• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pre-Post Comparison

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A COMPARISON OF SHAPING ABILITY OF THE THREE ProTaper® INSTRUMENTATION TECHNIQUES IN SIMULATED CANALS (ProTaper®의 세 가지 사용방식에 따른 성형능력 비교)

  • Kim, So-Youn;Park, Jeong-Kil;Hur, Bock;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.58-65
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping ability of the three $ProTaper^{(R)}$ instrumentation techniques in simulated canals. Thirty resin blocks were divided into 3 groups with 10 canals each. Each group was instrumented with manual $ProTaper^{(R)}$ (Group M), rotary $ProTaper^{(R)}$ (Group R), and hybrid technique (Group H). Canal preparation time was recorded. The images of pre- and post-instrumented root canals were scanned and superimposed. The amounts of canal deviation, total canal width, inner canal width, outer canal width and centering ratio were measured at apical 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 mm levels 1. Canal preparation time was the shortest in R group (p < 0.05). 2. The amounts of total canal width in R group was generally larger than the other groups, but no significant differences were observed except at the 1, 3 mm levels (p > 0.05) .3. The amounts of inner canal width in R group was larger than M group at the 1 mm level and H group was larger than R group at the 6 mm level (p < 0.05). The amounts of outer canal width in R group was larger than H group only at the 1 mm level (p < 0.05). 4. The direction of canal deviation in H, R group at the 1, 2, 3 mm levels was outward and that in M group at the 1, 2 mm levels was inward. The amounts of canal deviation in H group was larger than R group at the 6 mm level (p < 0.05). 5. The amounts of centering ratio in H group was larger than R group at the 6 mm level (p < 0.05).

Gene Expression Profiling by RNA Sequencing in Mature/Immature Oocytes of Chicken (닭의 성숙/미성숙란에서 RNA Sequencing을 이용한 유전자 발현 양상 고찰)

  • Kang, Kyung-Soo;Jang, Hyun-Jun;Park, Mi Na;Choi, Jung-Woo;Chung, Won-Hyong;Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Choe, Chang-Yong;Kim, Young-Joo;Lee, Si-Woo;Cho, Eun-Seok;Kim, Namshin;Kim, Tae-Hun;Han, Jae-Yong;Lee, Kyung-Tai
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2014
  • Chicken eggs undergo various physiological changes during egg maturation. To study genes associated with the egg maturation in pre-ovulation (immature) and post-ovulation (mature), we compared gene expression patterns between in the immature egg and mature egg using RNA sequencing data. Mature and immature eggs were obtained from a Heuksaek Jaerae-jong of Korean native chicken. Total RNAs obtained from the eggs were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, and the generated sequence reads were mapped to Galgal4 reference sequence assembly using Tuxedo Protocol. From the comparison of the RNA sequencing data, 315 genes were differentially expressed between mature and immature eggs, and 46 genes were only detected in immature egg. Further gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using DAVID, showing that 29 and 28 GO terms were independently clustered from mature and immature, respectively. From those clustered GO terms, genes related to germ cell development, sex differentiation and defense response to bacterium were mainly expressed in the immature egg, while genes related to regulation of apoptosis, steroid metabolic process and lipid homeostasis were mainly detected in the mature egg. Our results could contribute to understand egg maturation before and after ovulation, and develop genetic markers for improving egg quality and productivity.

CComparative evaluation of the methods of producing planar image results by using Q-Metrix method of SPECT/CT in Lung Perfusion Scan (Lung Perfusion scan에서 SPECT-CT의 Q-Metrix방법과 평면영상 결과 산출방법에 대한 비교평가)

