• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pre-Post Comparison

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Effects on Health Promotion Behavior of Health Instruction in Elementary School (초등학교 보건학습이 건강증진행위에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Hyun-Mi;Lee, Hyeo-Kun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study were to assess the effect on health promotion behavior of health instruction in elementary school and to provide a basis of school health education. Subjects of this study were random sampled 80 students for control group in elementary 6th grade students. the treatment group systematically studied five sphere instruction: individual hygiene, disease prevention, first-aid & safety, oral health, health & nutrition in two hours a week, from April 20, till July 10. Each group was pre-tested and post-tested by health behavior promotion questionnaire. The conclusions as follows; 1. Compare analysis of control group and treatment group in the pre-test according to health condition of children were no significant difference physical health condition, health anxiety, disease-absent(P>.05). 2. Health promotion behaviors in the post-test according to concern quotient significantly correlated with individual hygiene(r=.249, P<.05), disease prevention(r=.477, P<.01), oral health(r=.228, P<.05), health & nutrition(r=.323, P<.01) in the treatment group, on the contrary the disease prevention, first-aid & safety, oral health, health & nutrition(P>.05). 3. The difference of health promotion behavior within & between group were as follow; 1) The difference of individual health hygiene with in the treatment group was significant in pre-post test, the comparison of the two groups was significant difference in post-test(treatment group: $3.965{\pm}.568$, control group: $3.645{\pm}.573$). 2) The difference of disease prevention with in the treatment group was significant in pre-post test, the comparison of the two groups was significant difference in post-test(t group : $3.475{\pm}.619$, c group: $3.964{\pm}.600$). 3) The difference of first-aid & safety with in the treatment group was significant in pre-post test, the comparison of the two groups was significant difference in post-test(t group : $3.700{\pm}.466$, c group: $4.140{\pm}.545$). 4) The difference of oral health with in the treatment group was significant in pre-post test, the comparison of the two groups was significant difference in post-test(t group: $3.163{\pm}.665$, c group: $3.753{\pm}.544$). 5) The difference of health & nutrition with in the treatment group was significant in pre-post test, the comparison of the two groups was significant difference in post-test(t group : $3.255{\pm}.515$, c group: $3.698{\pm}.558$).

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Comparison of Land Use Change Detection Methods with Satellite Image (위성영상을 이용한 토지이용 변화 검색기법 비교연구)

  • Park, Soon-Ho;Kim, Woo-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.137-150
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    • 1999
  • Five land use change detection methods were applied to 1994 and 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of Pook-Gu, Taegu city to determine the land-cover changes between the two dates. The two images were coregistred to UTM coordinates. A post-classification comparison method was the most commonly used quantitative method of change detection. A pre-classification comparison method was more effective method to change detection of land cover than a post-classification comparison method. Two indices were used to assess the accuracies of the studied methods. A image differencing method was found to be most accurate for detecting change verse no change among five land use change detection methods. The difference image of band 2 was found to be most accurate. The overall accuracy and Kappa index agreement of the difference image of band 2 were 0.810 and 0.447.

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Studies of Fatal Stress on Erythrocytes and Total Leukocytes Counts in Korean Cattle (치명적(致命的) 충격(衝激)(도살(屠殺))이 우(牛)의 적혈구치(赤血球値)와 총백혈구치(總白血球値)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Choi, Hui In
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1967
  • Clinically healthy Korean adult cattle (20 females and 20 males) were selected and subjected to the experiments on the determination of erythrocytes and total leukocytes values at the stages of pre and post-slaughting. Throughout the studies the following results were obtained. 1. The erythrocytes values, at the stage of the pre-slaughter, of females and males were $6.070{\times}10^6/cmm$ and $6.175{\times}10^6/cmm$ respectively. In the case of post-slaughter stage, $7.780{\times}10^6/cmm$ and $7.705{\times}10^6/cmm$ were obtained for female and male respectively. In comparison on the values of erythrocytes between pre and post-slauglnter stages, the mean value of the latter has been increased significantly. 2. The total leukocytes value, at the stage of the pre-slaughter of females and males were 9,525/cmm and 9,630/cmm respectively. In the case of post-slaughter stage, 7,545/cmm and 7,510/cmm were obtained for females and males respectively. In comparison on the values of total leukocytes between pre and post-slaughter stages, the mean value of the latter has been decreased significantly.

