• Title, Summary, Keyword: Poverty Exit

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The Effects of Household Characteristics and Poverty Duration on Poverty Exit Rate -Examining the Effects of Duration Dependency and Sample Heterogeneity - (가구특성과 빈곤지속기간이 빈곤탈피율에 미치는 영향 -지속기간의존성과 표본이질성에 대한 검증을 포함하여-)

  • Kim, Hwanjoon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.301-322
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    • 2013
  • By analyzing wave 1~11 (1998~2008) of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS) database, this study examines the effects of household characteristics and poverty duration on poverty exit. A special concern is to decide whether the decrease of poverty exit rates comes from true duration dependency or from the sample heterogeneity as poverty duration progresses. I also analyzed how the effects of independent variables are changed when unobserved heterogeneity is controlled. The results show that duration dependency disappears after controlling observed household characteristics and unobserved individual heterogeneity. This finding confirms that the apparent relationship between poverty exit rate and poverty duration is in fact a spurious association due to the sample heterogeneity rather than true duration dependency. In addition, the effects of household characteristics on poverty exit rate become more stronger when unobserved heterogeneity is controlled. Socioeconomic factors affecting poverty exit rates are such as householders' age, education, household composition, number of family members, labor force participation, and work status.

Poverty Dynamics in Korea: Poverty Duration and its Determinants (빈곤의 동태적 분석: 빈곤지속기간과 그 결정요인)

  • Ku, In-Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.351-374
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    • 2005
  • This study examines dynamics of poverty in Korea, focusing on poverty duration and its determinants. Data come from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS), 1998-2003. KLIPS is a longitudinal survey of 5,000 families and their members which are representative of urban residents in Korea. Respondents of KLIPS annually report detailed information on their income, economic activities, and other socio-economic characteristics. This study use poverty exit probabilities to generate distributions of spell lengths, following Bane and Ellwood(1986)'s methodology. This study finds a high level of poverty exit rates in Korea. About three quarters of those beginning a poverty spell exit from poverty within two years. Only 14.3 percent of all the poverty spells consist of long spells which persists five years or more. Yet, a different picture emerges when spells of the poor persons at a given time are analysed. Persistent poor occupy a considerable share of all the poor. Almost 50 percent of those who would be in poverty at a given time are in the midst of poverty spells lasting five years or more. When repeat spells of poverty are also included in the analyses, the proportion of long-term poor increases further. 63 percent of persons poor at a given time are long-termers. The majority of long-term poor are members of families headed by the aged. They show both a low level of poverty exit rates and a high level of reentry rates, and thus are most likely to experience long-term poverty. In the first place, they occupy a substantial share of all the poor. The second who are likely to be poor longer is members of families headed by non-aged women. Researchers have recentlty paid much attention to the working poor who have increased since the economic crisis in 1997. Yet, it is very likely that families headed by non-aged male who largely consist of the working poor temporarily experience poverty. Findings for this study suggest that further studies and policy proposals addressing persistent poverty are necessary.

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A Study on the Determinants of Poverty-Exit of the Working Poor with Disabilities (근로빈곤층 장애인가구의 빈곤탈출 분석)

  • Sim, Jinye
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.67 no.4
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    • pp.31-50
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    • 2015
  • This study attempted to empirically investigate the determinants of poverty transition of the working poor with disabilities from a dynamic perspective. Analyses were conducted on the data from Panel Survey of Employment for the Disabled(PSED, Year 1-6), included the households with a disabled head of household. The working poor were defined as the household of which income fell below 120% of the absolute poverty line among the households just described. As results, The 6-year mean poverty rate for the working poor with disabilities included in the analysis was 31.4%, approximately three times of the poverty rate of the total population and the working poor with disabilities were found to have greater difficulty with poverty exit once having fell into poverty than all households living in poverty. And it was found that the economic activity factor was the key determinant of in-work poverty. In addition, employment of the working poor with disabilities did not lead straight to poverty exit, and the quality, rather than the status of, employment was the key determinant of poverty exit. The implications of the findings of this study are that it is essential to increase decent jobs, expand the social safety net of the working poor with disabilities and establish poverty reduction measures for each class of the working poor with disabilities to exit from poverty.

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Life Experiences and Prospects of Welfare/Poverty Exit of the Poor with Work Ability: Mixed Methodology using Sequential Exploratory Design (근로능력이 있는 빈곤층의 경험과 탈수급/탈빈곤 전망에 대한 연구: 순차적 탐구전략에 따른 방법론적 융합)

  • Jo, Joon-Yong
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzes life experiences and prospects of poverty/welfare exit of the poor with work ability utilizing Mixed methodology. Based on Sequential Exploratory Design, it qualitatively analyzes 3 waves of qualitative panel data linked to Korea Welfare Panel Study(KWPS) and presents life changes of 14 poor in the context of their prospects of welfare/poverty exit. Then it proposes hypotheses on the role of education, household economy expectation, self-esteem in the prospects of poverty/welfare exit following the sequential exploratory design to quantitatively test qualitative findings utilizing KWPS(7th). The outcomes of the Structural Equation Model(SEM) suggest that household economy expectation plays mediating role between education and the prospects of welfare/poverty exit. This implies that anti-poverty policy needs to consider a psychological approach to enhance household economy expectations of the poor as well as other material support.

Job Characteristics and Poverty Status of Working Poor -Sex Differences- (근로빈곤층의 일자리 특성과 빈곤 지위 - 성별 비교를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Eun-Ha
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.5-29
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of job characteristics of working poor on poverty status, focused on sex differences. The results are as follows. First, there are sex differences in career year, job position and industry for determining poverty entry. And second, career year, job regularity and occupy are different variables for men and women in determining poverty exit. This result says that job characteristics partially affects on poverty status of sex differently. Thus we need to sensitive policy that considers different experiences of men and women working poor as to poverty status mobility.