  • Ha, Tae Hwan;Lim, Jung Jin;Do, Yong Ho;Cho, Sung Wook;Noh, Gyeong Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.90-97
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    • 2018
  • Purpose The lung segment ratio which is obtained through quantitative analyses of lung perfusion scan images is calculated to evaluate the lung function pre and post surgery. In this Study, the planar image production methods by using Q-Metrix (GE Healthcare, USA) program capable of not only quantitative analysis but also computation of the segment ratio after having performed SPECT/CT are comparatively evaluated. Materials and Methods Lung perfusion scan and SPECT/CT were performed on 50 lung cancer patients prior to surgery who visited our hospital from May 1, 2015 to September 13, 2016 by using Discovery 670(GE Healthcare, USA) equipment. AP(Anterior Posterior)method that uses planar image divided the frontal and rear images into three rectangular portions by means of ROI tool while PO(Posterior Oblique)method computed the segment ratio by dividing the right lobe into three parts and the left lobe into two parts on the oblique image. Segment ratio was computed by setting the ROI and VOI in the CT image by using Q-Metrix program and statistically analysis was performed with SPSS Ver. 23. Results Regarding the correlation concordance rate of Q-Metrix and AP methods, RUL(Right upper lobe), RML(Right middle lobe) and RLL(Right lower lobe) were 0.224, 0.035 and 0.447. LUL(Left upper lobe) and LLL(Left lower lobe) were found to be 0.643 and 0.456, respectively. In the PO method, the right lobe were 0.663, 0.623 and 0.702, respectively, while the left lobe were 0.754 and 0.823. When comparison was made by using the Paired sample T-test, Right lobe were $11.6{\pm}4.5$, $26.9{\pm}6.2$ and $17.8{\pm}4.2$, respectively in the AP method. Left lobe were $28.4{\pm}4.8$ and $15.4{\pm}5.6$. The right lobe of PO had values of $17.4{\pm}5.0$, $10.5{\pm}3.6$ and $27.3{\pm}6.0$, while the left lobe had values of $21.6{\pm}4.8$ and $23.1{\pm}6.6$, thereby having statistically significant difference in comparison to the Q-Metrix method for each of the lobes (P<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference in Right middle lobe (P>0.05). Conclusion The AP method showed low concordance rate in correlation with the Q-Metrix method. However, PO method displayed high concordance rate overall. although AP method had significant differences in all lobes, there was no significant difference in Right middle lobe of PO method. Therefore, at the time of production of lung perfusion scan results, utilization of Q-Metrix method of SPECT/CT would be useful in computation of accurate resultant values. Moreover, it is deemed possible to expect obtain more practical sectional computation result values by using PO method at the time of planar image acquisition.

A Study on Maternity Aids Utilization in the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning (농촌(農村)에 있어서 분만개조요원(分娩介助要員)의 봉사(奉仕)에 의(依)한 모자보건(母子保健)rhk 가족계획(家族計劃)에 관(關) 연구(硏究))

