• Title/Summary/Keyword: Poverty Reduction

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Cameroon : The Effect of Developmental AID on Poverty Reduction and Agro-Rural Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Ntongwe, Edwin Ngome
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2012
  • Cameroon, with her numerous resources, still depends on foreign aid while the rate of poverty remains high. Thus, even though historical evidence gives impetus to the impasse over role of developmental aid, from the top down approach through to development as a springboard raising states from the doldrums of poverty, it is still very difficult to draw a substantial relationship between developmental aid and poverty reduction. Against this backdrop of controversy, I find it apt to put Cameroon on a balance scale. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to critically assess the implications of developmental aid on poverty reduction and agro-rural development in Cameroon, using the RUMPI Area Development Project in the South West region of Cameroon as a case study. The study will situate and contextualize the top-down and bottom-up approaches to development within the basis of a Cameroonian perspective, using the Sachs-Easterly debate. The RUMPI Project was introduced with the objective of improving agriculture and empowering the rural woman; thereby fighting poverty within the South West region of Cameroon. Despite its criticism of the barriers to development created by corruption, political pressure and limited use of local and grass-root partnerships, the study, in assessing these failures also tries to outline vital ways in which the project can be improved upon.

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The Effect of Economic Growth and Urbanization on Poverty Reduction in Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Huyen Thi Thanh;NGUYEN, Chau Van;NGUYEN, Cong Van
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.7
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    • pp.229-239
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    • 2020
  • This article aims to measure the impact of economic growth and urbanization on poverty reduction in Vietnam, and verify whether economic growth and urbanization will help reduce poverty rates. Data for this study are tabular data related to growth, urbanization and poverty at the provincial level for the period of nine years, from 2006 to 2014 provided by the Vietnam General Statistics Office and the Vietnam General Department of Customs. The level of economic growth and urbanization mentioned in the study is reflected in such indicators as GDP value, exports value, imports value, urbanization rate and employment rate. The authors used logistic regression models with fixed-effects and logistic regression models with random effects. With 5% confidence level tested by the Chi-Square test of Hausman trial with the fixed-effect model, research results show that: (1) factors with significant negative impact on the poverty rate include imports value, urbanization rate and, employment rate; (2) factors that do not affect the poverty rate include exports value and GDP value. Based on the research results, this study proposes a number of policy recommendations to help promote economic growth, to sustain the urbanization process, and to contribute directly and positively to poverty reduction in Vietnam.

Poverty Reduction in Elderly Household Types: The Impact of Basic Pension (기초연금의 노인가구 유형별 빈곤감소 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Anna
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.267-274
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    • 2021
  • This paper examines the impact of the Basic Pension scheme in terms of poverty reduction and income distribution among elderly households by focusing on the differences in the household type. It compares the data before (2013) and after (2016, 2019) the introduction of Basic Pension by using Household Income and Expenditure Survey data. Empirical analyses indicate that, first, the overall income and the public income transfer of the elderly households increased during the period compared. Second, the poverty rate was considerably higher for the elderly living alone than for other household types. The government policy led to poverty-reduction for all types of elderly households, wherein the effect was most profound in the case of elderly living with spouse. Third, income distribution improved for all types of elderly households, though maximum margin was observed in the case of the elderly living alone. Fourth, according to the multivariate logit regression, the Basic Pension had a positive impact on reducing the risk of poverty (defined as below 40% of median income) among the elderly households.

Factor Affecting Poverty and Policy Implication of Poverty Reduction: A Case Study for the Khmer Ethnic People in Tra Vinh Province, Viet Nam

  • Nguyen, Ha Hong;Nguyen, Nhan Van
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.315-319
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    • 2019
  • The paper aims to investigate empirical causes of poverty of the Khmer ethnic people and suggest policy implication to help the Khmer ethnic people escape poverty in Tra Vinh province and the Mekong Delta. The study has been conducted with direct interviews with 300 Khmer households living in seven districts and cities in Tra Vinh province and with the use of multivariate regression. The research results show that a number of causes that affect poverty of poor households include lack of capital for production, lack of means of production, poor health and lack of labor, large families, lack of job opportunities or unemployment, and lack of willingness to escape poverty and education. Thus, there should be poverty reduction policy for the poor househlods in the coming time. Based on the current situation and regression results, the authors propose a number of recommendations: 1) Focus on preferential loan policies for poor people 2) Provide occupational training programs for improving incomes for the Khmer ethnic households 3) Build up special infrastructure in the Khmer ethnic areas 4) Focus on promoting cultural and belief institutions in areas of the Khmer ethnic people and 5) Improve and build up healthcare clinics services and facilities.

