• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Pour point depressants

검색결과 5건 처리시간 0.028초

Possibility of Obtaining Lubricant Base Oil from Talakan Crude Oil Suitable for Exploitation in Extremely Cold Conditions in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

  • Zhirkov, N.P.;Zakharova, S.S.;Sung, Zoo-One
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 2015
  • This paper addresses the problems of using anti-freeze lubricants for different machines that must function at extremely low temperatures during winter operation in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). We discuss the possibility of obtaining anti-freeze base oils from Talakan crude oil, an area with major oil and gas deposits of the Republic of Sakha, and also provide the trade and technological classification of Talakan crude oil. We propose two different schemes for processing Talakan crude oil: the fuel scheme (obtaining light and heavy fractions as a fuel oil) and the base oil scheme (obtaining light fractions and base oils). We investigate the influence of pour point depressants on alkyl-methacrylate base on the low-temperature properties of the fractions obtained from Talakan crude oil and Korean base oils, and establish the optimal concentration of pour point depressants. We compare the properties of these fractions with the low-temperature properties of Korean base oils and find that the commercial oil "Ravenol 0W-40" provides optimistic results. We obtain oil with a pour point of minus $50^{\circ}C$ and a viscosity index greater than 100. The Design of Experiment was used to establish the optimum composition of the pour point depressants and the base oil S-8 to obtain lubricant oil with a kinematic viscosity of 17 cSt, viscosity index of 208, and a pour point of minus $64^{\circ}C$.

Renewable Low-viscosity Dielectrics Based on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters

  • Yu, Hui;Yu, Ping;Luo, Yunbai
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.820-829
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    • 2017
  • Vegetable oil dielectrics have been used in transformers as green alternatives to mineral insulating oils for about twenty years, because of their advantages of non-toxic, biodegradability, and renewability. However, the viscosity of vegetable oils is more than 3 times of mineral oils, which means a poor heat dissipation capacity. To get low-viscosity dielectrics, transesterification and purification were performed to prepare vegetable oil methyl esters in this study. Electrical and physical properties were determined to investigate their potential as dielectrics. The results showed that the methyl ester products had good dielectric strengths, high water saturation and enough fire resistance. The viscosities (at $40^{\circ}C$) were 0.2 times less than FR3 fluid, and 0.7 times less than mineral oil, which indicated superior cooling capacity as we expected. With the assistance of 0.5 wt% pour point depressants, canola oil methyl ester exhibited the lowest pour point ($-26^{\circ}C$) among the products which was lower than FR3 fluid ($-21^{\circ}C$) and 25# mineral oil ($-23^{\circ}C$). Thus, canola oil methyl ester was the best candidate as a low-viscosity vegetable oil-based dielectric. The low-viscosity fluid could extend the service life of transformers by its better cooling capacity compared with nature ester dielectrics.

바이오디젤을 함유한 경유용 저온유동성 향상제의 합성: 폴리(스티렌-co-알킬 메타크릴레이트) (Synthesis of Poly(styrene-co-alkyl methacylate)s for Pour Point Depressants of Diesel containing Biodiesel)

  • 양영도;김영운;정근우;황도혁;홍민혁
    • 공업화학
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.497-503
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    • 2008
  • 디젤 및 바이오디젤의 구성 성분 중에 포함된 n-파라핀과 포화 지방산 메틸에스테르가 저온에서 결정화되는 것을 방지하기 위하여 여러 가지 기술들이 알려져 있다. 그 중에서 메타크릴레이트 공중합체가 디젤의 유동점과 저온필터막힘점을 낮출 수 있는 효과적인 저온유동성 향상제로 알려져 있다. 본 논문에서는 C12, C18 및 C22 지방 알콜과 메타크릴산의 에스테르화 반응에 의하여 알킬 메타크릴레이트 단량체를 합성하여 스티렌과 30:70, 50:50 및 70:30의 몰 비율로 라디칼 공중합체를 합성하였다. 합성한 공중합체의 구조를 $^1H-NMR$ 및 FT-IR 스펙트럼으로 분석하였으며 GPC로 분자량을 측정하였다. 디젤 및 바이오디젤을 5% 함유한 경유(BD5)에 100~5000 ppm의 공중합체를 첨가하여 유동점 및 CFPP 등의 저온 유동성을 평가하였다. 저온 유동성을 평가한 결과, 스티렌-스테아릴 메타크릴레이트 공중합체(PStmSMAn)의 저온 유동성이 다른 공중합체에 비하여 우수하였으며 특히, PSt82SMA18 공중합체 5000 ppm을 함유한 BD5의 유동점이 첨가 전에 비해 $25^{\circ}C$, CFPP $9^{\circ}C$ 강하되는 결과를 나타내었다.

