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Improved prestressed concrete girder with hybrid segments system

  • Yim, Hong Jae;Yang, Jun Mo;Kim, Jin Kook
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.65 no.2
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    • pp.183-190
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    • 2018
  • The prestressed concrete (PSC) technology that was first developed by Freyssinet has significantly improved over the past century in terms of materials and structural design in order to build longer, slender, and more economic structures. The application of prestressing method in structures, which is determined by the pre-tension or post-tension processes, is also affected by the surrounding conditions such as the construction site, workforce skills, and local transportation regulations. This study proposes a prestressed concrete girder design based on a hybrid segment concept. The adopted approach combines both pre-tension and post-tension methods along a simple span bridge girder. The girder was designed using newly developed 2400 MPa PS strands and 60 MPa high-strength concrete. The new concept and high strength materials allowed longer span, lower girder depth, less materials, and slender design without affecting the lateral stability of the girder. In order to validate the applicability of the proposed hybrid prestressed segments girder, a full-scale 35 m girder was fabricated, and experimental tests were performed under various fatigue and static loading conditions. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed long-span girder as its performance meets the railway girder standards. In addition, the comparison between the measured load-displacement curve and the simulation results indicate that simulation analysis can predict the behavior of hybrid segments girders.

Comparison of Epidural Fentanyl Administration between Preoperation and the End of Operation for the Postoperative Pain Control of Cesarean Section (제왕절개술에서 경막외 Fentanyl의 술전투여와 수술종료전 투여의 술후진통효과 비교)

  • Chea, Jun-Seuk;Lee, Byung-Ho;Chung, Mee-Young;Lee, Jee-Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 1995
  • Many clinical and laboratory experiments have been developed to prevent or decrease post-operative pain. One of these methods is pre-operative administration of opioid. Recently there have been differing and debatable results reported of pre-operative treatment for post-operative pain management. It was our study to determine whether pre-operative epidural fentanyl prevented central facilitation or wind up of spinal cord from nociceptive afferent input through c-fibers. We evaluated the effect of epidural fentanyl 50 mcg 10 minutes before operation and 10 minutes before the end of surgery. 28 parturient women for Cesarean Section were randomly allocated to receive the epidural fentanyl either at 10 minutes before operation (Group 1, n=14) or 10 minutes before the end of surgery (Group 2, n=14). All of the 28 parturient women were anesthetized with epidural block using (22 ml of) 2% lidocaine supplemented with light general anesthesia ($N_2O$ 2 L/min-$O_2$, 2 L/min), we controlled post-operative pain with epidural PCA(patient controlled analgesia) infusion of meperidine and 0.07% bupivacaine. The action duration of epidural fentanyl from the end of surgery to the first requirement of analgesics with epidural PCA were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant differences between two groups were observed in VAS pain score at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the operation. The number of self administration of narcotics with PCA during 48 hours after surgery were the same between the two groups. The hourly infusion rates of demerol were the same. Pre-operative administration of fentanyl was not clinically effective compared to administration just before the end of surgery for postoperative pain control.

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The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at ST41 on Experimentally-induced Intestinal Hypo-motility in Rats: Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (해계(解谿)(ST41) 유침 및 전침의 전.후처치가 loperamide로 억제된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, KyungMin;Lee, Hyun;Yim, YunKyoung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.20-32
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) of low and high frequencies at Haegye (ST41) in rats. Methods: The intestinal motility of rats was experimentally suppressed with loperamide. Acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA were carried out before the loperamide administration in the pre-treatment group, and after the loperamide administration in the post-treatment group. The rats were fed charcoal and the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track was measured to analyze the effect of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA on the intestinal hypo-motility. Results: 1. None of acupuncture, low frequency EA or high frequency EA at ST41 showed significant influences on intestinal motility of rats in normal status. 2. Pre-treatment with acupuncture at ST41 showed no significant effect on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. 3. Pre-treatment with low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 significantly reduced the suppression of intestinal motility by loperamide in rats. 4. Post-treatment of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 had no significant influences on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. Conclusions: These results suggest that low and high frequency EA at ST41 may be effective to prevent gastric disorders such as intestinal hypo-motility.