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A Study on the Wave Formation and Hair Damage Levels Relating to the Uses of Treatments for Heat Permanent Waves

  • Kim, Kwan-Ok;Kim, Sung-Nam
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2008
  • Public interest in healthy hairs gets growing as damaged hairs are seen more frequently with the generalization of heat permanent waves. For this study, experiments have been conducted to understand the influences on the changes in physical and morphological features of wave forms and damaged hairs, by collecting virgin hairs from the women in their mid-20's, who had not experienced chemical applications, and by dividing the applications of heat perm hair treatments, PPT(for pre-treatment) and LPP(for post-treatment), into the pre-treatment, the post-treatment, the pre & post-treatment, and the non-treatment. For the wave formations, curl waves were investigated by the bare eyes using the pictures taken by a digital camera. For the comparison of physical features, the experiments of tensile strength and elongation were done and their mean values were found. For the observations of morphological features, the pictures were taken by SEM for comparison. As for the findings, regarding the curl wave shapes of hairs, the most even and elastic S curl was formed in the case of non-treatment. In the physical features, both of the tensile strength and elongation showed a decreasing tendency in line with the hair damage levels, and the case of the pre & post-treatment indicated the tendency most similar to the control group. In the morphological features of the cuticle, observed with an SEM, the pre-treatment showed the higher possibility of reducing the cuticle damages than the post-treatment did. LPP was found to play the role of protective membrane for the post-treatment, and the pre & post-treatment turned out to reduce most effectively the cuticle damages.

Comparison of Efficiency between Pre-storage and Post-storage filtration by Leukoreduction Blood Filter

  • Shin, Geon Sik;Kim, Bohee;Kim, Sung Hoon;Rhee, Ki-Jong;Kim, Yoon Suk
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2017
  • Leukocytes in blood components are involved in diverse adverse transfusion reactions such as febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. Therefore, leukocyte reduction is required to reduce these adverse reactions. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of pre-storage filtration and post-storage filtration. Filtration time, residual leukocyte count, RBC recovery, and hemolysis were assessed after pre-storage or post-storage filtration. Compared to pre-storage filtration, filtration time was prolonged and hemolysis was dramatically increased when post-storage filtration was performed. Residual leukocytes count and RBC recovery after post-storage filtration were similar with those obtained after pre-storage filtration. These results suggest that pre-storage filtration has better efficiency than post-storage filtration. These are thought to contribute to the production of better quality of leukoreduction blood components.

The comparison about lumbar extensor strength between pre op group and post op(after 6 weeks) group in HIVD patient (만성요통환자의 레이져 수술전과 수술6주후의 요부신전근력에 관한 비교)

  • Park, Sung-Kwang;Sok, Hye-Kyong;Kim, Myung-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.353-365
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study were to compare the lumbar extensor strength between pre op patients group and after 6 weeks post op patients group. To evaluate lumbar extensor strength of total 273 patients with HIVD. Lumbar extensor strength was measured in 151 male patients and 122 female patients(Lumbar extensor strength was measured in 91 PELD patients group and 182 OLM group patients) by Medx lumbar extension machine. Maximum voluntary lumbar extension strength was appear $149.36{\pm}61.92ft$-lbs in pre op of PELD group, $158.47{\pm}54.67ft$-lbs in post op of PELD group and $135.54{\pm}54.24ft$-lbs in pre op of OLM group. $147.19{\pm}52.42ft$-lbs in post op of OLM group in male. Maximum voluntary lumbar extension strength was appear $83.85{\pm}30.22ft$-lbs in pre op of PELD group. $92.99{\pm}28.66ft$-lbs in post op of PELD group and $75.16{\pm}24.98ft$-lbs in pre op of OLM group, $79.88{\pm}25.25ft$-lbs in post op of OLM group in female. Male and female lumbar extension strength was statistically significant difference(P<.05). Lumbar flexion/extension ratio of the two group was 2.14:1 pre op and 2.05:1 post op in lumbar flexion 72 and 0 degree. The ratio of post op group was lesser than pre op group.

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Comparison of oxygen saturation, heart rate of cerebral palsy and normal child between the pre-ambulation and post-ambulation (뇌성마비아동과 정상아동의 보행전후 산소포화도 및 심박수 비교에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Joo-Moon;Lee, Wan-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 2003
  • Since the current tendencies show us the increasing number of cerebral palsy children and the standard longevity, we need to find out more research about the following various problems. Therefore I have tried to figure out the difference of oxygen saturation and heart rate between before ambulation and after. Objects chosen are 17 C.P children on the process of treatment those who were able to walk and 8 normal children in Ah-San hospital, Gang-Nung. They haven't had either any operation or suffered heart disease and I measured their oxygen saturation and heart rate by using pulse-oximeter and are analyzed by SPSS (10.07 version). Results are the followings; 1. There was no difference of oxygen saturation and heart rate between pre-ambulation and post-ambulation of normal and spastic hemiplegia children. 2. There showed the significant statistic difference of oxygen saturation, heart rate between pre-ambulates and post-ambulation of normal and spastic diplegia(p<.05). 3. There was no difference of oxygen saturation, heart rate in C.P between(p>.05), but shows the significant statistic difference in heart rate(p<.05). As I compared the oxygen saturation and heart rate of spastic and normal children on between pre-ambulation and post-ambulation, theres is significant statistic difference on both items (p<.05). However there was no difference of oxygen saturation among hemiplegia, normal and diplegia children while the pulse rate showed the significant difference(p<.05). According to this clinical research, CP children's oxygen saturation and heart rate had no change between pre and post compared to normal children. But there was difference in diplegia. This is why we need to invest time to study these kinds of research about various analysis and comparison of oxygen saturation and heart rate, and furthermore making use of pulse-oxymetry in physical therapy room for the children involved would be beneficial to calculate in accuracy without any discomfort for the patient as well.