  • Yeh, Min-Hae;Lee, Sung Kwan
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.57-95
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    • 1972
  • This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of service by maternity aids concerning maternal and child health in improving simultaneously infant mortality, contraception and vital registration among expectant mothers in rural Korea, where there is less apportunity for maternal and child health care. It is unrealistic to expect to solve this problem in rural Korea through professional persons considering the situation of medical facilities and the socioeconomic condition of residents. So, we intended to adopt a system of services by maternity aids who were educated formally among indigenous women. After the women were trained in maternal and child health, contraception, and registration for a short period, they were assigned as a maternity aids to each village to help with various activities concerning maternal and child health, for example, registration of pregnant women, home visiting to check for complications, supplying of delivery kits, attendance at delivery, persuasion of contraception, and invitation for registration and so on. Mean-while, four researchers called on the maternity aids to collect materials concerning vital events, maternal child health, contraception and registration, and to give further instruction and supervision as the program proceeded. A. Changes of women's attitude by services of maternity aid. Now, we examined to what extent' such a service system to expectant mothers affected a change in attitude of women residing in the study area as compared to women of the control area. 1) In the birth and death places, there were no changes between last and present infants, in study or control area. 2) In regard to attendants at delivery, there were no changes except for a small percentage of attendance (8%) by maternity aid in study area. But, I expect that more maternity sids could be used as attendants at delivery if they would be trained further and if there was more explanation to the residents about such a service. 3) Considering the rate of utilization of sterilized delivery kit, I am sure that more than 90 percent would be used if the delivery kit were supplied in the proper time. There were significant differences in rates between the study and the control areas. 4) Taking into consideration the utilization rate of the clinic for prenatal care and well baby care, if suck facilities were installed, it would probably be well utilized. 5) In the contraception, the rate of approval was as high as 89 percent in study area as compared to 82 percent in the control area. 6) Considering the rate of pre-and post-partum acceptance on contraception were as much as 70 percent or more, if motivation to use contraception was given to them adequately, the government could reach the goals for family planning as planned. 7) In the vital registration, the rate of birth registration in the study area was some what improved compared to that of the control area, while the rate of death registration was not changed at all. Taking into account the fact that the rate of confirmation of vital events by maternity aids was remarkably high, if the registration system changed to a 'notification' system instead of formal registration ststem, it would be improved significantly compared to present system. B. Effect of the project Thus, with changes in the residents' attitude, was there a reduction in the infant death rate? 1) It is very difficult problem to compare the mortality of infants between last and present infants, because many women don't want to answer accurately about their dead children especially the infants that died within a few days after birth. In this study the data of present death comes from the maternity aides who followed up every pregnancy they had recorded to see what had happened. They seem to have very reliable information on what happened in first few weeks with follow up visitits to check out later changes. From these calculaton, when we compared the rate of infant death between last and present infant, there was remarkable reduction of death rate for present infant compare to that of last children, namely, the former was 30, while the latter 42. The figure is the lowest rate that I have ever heard. As the quality of data we could assess by comparing the causes of death. In the current death rate by communicable disease was much lower compare to the last child especially, tetanus cases and pneumonia. 2) Next, how many respondents used contraception after birth because of frequent contact with the maternity aid. In the registered cases, the respondents showed a tendency to practice contraception at an earlier age and with a small number of children. In a comparison of the rate of contraception between the study and the control area, the rate in the former was significantly higher than that of the latter. What is more, the proportion favoring smaller numbers of children and younger women rose in the study area as compared to the control area. 3) Regarding vital registration, though the rate of registration was gradually improved by efforts of maternity aid, it would be better to change the registration system. 4) In the crude birth rate, the rate in the study area was 22.2 while in the control area was 26.5. Natural increase rate showed 15.4 in the study area, while control area was 19.1. 5) In assessment of the efficiency of the maternity aids judging by the cost-effect viewpoint, the workers in the Medium area seemed to be more efficiency than those of other areas.

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Evaluation of Standardized Uptake Value and Metabolic Tumor Volume between Reconstructed data and Re-sliced data in PET Study (PET 검사 시 Reconstructed data와 Re-sliced data의 표준섭취계수와 Metabolic Tumor Volume의 비교 평가)

  • Do, Yong Ho;Lee, Hong Jae;Kim, Jin Eui
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 2016
  • Purpose SUV is one of the parameters that assist diagnosis in origin, metastasis and staging of cancer. Specially, it is important to compare SUV before and after chemo or radiation therapy to find out effectiveness of treatment. Storing PET data which has no quantitative change is needed for SUV comparison. However, there is a possibility to loss the data in external hard drive or MINIpacs that are managed by department of nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate SUV and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) among reconstructed data (R-D) in workstation, R-D and re-sliced data (S-D) in PACS. Materials and Methods Data of 20 patients (aged $60.5{\pm}8.3y$) underwent $^{18}F-FDG$ PET (Biograph truepoint 40, mCT 40, mCT 64, mMR, Siemens) study were analysed. $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$ and MTV were measured in liver, aorta and tumor after sending R-D in workstation, R-D and S-D in PACS to syngo.via software. Results R-D of workstation and PACS showed the same value as mean $SUV_{max}$ in liver, aorta and tumor were $2.95{\pm}0.59$, $2.35{\pm}0.61$, $10.36{\pm}6.15$ and $SUV_{peak}$ were $2.70{\pm}0.51$, $2.07{\pm}0.43$, $7.67{\pm}3.73$(p>0.05) respectively. Mean $SUV_{max}$ of S-D in PACS were decreased by 5.18%, 7.22%, 12.11% and $SUV_{peak}$ 2.61%, 3.63%, 10.07%(p<0.05). Correlation between R-D and S-D were $SUV_{max}$ 0.99, 0.96, 0.99 and $SUV_{peak}$ 0.99, 0.99, 0.99. And 2SD in balnd-altman analysis were $SUV_{max}$ 0.125, 0.290, 1.864 and $SUV_{peak}$ 0.053, 0.103, 0.826. MTV of R-D in workstation and PACS show the same value as $14.21{\pm}12.72cm^3$(p>0.05). MTV in PACS was decreased by 0.12% compared to R-D(p>0.05). Correlation and 2SD between R-D and S-D were 0.99 and 2.243. Conclusion $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$, MTV showed the same value in both of R-D in workstation and PACS. However, there was statistically difference in $SUV_{max}$, $SUV_{peak}$ of S-D compare to R-D despite of high correlation. It is possible to analyse reliable pre and post SUV if storing R-D in main hospital PACS system.