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A Dynamic Analysis of Poverty Durations in Korea (우리나라 빈곤가구의 빈곤지속기간에 대한 동태적 분석)

  • Kim, Hwanjoon
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.65 no.3
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    • pp.183-206
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    • 2013
  • Using Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (wave 1~11) database, this study analyzed the poverty duration of the poor as a whole and by households' characteristics. For this purpose, I first estimated poverty exit rates and reentry rates applying discrete-time hazard model to the sample, and then calculated poverty duration combining these two probability rates. The results show that about a half of poor households are transitory (short-term) poor with 1~2 years of poverty duration. A quarter is chronic (long-term) poor lasting for 5 or more years of poverty duration. The remained quarter can be categorized as the recurrent or mid-term poor. The socioeconomic characteristics of households greatly affect poverty duration. Long-term poverty is prevalent among female-head households, elderly households, single households, or households headed by a person with a lower level of education. If households' heads do not work, or work as temporary or daily-employed workers, the poverty duration tends to be longer. The findings suggest that the poor consist of various social classes with different characteristics. Efficient anti-poverty policy should be based on thoroughly identifying the specific characteristics and needs of each class.

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Labor Transition of Middle-aged and Elderly and the Effects of Perceived Job Stability on Poverty Exit (중·고령층 고용변화 추이와 고용안정성이 탈빈곤에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Sung-Ho;Jo, Joon-Yong
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.231-242
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    • 2016
  • This study analyses labor transition of middle-aged and elderly in Korea utilizing Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing(KLoSA). Then it estimates the effects of perceived job stability for the middle-aged and elderly on poverty exit based on the age group simulation. The outcomes suggest that mid-50s and over are highly vulnerable to early retirement and they suffer from unstable employment and low possibility of re-employment. The logit analysis that simulates the effects of perceived job stability on poverty exit shows that mid-50s are more likely to get off the poverty than 65 and over when they have stable jobs. These implies that labor market policies should be designed in a tailor-made manner in consideration of the age group and its characteristics. This study also suggests the introduction of progressive labor policy measures that extends retirement age, that provides with job opportunities to middle-age and elderly, and that links employment and welfare under the umbrella of income security plan for the middle-aged and elderly.

Welfare Dynamics in Korea Determinants of Welfare Exit (국민기초생활보장제도 수급동태의 특성 및 수급탈출의 결정요인 분석)

  • Lee, Won-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.62 no.3
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    • pp.5-29
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    • 2010
  • This study examines the welfare dynamics in Korea under the scheme of National Basic Livelihood Protection Program(NBLP). Data are drawn from Korean Welfare Panel study 2005~2007. Main findings are summarized as follows. First, the exit probabilities show a declining tendency with time on welfare increases. If the exit probabilities indeed decline over time, the earlier years on welfare deserve more interest in the policy perspective. Moreover, the vast majority of recipients are long-termers. Further efforts are needed to increase self-sufficiency through providing genuine opportunity and necessary support for recipients. Second, out-of-poverty exit and out-of-system exit are quite different in their properties. The results from the multivariate analysis confirm that the dropouts through out-of-system exit are virtually the same with those who remain on welfare. These results imply that the government should not resort to the negative policy proposals such as time limit and strengthening sanctions. Third, several explanatory variables have anticipated effect on welfare exit probabilities. Age, education, health, marital status, the presence of children, employment status have a certain level of impact on exit, with the only exception of gender. Since the identification of the determinants can facilitate sensible targeting on the potential leavers, these results have some implications on policy proposals.

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The Effect of Income Transfer on Poverty Rate (소득이전의 빈곤완화 및 빈곤이행 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyo-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.48
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    • pp.113-149
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    • 2002
  • The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the decreasing effect of public and private income transfers on poverty rate. Two year data of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS, 1998, 1999) are used for the analysis, and 1/2 of median income and 1/3 of mean income are adopted to measure poverty rate. Although private income transfer contributes more to reduce the rate than the public transfer, the main effect for decreasing poverty rate is forced by the wage. Statistically significant variables that affect to the exit of poverty based on the logistic regression analysis are number of family members(-), wage(+), property income(+), social insurance benefit(+), and the transfer income(+). Therefore, the future policy should be more related with the active labor market policy for developing better human resources among the poor family.

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The Determinants of Working Poor' Poverty-Exit Possibility : Path Dependency of Working Poor Labor Market (근로빈곤층의 빈곤탈출 결정요인 연구 : 근로빈곤노동시장의 경로제약성을 중심으로)

  • Ji, Eun-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.147-174
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    • 2007
  • This study examines how path dependency of working poor labor market segmented from the primary and the secondary labor market affects employment and quality of employment of working poor. It Further examines how path dependency makes working poor to remain in the labor market and makes it difficult for them to escape from a vicious poverty cycle. Data is based on the $3{\sim}7th$ Korea Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS). Markov's transition probability and discrete-time hazard analysis are used for analysis. This study finds that Korea labor market is divided into three parts; the primary labor market, the secondary labor market and the working poor labor market. The proportion of employed poor has been reduced, but the proportion of non economically-active working poor has been increased and has become the main group among the working poor. This shows that labor demand of working poor is fundamentally lacking and there are structural barriers that block working poor's employment itself. The regression analysis shows that the longer working poor labor market participation is, the lower poverty-exit rate. This is an evidence of vicious poverty cycle that the poor have little chance to exit from working poor labor market, once they step into it. Therefore, the longer their participation in poor labor market, the more likely they would move only within the closed working poor labor market. Consequently, it is necessary to fundamentally reform labor market structure and to alleviate negative perception and discrimination about the poor labor while activating labor demand.

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