Poverty Alleviation Efforts through MDG's and Economic Resources in Indonesia

  • LAURENS, Samson;PUTRA, Aditya Halim Perdana Kusuma
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.9
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    • pp.755-767
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this study is to examine and provide guidelines for regional governments, communities, and the private sector in planning and implementing poverty-reduction activities that are more effective, efficient, and targeted. Besides, this research's specific aims are: 1) increasing the rate of regional economic growth through optimization of potential sources of local income, 2) increasing per-capita income, and 3) reducing poverty, unemployment, and social-economic inequality of the community. The study was conducted in North Morowali District, Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, in 2018-2019. The research approach used quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis. Data sources include sources from the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and Regional Statistics. The results of this study are based on the Millennium Development Goals (MDG's) indicators that there are four priority scales in poverty reduction, namely, Health and Infrastructure (Priority I), Education (Priority II), Food stability (Priority III), and Population and Employment (Priority IV). Therefore, as a solution to poverty alleviation strategies, the cost approach through regional economic optimization and local income sources and community empowerment factors are essential. Apart from that, the involvement between elements (government, organizations, society, universities, and institutions) is expected to continue as an effort to realize poverty reduction can be optimally overcome.

Overcoming Poverty and Social Inequality in Third World Countries (Latin America, Africa)

  • Drobotya, Yana;Baldzhy, Maryna;Pecheniuk, Alla;Savelchuk, Iryna;Hryhorenko, Dmytro;Kulinich, Tetiana
    • International Journal of Computer Science & Network Security
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2021
  • The relevance of the research is due to the fact that the issue of poverty is one of the most acute social problems of the beginning of the third millennium. The phenomenon of poverty is widespread in third world countries as well as it is observed in relatively developed countries. Poverty rates in Latin America are threatening. Consequently, the issue of social and economic inequality in these countries has become extremely acute. The purpose of the research: to identify the causes of poverty and social inequality and substantiate the main directions of poverty reduction in third world countries. The research methods: comparative analysis; index method; systematization; grouping; generalization. Results. The classification of the causes of poverty has been carried out and the directions of its overcoming in the countries of Latin America on groups of indicators have been defined, namely: 1) political; 2) economic; 3) demographic; 4) regional-geographical; 5) social; 6) qualification; 7) personal. Based on the Net Domestic Product indicator, a comparison of economic indicators of the studied countries has been carried out. It has been revealed that from 1990 to 2018 income inequality increased in 52 of 119 countries studied, and decreased in 57 states. Inequality has increased in the world's most populous countries, particularly China and India. In general, countries with growing inequality are home to more than two-thirds (71%) of the world's population. Trends in the distribution of income in the world have been investigated by applying the Gini index, the high level of which is observed in Latin America (Colombia 48,9%, Panama 46,1%, Chile and Mexico 45,9%). The forecast of the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on this issue has been outlined; the ways of its impact on the economies of the countries have been studied. As a result of the study, the main directions and mechanisms of the strategy for poverty reduction and social inequality in the third world countries have been identified. The implementation of the poverty reduction strategy presented in this academic paper may have a positive impact on the economic situation of the population of Latin American countries.