Immediate Effects of Myofascial Release Using Vibration Foam Rolling Methods on Hamstrings Range of Motion, Flexibility, Pressure Pain Thresholds and Dynamic Balance

  • Kim, Ho;Shin, Wonseob
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.2042-2051
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    • 2020
  • Background: Many trials have been conducted the methods and types of intervention of form rollers, but no research has been done yet that mixes the methods and types of intervention. Objectives: To analyze the effects of myofascial release on the improvement of range of motion (ROM), flexibility, pain pressure threshold, and balance. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Methods: All subjects measured ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance by pre-test. After pre-test, subjects were randomized that static-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), dynamic-vibration foam rolling group (n=12), general foam rolling group (n=12). For the intervention, 3 sets of 90 seconds were applied to each group, and rest time was set to 60 seconds between sets. In the post-test and follow-up test after 10 minutes, all three groups were measured the ROM, flexibility, pressure pain threshold, and dynamic balance. Results: The results of comparing ROM, flexibility, pressure pain thresholds, dynamic balance ability appeared higher significant difference in the pre-post-10 minutes follow up test in comparison between time in the intragroup (P<.001). As a result of comparing the change of pre-post-10 minutes follow up, static vibration foam rolling showed higher significant difference compared to control groups (P<.001). Conclusion: Through this study, when foam rolling is applied within the same intervention time, static foam rolling can be expected to have a better effect than the existing dynamic foam rolling as well as vibration foam roller can expect better effect than general foam rolling.

Comparison of the Changes in the Range of Motion on the Knee Joint According to the Contraction Intensity During Evjenth-Hamberg Stretching in Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

  • Kim, Do-Kwan;Kim, Chang-Yong;Seo, Dong-Kwon;Lee, Byoung-Kwon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Physical Medicine
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2019
  • PURPOSE: This study compared the changes in the range of motion (ROM ) on the knee joint according to three different isometric contraction intensities when applying Evjenth - Hamberg stretching (EHS) to the hamstring muscles of healthy subjects. METHODS: Forty eight healthy subjects aged between 20 and 39 years were allocated randomly to four groups; performing EHS at 10% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) group, EHS at 50% MVIC group, EHS at 100% MVIC group, and control group (CG) pre-, and post-intervention. The flexibility of the hamstring muscles was evaluated using a digital goniometer for measuring the knee joint ROM motion. A Chattanooga stabilizer was used to adjust the MVIC intensity by 10%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. RESULTS: These results show that the pre- and post-intervention knee joint ROM were significantly different in all four groups (p<.05). The post-intervention knee joint ROM showed a significant difference between the 100% MVIC group and non-MVIC group (p<.05). The knee joint ROM difference between the pre- and post-interventions was similar in the 10% MVIC and 50% MVIC groups but significant differences were observed among the other groups (p<.05). CONCLUSION: EHS of the hamstring muscles was effective in improving the knee joint ROM with an isometric contraction intensity of 10%, 50%, or 100% MVIC, and of these, 100% MVIC was most effective.

The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture of Low and High Frequencies at $ST_{41}$ on Experimentally Induced Intestinal Hypermotility in Rats: Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (해계 유침 및 전침의 전.후 처치가 실험적으로 항진된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Joo-Young;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of needle retention(NR) and electro-acupuncture of low(EA(L)) and high(EA(H)) frequencies at Haegye($ST_{41}$) on intestinal hypermotility induced with carbachol in rats Methods : We made over-activated state of intestinal motility with carbachol in rats and caried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at Haegye($ST_{41}$) or sham point in rat devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. And we resulted as followings from measuring charcoal travel rate with observation of intestinal motility. Results : 1. None of acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ had significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. 2. Pre-treated with acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture and post-treated with acupuncture and low frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ didn't significantly influences intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. 3. Post-treated with high frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ suppressed intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. Conclusions : These results suggest that treatment high frequency electro-acupuncture at ST41 may be effective on gastric disorders such as intestinal hypermotility and its effect had more cure than prevention.

Comparison of Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Pre-inoculation and Post-harvest Flammulina velutipes Media (팽이버섯 접종전과 수확후 배지의 이화학성 및 영양성분 비교)

  • Cheong, Jong-Chun;Lee, Chan-Jung;Suh, Jang-Sun;Moon, Yea-Hwang
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.174-178
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    • 2012
  • This study were carried out to analyze nutritional ingredients of pre-inoculation and post-harvest Flammulina velutipes media. pH, moisture content, total carbon(T-C), total nitrogen(T-N), crude protein, crude fiber, and crude fat content on the 8 raw materials using Flammulina velutipes bottle cultivation medium, and after sterilization(pre-inoculation) and post-harvest medium was analyzed. This result is expected to be utilized as the basis for recycling post-harvest media.

