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DEVELOPMENT OF GENERAL PURPOSE THERMO/FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS PROGRAM NUFLEX (범용 열/유체 유동해석 프로그램 NUFLEX의 개발)

  • Hur, Nahm-Keon;Won, Chan-Shik;Ryou, Hong-Sun;Son, Gi-Hun;Kim, Sa-Ryang
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.87-90
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    • 2007
  • A general purpose program NUFLEX for the analysis 3-D thermo/fluid flow and pre/post processor in complex geometry has been developed, which consists of a flow solver based on FVM and GUI based pre/post processor. The solver employs a general non-orthogonal grid system with structured grid and solves laminar and turbulent flows with standard/RNG ${\kappa}-{\varepsilon}\;SST$ turbulence model. In addition, NUFLEX is incorporated with various physical models, such as interfacial tracking, cavitation, MHD, melting/solidification and spray model. For the purpose of verification of the program and testing the applicability, many actual problems are solved and compared with the available data. Comparison of the results with that by STAR-CD or FLUENT program has been also made for the same flow configuration and grid structure to test the validity of NUFLEX.

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DEVELOPMENT OF GENERAL PURPOSE THERMO/FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS PROGRAM NUFLEX (범용 열/유체 유동해석 프로그램 NUFLEX의 개발)

  • Hur, Nahm-Keon;Won, Chan-Shik;Ryou, Hong-Sun;Son, Gi-Hun;Kim, Sa-Ryang
    • Journal of computational fluids engineering
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2007
  • A general purpose program NUFLEX for the analysis 3-D thermo/fluid flow and pre/post processor in complex geometry has been developed, which consists of a flow solver based on FVM and GUI based pre/post processor. The solver employs a general non-orthogonal grid system with structured grid and solves laminar and turbulent flows with standard/RNG $k-{\varepsilon}$ turbulence model. In addition, NUFLEX is incorporated with various physical models, such as interfacial tracking, cavitation, MHD, melting/solidification and spray models. For the purpose of evaluation of the program and testing the applicability, many actual problems are solved and compared with the available data. Comparison of the results with that by STAR-CD or FLUENT program has been also made for the same flow configuration and grid structure to test the validity of NUFLEX.

The Effect of School Library-Assisted Instruction on Academic Achievement in Home Economics Education (학교도서관 활용수업이 중학생의 가정과 학업성취에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Hyo-Soon;Yoo, Tae-Myung
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.71-88
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    • 2009
  • This study was a quasi-experimental study to test a research question: Is the school library-assisted instruction effective in enhancing students' academic achievement? To solve the research question, 14 hours of school library-assisted instruction and traditional lecture were carried out to 164 9th grade middle school female students(82 of experimental group, 82 of control group). SPSS 12.0 was used for statistical analysis of frequency analysis, $x^2$-test, and t-test. The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test in the total academic achievement scores of both experiment group and comparison group. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test in paper and pencil test scores for comparison group. There were statistically significant differences between the pre-test and the post-test both in paper and pencil test scores and performance assessment for two groups. But there were no statistically significant differences between the experiment group and the comparison group in post-test pre-test gap of total academic achievement, paper and pencil test, and performance assessment scores.

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THE CHANGES OF MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY FOLLOWING ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY IN PATIENTS WITH MANDIBULAR PROGNATHISM (골격성 III급 부정 교합을 동반한 악교정수술 환자에서 수술 전후의 하악기능 변화에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Hyung Sik;Park, Young Chel
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of mandibular movement and muscle activity following orthognathic surgery in patients with mandibular prognathism. Lateral cephalogram, M.K.G., E.M.G. recordings were obtained immediately before surgery, and 2 months and 8 months after surgery. Among the patients who received orthognathic surgery, 19(13 men, 6 women) were selected for this study. Statistical analysis for each time interval differences were performed with the SPSS package. The results were as follows: 1. Compared with the pre-operative group (opening 349.7mm/sec, closing 313.1mm/sec), the mean values of the maximum opening and closing velocity in the skeletal Class III surgery group were significantly decreased in the 2 months post-operative (opening 232.9mm/sec, closing 206.9mm/sec), but the values tended to increase in the 8 months post-operative group (opening 280.9 mm/sec, closing 319.1mm/sec). 2. Compared with the pre-operative group (61.7 mm/sec), the maximum velocity of the terminal tooth contact increased in the 2 months (72mm/sec) and 8 months (105.7mm/sec) postoperative groups. 3. In the mean value of vertical freeway space, there was significant difference between the normal group and the pre-operative group, but not between the normal group and the 8 months post-operative group. 4. In the mean values of the maximum opening, the maximum anterio-posterior movement from centric-occlusion, and the lateral deviation from centric occlusion, there was no significant difference between the normal group and the surgery group (the pre-operative and the 8 months post-operative groups). 5. The mature swallowing pattern was 58% in the pre-operative group, but 90% in the 2 months post-operative group, and 63% in the 8 months post-operative group. 6. In the comparison of muscle activity, there was no significant difference between the normal group and the surgery group during the rest position. However, during cotton roll clenching, there was significant difference between the normal group and the pre-operative group, but not between the normal group and the 8 months post-operative group.