An Analysis on the Anti-poverty Effectiveness of Public and Private Income Transfers; After the Enactment of National Basic Livelihood Security Act (공적 이전과 사적 이전의 빈곤 감소 효과 분석 : 기초생활보장제도 도입 이후를 중심으로)

  • Hong, Kyung-Zoon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.50
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    • pp.61-85
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    • 2002
  • Using the 2001 Family Income and Expenditure Survey micro-data, this study analyses the anti-poverty effectiveness of public and private income transfers. In this study, the anti-poverty effectiveness of income transfers is summarized in two ways; 1) the poverty reduction effect of the income transfers, and 2) the poverty reduction efficiency of the income transfers. The poverty reduction effects are measured with several poverty indices including the head-count ratio, poverty gap, and Sen index. Using Beckerman's model, this study also analyses the poverty reduction efficiency of income transfers. This analysis documents substantial differences in the anti-poverty effectiveness of public and private income transfers. Although the private income transfers contribute more to reduce the head-count poverty ratio and Sen index than public income transfers, their differences are significantly reduced after the enactment of National Basic Livelihood Security Act. The results also reveal that the anti-poverty effectiveness of public and private income transfers vary by the types of families. In families headed by elderly and working aged, private income transfers have more anti-poverty effectiveness. But, public income transfers contribute more to reduce poverty than private income transfers among families headed by single adults with children. The results of this study suggest that recent changes in anti-poverty policies in Korea have been strengthened the Government's responsibility. And more importantly, to effectively reduce poverty among the poor families, anti-poverty polices must be designed to consider different family types.

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Changing Trends of Income Packaging and Income Distribution : 1996-2002 (도시 근로자가구의 소득원 구성과 분배구조의 변화 : 1996-2002)

  • Kim, Kyo-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.55
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    • pp.181-204
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to offer a comprehensive analysis of the changing trends of the Korean income packaging, poverty rate, and level of income inequality from 1996 to 2002. In order to do that, this study used the micro-data of "Income and Expenditure Survey of Urban Households" by the National Statistical Office(NSO). Major results were as follows: (1) A ratio of public transfer in family income packaging increased at the DJ administration. (2) Poverty rate and Gini coefficient, which were 7.8% and 0.29 in 1996, rose to $8.8{\sim}10.4%$ and $0.30{\sim}0.34$ respectively during the year of 1998-2002. (3) However, poverty reduction effect and income inequality reduction effect of public income transfer increased preferably at the DJ administration. Those effects increased more since the enactment of National Basic Livelihood Security in 2000. Therefore, government should provide more national welfare programs to reduce the poverty rate and to improve better structure of income distribution.

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South Korea's phenomenal growth and development through Entrepreneurship: A cue for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

  • Charmant, Sengabira Ndereyimana;Mahuni, Kenneth
    • Asia Pacific Journal of Business Review
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-20
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    • 2017
  • The model of success in South Korea from a pariah state coming from the ruins of the Korean War into a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with a trillion dollar economy is encouraging. The Korean economic experience in terms of entrepreneurship and poverty reduction is an intriguing jig saw puzzle to researchers. This paper looks at Korean entrepreneurship history from the 1960s and how it shaped the contemporary sustainable economic development success of the Korean economy. Using a qualitative approach, the study used the Korean case study in comparison with Sub Saharan Africa to explore five powerful lessons on how the region can replicate the Korean entrepreneurship experience. The study shows that entrepreneurship was key to the radical transformation of its economy and government was instrumental in latent nurturing of Korean entrepreneurial spirit.

Microfinance Outreach and the Microfinance Institutions(MFIs) Sustainability: Evidence from Vietnam

  • Chinomona, Richard;Le, Thanh Tam
    • Asian Journal of Business Environment
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2013
  • Purpose - Micro-finance institutions (MFIs) are critical to Vietnam's quest for poverty alleviation among the poor in the rural and agrarian communities. The current study attempts to investigate the impact of microfinance outreach programs undertaken by formal and semi-formal MFIs in Vietnam targeting the poor rural and agrarian communities. Research design, data, methodology - An enquiry was made as to whether the poor and rural communities accessed the micro credit offered by Government supported MFIs and NGOs through their microfinance outreach programs. Furthermore, the current study attempted to explore if the current mode of operations adopted by MFIs in Vietnam is sustainable. Results -The findings indicate that significant progress has been made in Vietnam to alleviate poverty among the poor rural communities through micro finance outreach programs. Conclusions - There are also pointers of MFIs sustainability in Vietnam. However, it still remains to be seen if the current sustainability pointers are long lasting without government subsidies or some international organizations financial support to microfinance outreach programs.

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