Seismic response analysis of steel frames with post-Northridge connection

  • Mehrabian, Ali;Haldar, Achintya;Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.271-287
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    • 2005
  • The seismic behavior of two steel moment-resisting frames, which satisfy all the current seismic design requirements, are evaluated and compared in the presence of pre-Northridge connections denoted as BWWF and an improved post-Northridge connections denoted as BWWF-AD. Pre-Northridge connections are modeled first as fully restrained (FR) type. Then they are considered to be partially restrained (PR) to model their behavior more realistically. The improved post-Northridge connections are modeled as PR type, as proposed by the authors. A sophisticated nonlinear time-domain finite element program developed by the authors is used for the response evaluation of the frames in terms of the overall rotation of the connections and the maximum drift. The frames are excited by ten recorded earthquake time histories. These time histories are then scaled up to produce some relevant response characteristics. The behaviors of the frames are studied comprehensively with the help of 120 analyses. Following important observations are made. The frames produced essentially similar rotation and drift for the connections modeled as FR type and PR type represented by BWWF-AD indicating that the presence of slots in the web of beams in BWWF-AD is not detrimental to the overall response behavior. When the lateral displacements of the frames are significantly large, the responses are improved if BWWF-AD type connections are used in the frames. This study analytically confirms many desirable features of BWWF-AD connections. PR frames have longer periods of vibration in comparison to FR frames and may attract lower inertia forces. However, calculated periods of the frames of this study using FEMA 350 empirical equation is longer than those calculated using dynamic characteristics of the frames. This may result in even lower design forces and may adversely influence the design.

Comparison of Bite Forces between Pre- and Post-Treatment in Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders (측두하악장애 환자의 치료 전후 교합력 비교)

  • Lee, Sang-Il;Kim, Ki-Suk
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum bite forces between pre- and post-treatment related to specific diagnostic groups of TMD including masticatory muscle disorder (MMD), disc derangement (DD), joint inflammation (JI) and osteoarthritis (OA). Bite force between pre- and post-treatment was compared in 36 patients with unilateral TMD, successfully-managed in the Department of Oral Medicine, Dankook University Dental Hospital, for this study. The ratio of men to women was 7:29 and their mean age of $28.1{\pm}13.7$ years. The patients were categorized, through clinical and radiographic examination, into aforementioned 4 groups; MMD (N=18), DD (N=6), JI (N=5) and OA (N=7). The maximum bite force measurements were done at the antagonizing canines and 1st molars using a bite force recorder. Paired t-test, ANOVA, Multiple Comparison t-tests were used for statistical analysis. The results of this study showed that the maximum bite force before treatment increased after TMD treatment, which was noticeable at the canines (p=0.001 and p=0.000 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively). In comparison related to the diagnostic groups of TMD, patients with osteoarthritis of TMJ exhibited the lowest strength while those with inflammatory disorder of TMJ had the highest strength on the affected sides. Increase of bite force after treatment was also found in each group. Significant difference between pre- and post-treatment was found at canines on the affected sides in MMD (p=0.045) and DD groups (p=0.009) while on the unaffected sides in OA group (p=0.003). Conclusively, the reduced bite force due to TMD could be recovered by conservative TMD treatment and that the difference of bite forces between pre- and post-treatment was noticeable at the canines.

Comparison of Breast Measurement Ratios Before and After Breast Augmentation Using Photogrammetric Ratio Measurements (PRM)

  • Yi, Kyong-Hwa;Sohn, Boo-Hyun
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.305-323
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine breast shape and ratio of breast enlargement women prior to development of breast enlargement patient's bra. Background: Although there are many previous studies on women's breast that did not undergo breast augmentation surgery, no studies have examined the breast type and proportion of women with breast augmentation. Method: In this study, we analyzed ratios and angles with photographs taken before and after breast augmentation on the frontal and lateral views of the breast, UPF and projection were analyzed too. We also compared the pre-operative and post-operative rates with those of previous breast studies, as well as the post-operative breast types for the desirable breast types. Results: The length and width of the breast base and the height of the breast projection increased after the operation. The rate of increase in width is larger than the vertical distance in the breast base, and the rate of increase in height of the projection is larger than the increase in the width. Specifically, in the vertical distance, the rate of increase in the lower portion is larger than that in the upper portion. In the width, the rate of increase on the inside is larger than that on the outside. Conclusion: The angles of the static relationship with the projection increased and the angles of the minor relation decreased. The changes in the size of the breast were visually observed in the overlapping of the triangle shape before and after the surgery. The changes were composed of the line connecting the angle and the measurement points. The pre-operative upper pole fullness (UPF) was mostly 0 and - 1, but after the surgery, +1, 0, -1, +2 were distributed, while post-operative levels of projection were distributed in the order of level 3> level 1> level 2. In comparison with the desirable breast type, it was found that the anatomical type was a more natural breast type than the round type of implant. Application: These results can be useful as basic data for the breast analysis of breast enlargement patients and their bra patterns.