• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pour point depressants

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Possibility of Obtaining Lubricant Base Oil from Talakan Crude Oil Suitable for Exploitation in Extremely Cold Conditions in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

  • Zhirkov, N.P.;Zakharova, S.S.;Sung, Zoo-One
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 2015
  • This paper addresses the problems of using anti-freeze lubricants for different machines that must function at extremely low temperatures during winter operation in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). We discuss the possibility of obtaining anti-freeze base oils from Talakan crude oil, an area with major oil and gas deposits of the Republic of Sakha, and also provide the trade and technological classification of Talakan crude oil. We propose two different schemes for processing Talakan crude oil: the fuel scheme (obtaining light and heavy fractions as a fuel oil) and the base oil scheme (obtaining light fractions and base oils). We investigate the influence of pour point depressants on alkyl-methacrylate base on the low-temperature properties of the fractions obtained from Talakan crude oil and Korean base oils, and establish the optimal concentration of pour point depressants. We compare the properties of these fractions with the low-temperature properties of Korean base oils and find that the commercial oil "Ravenol 0W-40" provides optimistic results. We obtain oil with a pour point of minus $50^{\circ}C$ and a viscosity index greater than 100. The Design of Experiment was used to establish the optimum composition of the pour point depressants and the base oil S-8 to obtain lubricant oil with a kinematic viscosity of 17 cSt, viscosity index of 208, and a pour point of minus $64^{\circ}C$.

Renewable Low-viscosity Dielectrics Based on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters

  • Yu, Hui;Yu, Ping;Luo, Yunbai
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.820-829
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    • 2017
  • Vegetable oil dielectrics have been used in transformers as green alternatives to mineral insulating oils for about twenty years, because of their advantages of non-toxic, biodegradability, and renewability. However, the viscosity of vegetable oils is more than 3 times of mineral oils, which means a poor heat dissipation capacity. To get low-viscosity dielectrics, transesterification and purification were performed to prepare vegetable oil methyl esters in this study. Electrical and physical properties were determined to investigate their potential as dielectrics. The results showed that the methyl ester products had good dielectric strengths, high water saturation and enough fire resistance. The viscosities (at $40^{\circ}C$) were 0.2 times less than FR3 fluid, and 0.7 times less than mineral oil, which indicated superior cooling capacity as we expected. With the assistance of 0.5 wt% pour point depressants, canola oil methyl ester exhibited the lowest pour point ($-26^{\circ}C$) among the products which was lower than FR3 fluid ($-21^{\circ}C$) and 25# mineral oil ($-23^{\circ}C$). Thus, canola oil methyl ester was the best candidate as a low-viscosity vegetable oil-based dielectric. The low-viscosity fluid could extend the service life of transformers by its better cooling capacity compared with nature ester dielectrics.

Synthesis of Poly(styrene-co-alkyl methacylate)s for Pour Point Depressants of Diesel containing Biodiesel (바이오디젤을 함유한 경유용 저온유동성 향상제의 합성: 폴리(스티렌-co-알킬 메타크릴레이트))

  • Yang, Young-Do;Kim, Young-Wun;Chung, Keun-Wo;Hwang, Do-Huak;Hong, Min-Hyeuk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.497-503
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    • 2008
  • A variety of techniques has been employed in order to reduce problems caused by the crystallization of paraffin and saturated fatty acid esters in diesel fuel containing biodiesels. Methacrylate copolymers are known as additives which reduce the pour point and cold filtering plugging point (CFPP) of diesel fuels. This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and low temperature properties, having as an initial step the synthesis of the alkyl methacrylate monomers by esterification of methacrylic acid with C12, C18, and C22 fatty alcohols. The copolymerization of these monomers with styrene was then performed, with molar ratios of 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 for styrene:alkyl methacrylate. All copolymers were characterized by $^1H-NMR$, FT-IR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The poly(styrene-co-alkyl methacrylate)s (PStmSMAn) leads to a large reduction in the pour point and CFPP of poly(styrene-co-alkyl methacrylate) in ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and BD5 with treated 100~5000 ppm of poly(styrene-co-alkyl methacrylate). BD5 fuel containing 5000 ppm of the copolymer (PSt82SMA18) showed a $25^{\circ}C$ and $9^{\circ}C$ reduction in their pour points and CFPP, respectively.

Synthesis of Poly(alkyl methacrylate)s Containing Various Side Chains for Pour Point Depressants (서로 다른 측쇄 구조를 가진 폴리(알킬 메타크릴레이트)계의 저온유동성 향상제 합성)

  • Hong, Jin-Sook;Kim, Young-Wun;Chung, Keun-Wo;Jeong, Soo-Hwan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.542-547
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    • 2010
  • n-Paraffin and saturated fatty acid methyl esters in the diesel and bio-diesel fuel crystallize at low temperature. Many articles have addressed various solutions for the low temperature crystallization problem and one of them is the use of methacrylate copolymers. In this work, we synthesized a series of copolymers in the reaction condition of 70 : 30 molar ratio of lauryl methacrylate (LMA) (or stearyl methacrylate (SMA)) and alkyl methacrylates. The structures of the copolymers were characterized by $^1H$-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and the molecular weight of copolymers were obtained from Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) method. The concentrations of additives were 500~1000 ppm and 1000~10000 ppm in diesel fuels and bio-diesel fuel (BD5 and BD20), respectively. The addition of copolymers changes the many properties of fuel such as the pour point (PP), cloud point (CP) and cold filtering plugging point (CFPP). For example, the low temperature properties of the copolymers containing SMA ($PSMAmR_2n$) were excellently improved about 15, 7, and $10^{\circ}C$ for PP, CP and CFPP, respectively.

Synthesis and Lubricant Properties of Estolides based on Fatty Acid (지방산 기반 에스토라이드 합성 및 윤활특성)

  • Son, Jeong-Mae;Yoo, Seunghyun;Lee, Sangjun;Shin, Jihoon;Chung, Kunwo;Yang, Youngdo;Kim, Young-Wun
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2014
  • Enhancing the value of fine chemicals based on biomass resources is an important objective for addressing environmental and other concerns such as demand for renewable or green products, as well as from the political perspective to reduce dependence on fossil feedstock associated with the use of petroleum-based products. Based on these considerations, we studied the synthesis of estolide using waste plant-based oil materials and their application as lubricants and pour point depressants. Five estolides were prepared by varying molar ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) using a reaction time of 48 h. The estolides were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The isolated yields were in the range of 57-78 % and purity was 93-97%, showing iodine values of 18.2-37.8, total acid numbers (TANs) of 75.6-94.2 mg KOH/g and estolide numbers (ENs) of 1.2-1.8. Increasing the ratio of OA to PA in the synthesis decreased the kinematic viscosity and clouding point of the estolides. Four ball wear test of the estolides as a base oil demonstrated that the wear scar diameter (WSD) of the estolides was significantly lower (0.320-0.495 mm) than the WSD of general base oils such as 150N and Yubase (0.735 and 0.810 mm, respectively), indicating better wear resistance of the estolides. However, the lubricant property was found to be independent of the amount of OA in the estolides. These new materials are prospective candidates for application as a lubricant base oil.