computational fluid dynamics or experimentally using tracer gas techniques. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, research issues have mainly focused on many innovative ideas such as underfloor air-conditioning system, personal environmental modules, radiant floor cooling and etc. Also, the new approaches for minimizing energy consumption as well as improving indoor environmental conditions through predictive control of HVAC systems, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation were highlighted.

Limitation of Prediction on Intravenous Immunoglobulin Responsiveness in Kawasaki Disease (가와사끼병에서 정맥용 면역글로불린 치료 반응 예측의 한계)

  • Kim, Seong-Koo;Han, Ji-Yoon;Rhim, Jung Woo;Oh, Jin Hee;Han, Ji-Whan;Lee, Kyung Yil;Kang, Jin-Han;Lee, Joon-Sung
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : We aimed to evaluate predictive parameters for non-response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) before IVIG use using two controls. Methods : We evaluated 229 consecutive KD patients who were treated with 2 g/kg of IVIG at a single center. Those who had persistent fever >24 hours after IVIG infusion made up the 23 IVIG non-responders; the first control included a total 206 defervesced cases and the second control included 46 cases that were matched for age and pre-treatment fever duration to non-responders. Results : Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in IVIG non-responders and responders at presentation. As for laboratory findings, the neutrophil differential, CRP, AST, ALT, and LDH were higher, and lymphocyte differential, total protein, albumin, platelet count, and total cholesterol were significantly lower in IVIG non-responders compared to responders by univariate analysis in both study designs. However in multivariate analysis, non-responders showed a significantly higher neutrophil differential (cutoff value, >77%, sensitivity 68.4% and specificity 79.5%) and lower cholesterol (<124 mg/dL, sensitivity 79% and specificity 70.5%). Whereas plasma albumin (<3.6 g/dL, sensitivity 73.7% and specificity 60%) was the sole laboratory parameter of non-responders in the second study design. Conclusion : Severity of inflammation in KD was reflected by higher or lower laboratory values at presentation. Because the multivariate analysis for these indices may be influenced by some confounding factors, including the numbers of patients of different ages and fever duration, other assessment modalities are needed for KD patients with the greatest risk of coronary artery lesions.

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Model for Staphylococcus aureus in Kimbab (김밥에서의 Staphylococcus aureus에 대한 정량적 미생물위해평가 모델 개발)

  • Bahk, Gyung-Jin;Oh, Deog-Hwan;Ha, Sang-Do;Park, Ki-Hwan;Joung, Myung-Sub;Chun, Suk-Jo;Park, Jong-Seok;Woo, Gun-Jo;Hong, Chong-Hae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.484-491
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    • 2005
  • Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) analyzes potential hazard of microorganisms on public health and offers structured approach to assess risks associated with microorganisms in foods. This paper addresses specific risk management questions associated with Staphylococcus aureus in kimbab and improvement and dissemination of QMRA methodology, QMRA model was developed by constructing four nodes from retail to table pathway. Predictive microbial growth model and survey data were combined with probabilistic modeling to simulate levels of S. aureus in kimbab at time of consumption, Due to lack of dose-response models, final level of S. aureus in kimbeb was used as proxy for potential hazard level, based on which possibility of contamination over this level and consumption level of S. aureus through kimbab were estimated as 30.7% and 3.67 log cfu/g, respectively. Regression sensitivity results showed time-temperature during storage at selling was the most significant factor. These results suggested temperature control under $10^{\circ}C$ was critical control point for kimbab production to prevent growth of S. aureus and showed QMRA was useful for evaluation of factors influencing potential risk and could be applied directly to risk management.

Effect of Bronchial Artery Embolization(BAE) in Management of Massive Hemoptysis (대량 객혈환자에서 기관지 동맥색전술의 효과)

  • Yeo, Dong-Seung;Lee, Suk-Young;Hyun, Dae-Seong;Lee, Sang-Haak;Kim, Seok-Chan;Choi, Young-Mee;Suh, Ji-Won;Ahn, Joong-Hyun;Song, So-Hyang;Kim, Chi-Hong;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.53-64
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    • 1999
  • Background : Massive and untreated hemoptysis is associated with a mortality of greater than 50 percent. Since the bleeding is from a bronchial arterial source in the vast majority of patients, embolization of the bronchial arteries(BAE) has become an accepted treatment in the management of massive hemoptysis because it achieves immediate control of bleeding in 75 to 90 percent of the patients. Methods: Between 1990 and 1996, we treated 146 patients with hemoptysis by bronchial artery embolization. Catheters(4, 5, or 7F) and gelfoam, ivalon, and/or microcoil were used for embolization. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis and related disorders were the most common underlying disease of hemoptysis(72.6%). Immediate success rate to control bleeding within 24hours was 95%, and recurrence rate was 24.7%. The recurrence rate occured within 6 months after embolization was 63.9%. Initial angiographic findings such as bilaterality, systemic-pulmonary artery shunt, neovascularity, aneurysm were not statistically correlated with rebleeding tendency(P>0.05). Among Initial radiographic findings, only pleural lesions were significantly correlated with rebleeding tendency(P<0.05). At additional bronchial artery angiograpy done due to rebleeding, recanalization of previous embolized arteries were 63.9%, and the presence of new feeding arteries were 16.7%, and 19.4% of patients with rebleeding showed both The complications such as fever, chest pain, headache, nausea and vomiting, arrhythmia, paralylytic ileus, transient sensory loss (lower extremities), hypotension, urination difficulty were noticed at 40 patients(27.4%). Conclusion: We conclude that bronchial artery embolization is relatively safe method achieving immediate control of massive hemoptysis. At initial angiographic findings, we could not find any predictive factors for subsequent rebleeding. It may warrant further study whether patients with pleural disease have definetely increased rebleeding tendency.

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Psychological Characteristics of Living Liver Transplantation Donors using MMPI-2 Profiles (MMPI-2를 이용한 생체 간 공여자들의 심리적 특성에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jin Hyeok;Choi, Tae Young;Yoon, Seoyoung
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a life-saving therapy for patients with terminal liver disease. Many studies have focused on recipients rather than donors. The aim of this study was to assess the emotional status and personality characteristics of LDLT donors. Methods : We evaluated 218 subjects (126 male, 92 female) who visited Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from August 2012 to July 2018. A retrospective review of their preoperative psychological evaluation was done. We investigated epidemiological data and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 questionnaire. Subanalysis was done depending on whether subjects actually underwent surgery, relationship with the recipient, and their gender. Results : Mean age of subjects was $32.19{\pm}10.91years$. 187 subjects received LDLT surgery (actual donors) while 31 subjects didn't (potential donors). Donor-recipient relationship included husband-wife, parent-children, brother-sister etc. Subjects had statistical significance on validity scale L, F, K and all clinical scales compared to the control group. Potential donors had significant difference in F(b), F(p), K, S, Pa, AGGR, PSYC, DISC and NEGE scales compared to actual donors. F, D and NEGE scales were found to be predictive for actual donation. Subanalysis on donor-recipient relationship and gender also showed significant difference in certain scales. Conclusions : Under-reporting of psychological problems should be considered when evaluating living-liver donors. Information about the donor's overall psychosocial background, mental status and donation process should also be acquired.