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The Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Program for Social Anxiety in Female Adolescents (여자 청소년의 사회불안 감소를 위한 인지행동집단치료 프로그램의 개발과 효과 - 2년 추후연구 -)

  • Kim, Jung-Min
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.13-24
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    • 2008
  • The aim of the present study was to develop a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for social anxiety in Korean adolescents and to examine its efficacy through pre-, post- and 2-year follow-up tests. The program included cognitive restructuring, exposure training and social skills training. KSAS-A and SASC-R were administered to 588 1st grade middle-school female students to assess their social anxiety levels. On the basis of double criteria procedure(top 10% scores on both scales), 59 students were selected initially. Individuals currently receiving clinical treatment were excluded. Finally, 40 students were selected and randomly assigned to either a treatment group or a wait-list control group. The program consisted of 12 weekly sessions, approximately 1.5-2 hours in duration. Whereas pre- and post-tests were administered to both groups, follow-up tests were administered to the treatment group only. The collected data were statistically analyzed through independent t-test and paired t-test. The results of the study were as follows: 1) At post-test students in the treatment group showed a very significant reduction in social anxiety and fear of negative evaluation by others in comparison with those in the wait-list group. 2) At post-test students in the treatment group showed a significant reduction in negative automatic thoughts in comparison with those in the wait-list group. 3) At post-test students in the treatment group showed a significant improvement in overall social skills in comparison with those in the wait-list group. 4) At post-test students in the wait-list group showed a significant increase in both social anxiety and negative automatic thoughts in comparison with those in the treatment group. 5) At 3-month, 1-year and 2-year follow-ups, the program's effectiveness was maintained.

Prediction of Local Tumor Progression after Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Assessment of Ablative Margin Using Pre-RFA MRI and Post-RFA CT Registration

  • Yoon, Jeong Hee;Lee, Jeong Min;Klotz, Ernst;Woo, Hyunsik;Yu, Mi Hye;Joo, Ijin;Lee, Eun Sun;Han, Joon Koo
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1053-1065
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To evaluate the clinical impact of using registration software for ablative margin assessment on pre-radiofrequency ablation (RFA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-RFA computed tomography (CT) compared with the conventional side-by-side MR-CT visual comparison. Materials and Methods: In this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study, 68 patients with 88 hepatocellulcar carcinomas (HCCs) who had undergone pre-RFA MRI were enrolled. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Pre-RFA MRI and post-RFA CT images were analyzed to evaluate the presence of a sufficient safety margin (${\geq}3mm$) in two separate sessions using either side-by-side visual comparison or non-rigid registration software. Patients with an insufficient ablative margin on either one or both methods underwent additional treatment depending on the technical feasibility and patient's condition. Then, ablative margins were re-assessed using both methods. Local tumor progression (LTP) rates were compared between the sufficient and insufficient margin groups in each method. Results: The two methods showed 14.8% (13/88) discordance in estimating sufficient ablative margins. On registration software-assisted inspection, patients with insufficient ablative margins showed a significantly higher 5-year LTP rate than those with sufficient ablative margins (66.7% vs. 27.0%, p = 0.004). However, classification by visual inspection alone did not reveal a significant difference in 5-year LTP between the two groups (28.6% vs. 30.5%, p = 0.79). Conclusion: Registration software provided better ablative margin assessment than did visual inspection in patients with HCCs who had undergone pre-RFA MRI and post-RFA CT for prediction of LTP after RFA and may provide more precise risk stratification of those who are treated with RFA.

A Service Facilities Evaluation of Inland River Cruise Ship by Pre-Post Comparison Based on IPA Methods (IPA분석방법에 의한 내륙연안 크루즈선의 서비스시설 사전-사후 비교 평가)

  • Wang, YiJue;Zhang, YunYao;Park, Keun-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.521-534
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    • 2019
  • From the day of luxurious inland river cruise ship started in Chongqing, China, the controversy is continuous; some people think those luxurious cruise ships on inland river might reduce the experience to enjoy the scenery of the Three Gorges, while some people think, which could improve the experience. In the study, the service facilities provided by luxurious inland river cruise ship will be evaluated by Pre-Post comparison based on IPA methods. After a review of the service facilities provided by luxurious inland river cruise ship running on Three Gorges areas. The tourists who would take the trip were asked to fill an questionnaire to examine the desired service facilities performance, which represents the highest level of the service facilities of the cruise ship that is expected by customers. After the trip, they were asked again to fill another questionnaire to examine the importance of service facilities and the performance of service. Pre-Post comparison would be examined to tell whether there is any change between pre and post experience. IPA would be used to evaluate the service facilities provided by inland river cruise ship. At last, some strategic suggestions to the development of inland river cruise ship are made.