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Analysis of Smart Antenna Performance Improving the Robustness of OFDM to Rayleigh Fading (레일리 페이딩 내구성을 개선시키는 OFDM 스마트안테나의 성능 분석)

  • Hong, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2011
  • In order to augment the robustness of OFDM system to Rayleigh multipath fading, there exist two smart antenna algorithms, namely, Pre-FFT smart antenna and Post-FFT smart antenna. After the mathematical modeling of both smart antenna algorithms, computer simulations have been carried to compare and analyze the performance of generalized eigen problem based Pre-FFT algorithm and the performance of Wiener solution based Post-FFT algorithm. It has been shown that the Post-FFT smart antenna far outperforms the Pre-FFT smart antenna due to the computational complexities. Especially it is so when the multipath signal arrives at beyond the guard interval and a rich co-channel interferer is introduced. Performance of a subcarrier clustering method proposed to lessen the computing load has been compared to that of a typical Wiener solution based Post-FFT smart antenna. Performance comparison between MRC(Maximum Ratio Combining) diversity based Post-FFT algorithm and typical Post-FFT algorithm has also been carried.

The Effect of Chest Expansion and Pulmonary Function of Stroke Patients after Breathing Exercise (호흡운동이 뇌졸중 환자의 흉곽 확장과 폐 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeon-Hyeong;Kwon, Yoo-Jung;Kim, Kyung
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study examined whether breathing exercises might increase the chest expansion and pulmonary function of stroke patients. Methods: Twenty four patients with stroke were assigned randomly into two groups: a combination of diaphragmatic resistive breathing and pursed-lip breathing exercise (CB) group (n=10) and control group (n=14). The CB group completed a 4-week program of diaphragmatic resistive breathing and pursed-lip breathing exercise. The subjects were assessed using the pre-test and post-test measurements of the chest expansion (length for resting, deep inspiration, deep expiration, deep expiration-inspiration) and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF), vital capacity (VC), tidal volume (TV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)). Results: A comparison of the chest expansion between the pre and post tests revealed similar rest, deep inspiration, deep expiration, and deep expiration-inspiration lengths in the CB and control groups (p>0.05). A comparison of the pulmonary function between pre and post tests, revealed significant improvements in the FVC, FEV, PEF, VC, IRV, and ERV in the CB group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, VC and IRV between the 2 groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that breathing exercise should help improve the pulmonary function, such as the volume and capacity. This suggests that the pulmonary functions of stroke patients might be improved further by a continued respiratory exercise program.

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The Effect of Postural Training through Action Observation on Craniovertebral Angle and Cranial Rotation Angle of Forward Head Posture (동작관찰훈련을 통한 자세교육이 머리전방자세의 머리척추각과 머리회전각에 미치는 영향)

  • Shon, Myung-Ju;Roh, Jung-Suk;Choi, Houng-Sik;Oh, Dong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to show the effect of postural training through action observation (AO) on craniovertebral angle (CVA) and cranial rotation angle (CRA) of forward head posture (FHP). Methods : From 16 subjects of having the FHP who consist of postural training through the AO (n = 8) and control group (n = 8) were training to three times per one week during three weeks. FHP measurements for pre and post the intervention use to Wiz-pacs(Wiz-Picture Achiving Communication System) from X-ray change of CVA and CRA. Results : The study for the change within the group pre and post the intervention, CVA and CRA were found the significant differences only in the postural training group through the AO (p<.05). In the comparison of the rates of change between the groups pre and post the intervention CVA and CRA all showed the significant differences (p<.05), and in the comparison of the rates of average change of individual variables in each groups, the postural training group through the AO showed more change rates. Conclusion : The study suggests that when people with FHP received the postural training, the postural training through the AO resulted in more change into the correct postures.