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Comparison of Effects of Normothermic and Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Cerebral Metabolism During Cardiac Surgery (체외순환 시 뇌 대사에 대한 정상 체온 체외순환과 저 체온 체외순환의 임상적 영향에 관한 비교연구)

  • 조광현;박경택;김경현;최석철;최국렬;황윤호
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.420-429
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    • 2002
  • Moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has commonly been used in cardiac surgery. Several cardiac centers recently practice normothermic CPB in cardiac surgery, However, the clinical effect and safety of normothermic CPB on cerebral metabolism are not established and not fully understood. This study was prospectively designed to evaluate the clinical influence of normothermic CPB on brain metabolism and to compare it with that of moderate hypothermic CPB. Material and Method: Thirty-six adult patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were randomized to receive normothermic (nasopharyngeal temperature >34.5 $^{\circ}C$, n=18) or hypothermic (nasopharyngeal temperature 29~3$0^{\circ}C$, n=18) CPB with nonpulsatile pump. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (VMCA), cerebral arteriovenous oxygen content difference (CAVO$_{2}$), cerebral oxygen extraction (COE), modified cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (MCMRO$_{2}$), cerebral oxygen transport (TEO$_{2}$), cerebral venous desaturation (oxygen saturation in internal jugular bulb blood$\leq$50 %), and arterial and internal jugular bulb blood gas analysis were measured during six phases of the operation: Pre-CPB (control), CPB-10 min, Rewarm-1 (nasopharyngeal temperature 34 $^{\circ}C$ in the hypothermic group), Rewarm-2 (nasopharyngeal temperature 37 $^{\circ}C$ in the both groups), CPB-off and Post-CPB (skin closure after CPB-off). Postoperaitve neuropsychologic complications were observed in all patients. All variables were compared between the two groups. Result: VMCA at Rewarm-2 was higher in the hypothermic group (153.11$\pm$8.98%) than in the normothermic group (131.18$\pm$6.94%) (p<0.05). CAVO$_{2}$ (3.47$\pm$0.21 vs 4.28$\pm$0.29 mL/dL, p<0.05), COE (0.30$\pm$0.02 vs 0.39$\pm$0.02, p<0.05) and MCMRO$_{2}$ (4.71 $\pm$0.42 vs 5.36$\pm$0.45, p<0.05) at CPB-10 min were lower in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. The hypothermic group had higher TEO$_{2}$ than the normothermic group at CPB-10 (1,527.60$\pm$25.84 vs 1,368.74$\pm$20.03, p<0.05), Rewarm-2 (1,757.50$\pm$32.30 vs 1,478.60$\pm$27.41, p<0.05) and Post-CPB (1,734.37$\pm$41.45 vs 1,597.68$\pm$27.50, p<0.05). Internal jugular bulb oxygen tension (40.96$\pm$1.16 vs 34.79$\pm$2.18 mmHg, p<0.05), saturation (72.63$\pm$2.68 vs 64.76$\pm$2.49 %, p<0.05) and content (8.08$\pm$0.34 vs 6.78$\pm$0.43 mL/dL, p<0.05) at CPB-10 were higher in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group. The hypothermic group had less incidence of postoperative neurologic complication (delirium) than the normothermic group (2 vs 4 patients, p<0.05). Lasting periods of postoperative delirium were shorter in the hypothermic group than in the normothermic group (60 vs 160 hrs, p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that normothermic CPB should not be routinely applied in all cardiac surgery, especially advanced age or the clinical situations that require prolonged operative time. Moderate hypothermic CPB may have beneficial influences relatively on brain metabolism and postoperative neuropsychologic outcomes when compared with normothermic CPB.