서로 다른 측쇄 구조를 가진 폴리(알킬 메타크릴레이트)계의 저온유동성 향상제 합성 (Synthesis of Poly(alkyl methacrylate)s Containing Various Side Chains for Pour Point Depressants)

  • 홍진숙;김영운;정근우;정수환
    • 공업화학
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.542-547
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    • 2010
  • 디젤연료 및 바이오 디젤을 포함하는 디젤연료는 성분 내에 n-파라핀과 포화 지방산 메틸에스테르가 저온에서 결정화가 이루어져 연료의 저온 특성을 감소시키는 현상이 발생한다. 이러한 문제를 방지하기 위하여 많은 방법들이 알려져 있으며, 그 중에서 알킬 메타크릴레이트계 중합체가 저온유동특성을 향상시키는 첨가제로 많이 사용되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 LMA (lauryl methacrylate), SMA (stearyl methacrylate)를 각각 측쇄 구조가 다른 알킬 메타크릴레이트를 사용하여 70 : 30의 몰 비율로 라디칼 공중합체를 합성하였다. 합성된 공중합체의 구조는 $^1H$-NMR 및 FT-IR 스펙트럼으로 분석하였으며, GPC로 분자량을 측정하였다. 이 공중합체를 디젤연료에 500~1000 ppm, 바이오디젤을 5%, 20% 함유한 디젤연료(BD5 및 BD20)에 1000~10000 ppm을 각각 첨가하여 유동점, 구름점 및 저온필터막힘점 등의 저온유동특성을 조사하였다. 저온유동특성을 측정한 결과 BD5에서 SMA를 포함한 공중합체 $PSMAmR_2n$에서 첨가 전 대비 유동점 $15^{\circ}C$, 구름점 $6^{\circ}C$, 저온필터막힘점 $10^{\circ}C$ 강하되어 가장 우수한 결과를 나타냈다.

지방산 기반 에스토라이드 합성 및 윤활특성 (Synthesis and Lubricant Properties of Estolides based on Fatty Acid)

  • 손정매;유승현;이상준;신지훈;정근우;양영도;김영운
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2014
  • Enhancing the value of fine chemicals based on biomass resources is an important objective for addressing environmental and other concerns such as demand for renewable or green products, as well as from the political perspective to reduce dependence on fossil feedstock associated with the use of petroleum-based products. Based on these considerations, we studied the synthesis of estolide using waste plant-based oil materials and their application as lubricants and pour point depressants. Five estolides were prepared by varying molar ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) using a reaction time of 48 h. The estolides were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The isolated yields were in the range of 57-78 % and purity was 93-97%, showing iodine values of 18.2-37.8, total acid numbers (TANs) of 75.6-94.2 mg KOH/g and estolide numbers (ENs) of 1.2-1.8. Increasing the ratio of OA to PA in the synthesis decreased the kinematic viscosity and clouding point of the estolides. Four ball wear test of the estolides as a base oil demonstrated that the wear scar diameter (WSD) of the estolides was significantly lower (0.320-0.495 mm) than the WSD of general base oils such as 150N and Yubase (0.735 and 0.810 mm, respectively), indicating better wear resistance of the estolides. However, the lubricant property was found to be independent of the amount of OA in the estolides. These new materials are prospective candidates for application as a lubricant base oil.