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Comparison of Motor Skill Acquisition according to Types of Sensory-Stimuli Cue in Serial Reaction Time Task

  • Kwon, Yong Hyun;Lee, Myoung Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether types of sensory-stimuli cues in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory cues can be affected to motor sequential learning in healthy adults, using serial reaction time task. Methods: Twenty four healthy subjects participated in this study, who were randomly allocated into three groups, in terms of visual-stimuli (VS) group, auditory-stimuli (AS) group, and visuoauditory-stimuli (VAS) group. In SRT task, eight Arabic numbers were adopted as presentational stimulus, which were composed of three different types of presentational modules, in terms of visual, auditory, and visuoauditory stimuli. On an experiment, all subjects performed total 3 sessions relevant to each stimulus module with a pause of 10 minutes for training and pre-/post-tests. At the pre- and post-tests, reaction time and accuracy were calculated. Results: In reaction time, significant differences were founded in terms of between-subjects, within-subjects, and interaction effect for group ${\times}$ repeated factor. In accuracy, no significant differences were observed in between-group and interaction effect for groups ${\times}$ repeated factor. However, a significant main effect of within-subjects was observed. In addition, a significant difference was showed in comparison of differences of changes between the pre- and post-test only in the reaction time among three groups. Conclusion: This study suggest that short-term sequential motor training on one day induced behavioral modification, such as speed and accuracy of motor response. In addition, we found that motor training using visual-stimuli cue showed better effect of motor skill acquisition, compared to auditory and visuoauditory-stimuli cues.

The Effect of Needle Retention and Electro-acupuncture of Low and High Frequencies at $SP_6$ on Experimentally Induced Intestinal Hypermotility in Rats (삼음교 유침, 저주파 및 고주파 전침이 흰쥐의 항진된 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Eun-Hee;Lee, Eun-Kyung;Jeon, Ju-Hyun;Yang, Gi-Young;Kim, Young-Il;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.139-149
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to compare the effect of needle retention(NR) and electro-acupuncture of low(EA(L)) and high(EA(H)) frequencies at $SP_6$ and Sham point in rats. Methods : Intestinal hypermotility was induced by feeding carbachol and experimental groups divided mainly into 7 groups which were normal, holder, control, acupuncture in normal state of rats, pre-treatment of acupuncture(NR, EA) in hypermotility, post-treatment of acupuncture(NR, EA) in hypermotility. We fed charcoal to them after the treatment and measured the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track so that which treatment affected more in intestinal hypermotility. Results : As the following study, each acupuncture ways of EA(L) had significant effect of decreasing travel rate on intestinal hypermotility than EA(H) and NR. The comparison between pre-treatment and post-treatment, pre-treatment had slight more effect than post-treatment but not significantly. There was more affected at $SP_6$ than Sham point on this study. Conclusions : There were 21 groups to find out which treatment was best to slow down the intestinal motility and $SP_6$-EA(L)-C had significant effect compared with control group at the figure than any other groups. That meant $SP_6$ had effect on gastric disorder such as intestinal hypermotility and its' effect had more prevention than cure. Further study was needed to have more precise effect of EA and $SP_6$.

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The Effect of Acupunture and Electroacupunture of Low and High Frequencies at $SP_6$ on Experimentally Induced Intestinal Hypomotility in Rats;Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (삼음교 유침, 저주파 및 고주파 전침의 전.후 처치가 실험적으로 억제된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sung-Hwan;Yim, Yun-Kyoung;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.105-116
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to compare the effect of acpuncture and electroacupuncture of low(EA(L)) and high(EA(H)) frequencies at San Yin Jiu($SP_6$) and sham point in rats. We made suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rat and carried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at ($SP_6$) in rat devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. We fed charcoal to them after the treatment and measured the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestine track to analyze which treatment affected more in intestinal hypermotility Results : 1. Examining intestinal motility of normal rat treated with electro-acupuncture at $SP_6$, high frequency electro-acupuncture significantly increased intestinal motility. 2. Pre-treated with acupuncture at $SP_6$ significantly suppressed intestinal motility. 3. Post treatment with acupunture and low frequency electro-acupuncture at $SP_6$ showed significant increase of intestinal motility. Conclusions : As folowing study there were 21 groups to find out which treatment showed significant increase of intestinal motility and pre-treated acupuncture, post-treated with acupunture and low frequency electro-acupuncture at $SP_6$ was highly significant with control at the figure than any other groups.

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